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Chapter 21

Endocrine System

What is the Endocrine System?
The endocrine system sends hormones—chemical signals—through the bloodstream to target cells—the cells the hormones selectively…
Types of Hormones
Hormones can be classified into three main types based on their chemical structures: steroids, peptides, and amines. Their actions are mediated by…
Intracellular Hormone Receptors
Lipid-soluble hormones diffuse across the plasma and nuclear membrane of target cells to bind to their specific intracellular receptors. These…
Cell-surface Signaling
Hormones—or any molecule that binds to a receptor, known as a ligand—that are lipid-insoluble (water-soluble) are not able to diffuse…
Feedback Loops
In most cases, excessive hormone production is prevented by negative feedback—a loop that starts with a stimulus inducing the release of a…
Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
The response to stress—be it physical or psychological, acute or chronic—involves activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)…
A Chemical Screening Procedure for Glucocorticoid Signaling with a Zebrafish Larva Luciferase Reporter System
Glucocorticoid stress hormones and their artificial derivatives are widely used drugs to treat inflammation, but long-term treatment with…
Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System
Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age…
Assessment of the Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds on the Development of Vertebrate Neural Network Function Using Multi-electrode Arrays
Bis-phenols, such as bis-phenol A (BPA) and bis-phenol-S (BPS), are polymerizing agents widely used in the production of plastics and numerous…
Collecting Hair Samples for Hair Cortisol Analysis in African Americans
The hormone cortisol is typically assessed in saliva, serum, or urine samples. More recently, cortisol has been successfully extracted from hair,…

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