Articles by Maksim V. Baranov in JoVE
Other articles by Maksim V. Baranov on PubMed
Reaching for Far-flung Antigen: How Solid-core Podosomes of Dendritic Cells Transform into Protrusive Structures Communicative & Integrative Biology. | Pubmed ID: 26843902 We recently identified a novel role for podosomes in antigen sampling. Podosomes are dynamic cellular structures that consist of point-like concentrations of actin surrounded by integrins and adaptor proteins such as vinculin and talin. Podosomes establish cellular contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and facilitate cell migration via ECM degradation. In our recent paper, we studied podosomes of human dendritic cells (DCs), major antigen presenting cells (APC) that take-up, process, and present foreign antigen to naive T-cells. We employed gelatin-impregnated porous polycarbonate filters to demonstrate that the mechanosensitive podosomes of DCs selectively localize to regions of low-physical resistance such as the filter pores. After degradation of the gelatin, podosomes increasingly protrude into the lumen of these pores. These protrusive podosome-derived structures contain several endocytic and early endosomal markers such as clathrin, Rab5, and VAMP3, and, surprisingly, also contain C-type lectins, a type of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Finally, we performed functional uptake experiments to demonstrate that these PRRs facilitate uptake of antigen from the opposite side of the filter. Our data provide mechanistic insight in how dendritic cells sample for antigen across epithelial barriers for instance from the lumen of the lung and gut.
SWAP70 Organizes the Actin Cytoskeleton and Is Essential for Phagocytosis Cell Reports. | Pubmed ID: 27806292 Actin plays a critical role during the early stages of pathogenic microbe internalization by immune cells. In this study, we identified a key mechanism of actin filament tethering and stabilization to the surface of phagosomes in human dendritic cells. We found that the actin-binding protein SWAP70 is specifically recruited to nascent phagosomes by binding to the lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4)-bisphosphate. Multi-color super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy revealed that the actin cage surrounding early phagosomes is formed by multiple concentric rings containing SWAP70. SWAP70 colocalized with and stimulated activation of RAC1, a known activator of actin polymerization, on phagosomes. Genetic ablation of SWAP70 impaired actin polymerization around phagosomes and resulted in a phagocytic defect. These data show a key role for SWAP70 as a scaffold for tethering the peripheral actin cage to phagosomes.
Oxidized Phagosomal NOX2 Complex is Replenished from Lysosomes Journal of Cell Science. | Pubmed ID: 28202687 In dendritic cells, the NADPH oxidase 2 complex (NOX2) is recruited to the phagosomal membrane during antigen uptake. NOX2 produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lumen of the phagosome that kill ingested pathogens, delay antigen breakdown and alter the peptide repertoire for presentation to T cells. How the integral membrane component of NOX2, cytochrome b558 (which comprises CYBB and CYBA), traffics to phagosomes is incompletely understood. In this study, we show in dendritic cells derived from human blood-isolated monocytes that cytochrome b558 is initially recruited to the phagosome from the plasma membrane during phagosome formation. Cytochrome b558 also traffics from a lysosomal pool to phagosomes and this is required to replenish oxidatively damaged NOX2. We identified syntaxin-7, SNAP23 and VAMP8 as the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediating this process. Our data describe a key mechanism of how dendritic cells sustain ROS production after antigen uptake that is required to initiate T cell responses.
SWAP70 is a Universal GEF-like Adapter for Tethering Actin to Phagosomes Small GTPases. | Pubmed ID: 28489960 We recently identified a key role for SWAP70 as the tethering factor stabilizing F-actin filaments on the surface of phagosomes in human dendritic cells by interacting both with Rho-family GTPases and the lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4)-bisphosphate. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether this role of SWAP70 was general among immune phagocytes. Our data reveal that SWAP70 is recruited to early phagosomes of macrophages and dendritic cells from both human and mouse. The putative inhibitor of SWAP70 sanguinarine blocked phagocytosis and F-actin polymerization, supporting a key role for SWAP70 in phagocytosis as demonstrated previously with knock-down. Moreover, SWAP70 was recently shown to sequester the F-actin severing protein cofilin and we investigated this relationship in phagocytosis. Our data show an increased activation of cellular cofilin upon siRNA knockdown of SWAP70. Finally, we explored whether SWAP70 would be recruited to the immune synapse between dendritic cells and T cells required for antigen presentation, as the formation of such synapses depends on F-actin. However, we observed that SWAP70 was depleted at immune synapses and specifically was recruited to phagosomes. Our data support an essential and specific role for SWAP70 in tethering and stabilizing F-actin to the phagosomal surface in a wide range of phagocytes.