# Normal Strain under Axial Loading

JoVE 核
Mechanical Engineering

JoVE 核 Mechanical Engineering
Normal Strain under Axial Loading

### Next Video18.2: Stress-Strain Diagram

A rod subjected to a load undergoes elongation. A load-deformation diagram can represent the elongation but cannot predict deformation in different rods.

For example, a rod with double the cross-sectional area requires twice the load for the same deformation, and a rod twice as long deforms two times under the same load. The ratio of deformation to length remains constant, introducing the concept of strain.

The normal strain refers to a deformation of material when subjected to axial loading. It is quantified as the change in length divided by the unit length of the object, providing a unit-less ratio of deformation.

The axial load causes stress within a material, which is directly related to the strain experienced by the object.

The relationship between stress and strain is governed by the modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus, which indicates the stiffness of the material. A higher Young's modulus means less deformation under an axial load.

Understanding the normal strain helps ensure that the structures can withstand their exposed forces without deforming excessively or failing.

## Normal Strain under Axial Loading

Normal strain under axial loading is an important concept in the field of mechanics of materials. Axial loading implies the application of a force along the axis of a material, like a column or bar. This force can either compress or stretch the material. In the context of axial loading, normal strain is the deformation experienced by the material in the direction of the loading force. It's calculated as the change in length divided by the original length of the material. This unitless ratio provides a measure of the material's deformation under load.

When a material is subjected to axial load, it experiences stress, which is the applied load divided by the cross-sectional area of the material. The stress and strain relationship is defined by the material's modulus of elasticity, also known as Young's Modulus. However, the behavior of materials under axial load is only sometimes linear. As the load increases, the material might deform elastically up to a certain point, beyond which the deformation becomes plastic. This transition point is called the yield point. In practical applications, understanding the normal strain under axial loading is crucial in designing and analyzing structures, ensuring they can safely withstand the forces they're subjected to without deforming excessively or failing.