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Chapter 16

Viruses

What are Viruses?
Overview A virus is a microscopic infectious particle that consists of an RNA or DNA genome enclosed in a protein shell. It is not able to reproduce…
Viral Structure
Viruses are extraordinarily diverse in shape and size, but they all have several structural features in common. All viruses have a core that contains…
Lytic Cycle of Bacteriophages
Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are specialized viruses that infect bacteria. A key characteristic of phages is their distinctive…
Lysogenic Cycle of Bacteriophages
In contrast to the lytic cycle, phages infecting bacteria via the lysogenic cycle do not immediately kill their host cell. Instead, they combine…
Retrovirus Life Cycles
Retroviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome that undergoes a special form of replication. Once the retrovirus has entered the host cell, an enzyme…
Viral Recombination
Cells are sometimes infected by more than one virus at once. When two viruses disassemble to expose their genomes for replication in the same cell,…
Viral Mutations
A mutation is a change in the sequence of bases of DNA or RNA in a genome. Some mutations occur during replication of the genome due to errors made…
Influenza A Virus Studies in a Mouse Model of Infection
Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide1 and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone…
Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness of a Densovirus in the Cotton Bollworm
Many novel viruses have been discovered in animal hosts using next-generation sequencing technologies. Previously, we reported a mutualistic virus,…
Fluorescence <em>in situ</em> Hybridizations (FISH) for the Localization of Viruses and Endosymbiotic Bacteria in Plant and Insect Tissues
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic…
Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs
Lentiviruses are efficient vectors for gene delivery to mammalian cells. Following transduction, the lentiviral genome is stably incorporated into…

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