In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (22)

Articles by Cristina V. Torres in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Network Analysis of Foramen Ovale Electrode Recordings in Drug-resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

1Neurosurgery & National Reference Unit for the Treatment of Refractory Epilepsy, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital de la Princesa, 2Clinical Neurophysiology & National Reference Unit for the Treatment of Refractory Epilepsy, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital de la Princesa, 3CONICET

JoVE 54746

Other articles by Cristina V. Torres on PubMed

Quantitative Stereological Evaluation of the Gracile and Cuneate Nuclei and Their Projection Neurons in the Rat

The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Sep, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12836177

Stereological methods were employed to estimate the volume and neuron numbers of the rat dorsal column nuclei (DCN). These methods were applied to Nissl-stained sections from control animals and cases that received injections of horseradish peroxidase in the thalamus, the cerebellum, or the spinal cord. Additional cases received combinations of fluorescent tracers in the same structures, to examine whether some of the retrogradely labeled neurons sent collaterals to different targets. The mean volume of the DCN is 0.81 mm(3) (range 0.65-1.10 mm(3)), of which 3%, 39%, and 59% correspond, respectively, to the nucleus of Bischoff (Bi), the gracile (Gr), and the cuneate (Cu) nuclei. Within Cu, the middle division (CuM) is the largest (42%), followed by the rostral (CuR; 36%) and caudal (CuC; 22%) divisions. The mean total number of neurons in the DCN is 16,000 (range 12,400-19,500), of which 2.4%, 34.0% and 63.6% correspond, respectively, to Bi, Gr, and Cu. Within Cu, CuM contains 48% of all neurons, and 27% correspond to CuR and 25% to CuC. Interanimal variability is moderate for the whole DCN and Cu but increases when individual nuclei are considered. About 80% of DCN neurons project to the thalamus, 3% to the spinal cord, and 7% to the cerebellum. Thalamic-projecting cells are more numerous in CuM and Gr (83%), and relatively less common in Bi and CuC (72-74%). Most of the DCN neurons projecting to the spinal cord appear in CuC and CuM. Two-thirds of the neurons projecting to the cerebellum are located in CuR, 20% in CuM, and 15% in Gr. A small fraction of neurons projects simultaneously to spinal cord and thalamus.

Unilateral Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Cervical Dystonia and Tremor

Journal of Neurosurgery. Dec, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20509725

Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is the favored neuromodulation procedure in cases of cervical dystonia. The authors report on a case of unilateral GPi implantation that resulted in sustained benefit with marked improvement in pain and dystonia.

Deep Brain Stimulation of the Ventral Intermediate Nucleus of the Thalamus for Tremor in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Neurosurgery. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20647964

Tremor is an important cause of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is said to be beneficial for MS tremor.

[Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Epilepsy]

Revista De Neurologia. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21720980

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects 1-2% of the population. Despite the available treatments (drug therapy, resective surgery, vagus nerve stimulation), there is a significant subgroup of patients that continues to have disabling seizures. The indications of deep brain stimulation are exponentially growing, and there is a wide experience with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of abnormal movements. DBS for epilepsy may be a new therapy for the subgroup of patients that remain disabled despite other treatments. Experiments with animal models, and the new advances in our knowledge about the neurophysiological processes that govern the genesis of epilepsy, have led to the selection of various brain targets for stimulation. The thalamus is a fundamental relay centre in the corticothalamic and corticostriatal thalamocortical circuits, and it has been studied with this purpose. Studies on epileptic patients have shown various degrees of effectiveness; however, controlled studies do not permit definitive conclusions about the role of DBS in the treatment of epilepsy. Probably a better patient selection would lead to more decisive conclusions. Further randomised studies are needed to draw reliable conclusions and scientific evidence on the effectiveness of DBS for refractory epilepsy.

[Neurosurgical Techniques for the Neuromodulation of Pain]

Revista De Neurologia. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22086430

Neuromodulation for treating pain goes back to the times of the ancient Egyptians, who applied natural electric currents to modulate the painful sensation. Since then, this concept has been developed in parallel with the scientific and technological development, and various forms of neuromodulation with different indications and characteristics have originated. Chronic pain may produce significant disability, which leads to important physical, social and psychological consequences. Peripheral nerve, spinal cord, deep brain and motor cortex stimulation are safe and effective techniques that control pain and improve quality of life in selected patients.

The Role of Magnetoencephalography in Children Undergoing Hemispherectomy

Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22132915

Hemispherectomy is an established neurosurgical procedure for medication-resistant epilepsy in children. Despite the effectiveness of this technique, there are patients who do not achieve an optimum outcome after surgery; possible causes of suboptimal results include the presence of bilateral independent epileptogenic foci. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an emerging tool that has been found to be useful in the management of lesional and nonlesional epilepsy. The authors analyzed the relative contribution of MEG in patient selection for hemispherectomy.

[Continuous Monitoring of Cortical Visual Evoked Potentials by Means of Subdural Electrodes in Surgery on the Posterior Optic Pathway. A Case Report and Review of the Literature]

Revista De Neurologia. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22972576

Intraoperative monitoring of functional language and motor areas is a commonly used technique which makes it possible to minimise the post-operative sequelae and to perform an optimal resection of lesions in these areas. Monitoring of the visual cortex, however, is not usually carried out nowadays. The scarce spatial resolution and its sensitivity to anaesthesia are some of the technical difficulties that reduce its clinical usefulness. The study reports a case of resection of an occipital lesion under general anaesthetic, with intraoperative monitoring of the cortical visual evoked potentials (VEP) by means of subdural electrodes.

Long-term Results of Vagal Nerve Stimulation for Adults with Medication-resistant Epilepsy Who Have Been on Unchanged Antiepileptic Medication

Seizure. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23041031

Several studies suggest that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective treatment for medication-resistant epileptic patients, although patients' medication was usually modified during the assessment period. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of VNS, at 18 months of follow-up, on epileptic patients who have been on unchanged antiepileptic medication.

Response to "Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Urgent Need for the Critical Reappraisal of Clinical Effectiveness"

Seizure. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23587867

Long-term Results of Posteromedial Hypothalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Resistant Aggressiveness

Journal of Neurosurgery. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23746102

Erethism describes severe cases of unprovoked aggressive behavior, usually associated with some degree of mental impairment and gross brain damage. The etiology can be epileptic, postencephalitic, or posttraumatic, or the condition can be caused by brain malformations or perinatal insults. Erethism is often refractory to medication, and patients must often be interned in institutions, where they are managed with major restraining measures. The hypothalamus is a crucial group of nuclei that coordinate behavioral and autonomic responses and play a central role in the control of aggressive behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteromedial hypothalamus (PMH) has been proposed as a treatment for resistant erethism, although experience with this treatment around the world is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term outcome of PMH DBS in 6 patients with severe erethism treated at the authors' institution.


Journal of Neurosurgery. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23905718

Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subcallosal Cingulate for Medication-resistant Type I Bipolar Depression: Case Report

Bipolar Disorders. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23930934

Primary Central Neurocytoma of the Mesencephalic Tectum in a Pediatric Patient

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. May, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 23958899

Neurocytomas are tumors or neuronal differentiation, typically located within the supratentorial ventricular system. The extraventricular location is uncommon. A limited number of cases involving the brainstem have been reported and may be misdiagnosed as brainstem gliomas. Furthermore, midbrain neurocytomas are extremely rare, and no similar cases in pediatric patients have been reported in the literature to date. Brainstem location of neurocytomas often precludes gross total removal of the lesion, and in these cases, adjuvant therapies may be helpful.

Aggressive Behavior. Response

Journal of Neurosurgery. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24520574

Integrating Diffusion Tensor Imaging-based Tractography into Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery: a Review of the Literature

Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25248076

It has been generally accepted that deep brain stimulation (DBS) not only acts in the nucleus where it is being applied, as initially thought, but that chronic stimulation activates axons located in its scope, and that this activation can exert its effects in distant areas. Considering this, DBS target identification should be made based on techniques that identify white matter tracts, such as tractography, rather than only by identifying specific nuclei on conventional magnetic resonance imaging.

Dumbbell-Shaped Epidural Capillary Hemangioma Presenting As a Lung Mass: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Spine. Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25946721

A case report and literature review.

[Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Chronic Migraine]

Revista De Neurologia. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26005075

Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is an emerging and promising preventive treatment for refractory chronic migraine.

[Stimulation of the Centromedian Nucleus in Refractory Epilepsy Associated to Ring Chromosome 20]

Revista De Neurologia. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26062827

Ring chromosome 20 syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, with a late diagnosis.

Infratentorial Angioleiomyoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Revista De Neurologia. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26758353

Intracranial angioleiomyomas are extremely rare lesions. Only 22 intracranial angioleiomyomas have been described in the literature and only three were infratentorial.

[Classification of Structural Lesions in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Surgical Implications in Drug-resistant Epilepsy Patients. Reply]

Revista De Neurologia. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26758359

Long-term Results of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subcallosal Cingulate for Medication-Resistant Bipolar I Depression and Rapid Cycling Bipolar II Depression

Biological Psychiatry. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27524499

Effectiveness of Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Medication-resistant Epilepsy. Comparison Between Patients with and Without Medication Changes

Acta Neurochirurgica. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27878616

Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) response is not immediate. A progressive decline in seizure frequency is usually found during a period of 12-18 months after implantation. During this time, the patient's medication is usually modified, which can create doubts about whether their clinical improvement is due to medication changes or to VNS itself. Our goal is to compare two groups of patients treated with VNS, with and without changes in their medication.

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