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Chapter 14

Gene Expression

What is Gene Expression?
Gene expression is the process in which DNA (i.e., a gene) directs the synthesis of functional products, such as proteins. Cells can regulate gene…
The Central Dogma
The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the synthesis of…
Transcription Factors
Tissue-specific transcription factors contribute to diverse cellular functions in mammals. For example, the gene for beta globin, a major component…
RNA Structure
The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form…
RNA Stability
Intact DNA strands can be found in fossils, while scientists sometimes struggle to keep RNA intact under laboratory conditions. The structural…
pre-mRNA processing
In eukaryotic cells, transcripts made by RNA polymerase are modified and processed before exiting the nucleus. Unprocessed RNA is called precursor…
Types of RNA
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform…
MicroRNAs
MicroRNA (miRNA) are short, regulatory RNA transcribed from introns—non-coding regions of a gene—or intergenic regions—stretches of…
RNA Splicing
The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for proteins and…
Epigenetic Regulation
Epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in healthy development. Conversely, precisely regulated epigenetic mechanisms are disrupted in diseases…
RNA Interference
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA)…
Operons
Prokaryotes can control gene expression through operons—DNA sequences consisting of regulatory elements and clustered, functionally related…
Quantification of Information Encoded by Gene Expression Levels During Lifespan Modulation Under Broad-range Dietary Restriction in <em>C. elegans</em>
Sensory systems allow animals to detect, process, and respond to their environment. Food abundance is an environmental cue that has profound effects…
Single-cell Gene Expression Profiling Using FACS and qPCR with Internal Standards
Gene expression measurements from bulk populations of cells can obscure the considerable transcriptomic variation of individual cells within those…
Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei from <em>Drosophila</em> Tissues for Gene Expression Analysis
Drosophila melanogaster embryonic and larval tissues often contain a highly heterogeneous mixture of cell types, which can complicate the analysis of…

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