In JoVE (1)
Articles by Kyathanahalli S. Janardhan in JoVE
Laser Capture Microdissection of Highly Pure Trabecular Meshwork from Mouse Eyes for Gene Expression Analysis Caleb Sutherland*1, Yu Wang*2, Robert V. Brown*1, Julie Foley2, Beth Mahler2, Kyathanahalli S. Janardhan2,3, Ramesh C. Kovi2,4, Anton M. Jetten1 1Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 3Integrated Laboratory Systems Inc., 4Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc. Here, we describe a protocol for a reproducible laser capture microdissection (LCM) for isolating trabecular meshwork (TM) for downstream RNA analysis. The ability to analyze changes in gene expression in the TM will help in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of TM-related ocular diseases.
Other articles by Kyathanahalli S. Janardhan on PubMed
Role of the Store-operated Calcium Entry Protein, STIM1, in Neutrophil Chemotaxis and Infiltration into a Murine Model of Psoriasis-inflamed Skin FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. | Pubmed ID: 25837581 Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a Ca(2+) sensor protein that initiates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). STIM1 is known to be involved in the chemoattractant signaling pathway for FPR1 in cell lines, but its role in in vivo functioning of neutrophils is unclear. Plaque-type psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with chemoattractants driving neutrophils into the epidermis. We investigated the involvement of STIM1 in neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, as well as during chronic psoriatic inflammation. To this end, we used conditional knockout (KO) mice lacking STIM1 in cells of myeloid lineage (STIM1(fl/fl) LysM-cre). We demonstrate that STIM1 is required for chemotaxis because of multiple chemoattractants in mouse neutrophils in vitro. Using an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin model, we show that KO mice had less neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis than controls, whereas neither chemoattractant production in the epidermis nor macrophage migration was decreased. KO mice displayed a more rapid reversal of the outward signs of psoriasis (plaques). Thus, KO of STIM1 impairs neutrophil contribution to psoriatic inflammation. Our data provide new insights to our understanding of how STIM1 orchestrates the cellular behavior underlying chemotaxis and illustrate the important role of SOCE in a disease-related pathologic model.
Male Infertility in Mice Lacking the Store-operated Ca(2+) Channel Orai1 Cell Calcium. | Pubmed ID: 26969191 Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is an important Ca(2+) influx pathway in somatic cells. In addition to maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores, Ca(2+) entry through store-operated channels regulates essential signaling pathways in numerous cell types. Patients with mutations in the store-operated channel subunit ORAI1 exhibit defects in store-operated Ca(2+) influx, along with severe immunodeficiency, congenital myopathy and ectodermal dysplasia. However, little is known about the functional role of ORAI1 in germ cells and reproductive function in mice, or in men, since men with loss-of-function or null mutations in ORAI1 rarely survive to reproductive age. In this study, we investigated the role of ORAI1 in male reproductive function. We reveal that Orai1(-/-) male mice are sterile and have severe defects in spermatogenesis, with prominent deficiencies in mid- to late-stage elongating spermatid development. These studies establish an essential in vivo role for store-operated ORAI1 channels in male reproductive function and identify these channels as potential non-steroidal regulators of male fertility.
Essential Role of Orai1 Store-operated Calcium Channels in Lactation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25902527 The nourishment of neonates by nursing is the defining characteristic of mammals. However, despite considerable research into the neural control of lactation, an understanding of the signaling mechanisms underlying the production and expulsion of milk by mammary epithelial cells during lactation remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that a store-operated Ca(2+) channel subunit, Orai1, is required for both optimal Ca(2+) transport into milk and for milk ejection. Using a novel, 3D imaging strategy, we visualized live oxytocin-induced alveolar unit contractions in the mammary gland, and we demonstrated that in this model milk is ejected by way of pulsatile contractions of these alveolar units. In mammary glands of Orai1 knockout mice, these contractions are infrequent and poorly coordinated. We reveal that oxytocin also induces a large transient release of stored Ca(2+) in mammary myoepithelial cells followed by slow, irregular Ca(2+) oscillations. These oscillations, and not the initial Ca(2+) transient, are mediated exclusively by Orai1 and are absolutely required for milk ejection and pup survival, an observation that redefines the signaling processes responsible for milk ejection. These findings clearly demonstrate that Ca(2+) is not just a substrate for nutritional enrichment in mammals but is also a master regulator of the spatiotemporal signaling events underpinning mammary alveolar unit contraction. Orai1-dependent Ca(2+) oscillations may represent a conserved language in myoepithelial cells of other secretory epithelia, such as sweat glands, potentially shedding light on other Orai1 channelopathies, including anhidrosis (an inability to sweat).