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Chapter 14

Gene Expression

What is Gene Expression?
Overview Gene expression is the process in which DNA (i.e., a gene) directs the synthesis of functional products, such as proteins. Cells can…
The Central Dogma
Overview The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the…
RNA Structure
Overview The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can…
Types of RNA
Overview Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs…
MicroRNAs
MicroRNA—miRNA—is a type of small regulatory RNA that does not code for protein; Instead, it regulates gene expression by inhibiting the…
RNA Splicing
Overview The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for…
Epigenetic Regulation
Epigenetic regulation refers to changes in gene expression that can be inherited, without changes to the genetic sequence. This occurs during the…
RNA Interference
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA)…
Quantification of Information Encoded by Gene Expression Levels During Lifespan Modulation Under Broad-range Dietary Restriction in <em>C. elegans</em>
Sensory systems allow animals to detect, process, and respond to their environment. Food abundance is an environmental cue that has profound effects…
Single-cell Gene Expression Profiling Using FACS and qPCR with Internal Standards
Gene expression measurements from bulk populations of cells can obscure the considerable transcriptomic variation of individual cells within those…
Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei from <em>Drosophila</em> Tissues for Gene Expression Analysis
Drosophila melanogaster embryonic and larval tissues often contain a highly heterogeneous mixture of cell types, which can complicate the analysis of…

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