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Chapter 22

Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

The Respiratory System
The respiratory system is comprised of the organs that enable breathing. Air enters the nostrils and mouth, followed by the pharynx (throat) and…
Breathing
The process of breathing, inhaling and exhaling, involves the coordinated movement of the chest wall, the lungs, and the muscles that move them. Two…
Lung Capacity
The air in the lungs is measured in volumes and capacities. Lung volume measures reflect the amount of air taken in, released, or left over after a…
Gas Exchange and Transport
Gas exchange, the intake of molecular oxygen (O2) from the environment and the outflow of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the environment, is necessary for…
Anatomy of the Circulatory System
The human circulatory system consists of blood, blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, around the body, and back to the heart, and the…
Anatomy of the Heart
The human heart is made up of three layers of tissue that are surrounded by the pericardium, a membrane that protects and confines the heart. The…
The Cardiac Cycle
The heart beats rhythmically in a sequence called the cardiac cycle—a rapid coordination of contraction (systole) and relaxation…
Blood Flow
Blood is pumped by the heart into the aorta, the largest artery in the body, and then into increasingly smaller arteries, arterioles, and…
Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease affecting distal pulmonary arteries (PA). These arteries are deformed, leading to right…
Fetal Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging Using a High-frequency Ultrasound (30/45MHZ) System
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and early mortality. Prenatal detection of the underlying…
Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology.…

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