# Magnetic Fields

JoVE Core
Physik
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JoVE Core Physik
Magnetic Fields

### Nächstes Video28.3: Magnetic Field Lines

A moving test charge experiences a force in addition to the gravitational and electric forces, which is called the magnetic force. It is described by a field called the magnetic field.

All magnets have an invisible magnetic field around them. It is a vector quantity represented by the symbol B. Its SI unit is the tesla.

Oersted demonstrated that a current carrying conductor creates a magnetic field in the surrounding space. The strength of the magnetic field decreases with distance.

The magnetic field is defined via a magnetic force "F" acting on a test charge "Q" moving with the velocity "v" in a magnetic field "B". Magnetic force is the cross-product of the velocity vector and the magnetic field vector.

The direction of the magnetic force can be determined using the right-hand rule.

If the fingers pointing in the direction of velocity are curled towards the direction of the magnetic field, then the thumb represents the magnetic force direction.

The vector sum of the electric and magnetic forces is called the Lorentz force.

## Magnetic Fields

A moving charge or a current creates a magnetic field in the surrounding space, in addition to its electric field. The magnetic field exerts a force on any other moving charge or current that is present in the field. Like an electric field, the magnetic field is also a vector field. At any position, the direction of the magnetic field is defined as the direction in which the north pole of a compass needle points.

A magnetic field is defined by the force that a charged particle experiences moving in that field. The magnitude of this magnetic force is proportional to the amount of charge, Q, the speed of the charged particle, v, and the magnitude of the applied magnetic field, B. The direction of this force is perpendicular to both the direction of the moving charged particle and the direction of the applied magnetic field. Based on these observations, we define the magnetic field strength based on the magnetic force on a charge, Q, moving at a certain velocity as the cross-product of the velocity and the magnetic field:

This equation defines the magnetic field with respect to the force on the motion of a charged particle. The magnitude of the force is determined from the definition of the cross-product as it relates to the magnitudes of each of the vectors. In other words, the magnitude of the force satisfies the following equation:

where θ is the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field.

The SI unit for magnetic field strength is called the tesla (T) after the eccentric but brilliant inventor Nikola Tesla (1856–1943):

A non-SI magnetic field unit in common use is called the gauss (G) and is related to the Tesla through the following conversion:

There is no magnetic force on static charges. However, there is a magnetic force on charges moving at an angle to a magnetic field. When charges are stationary, their electric fields do not affect magnets. However, when charges move, they produce magnetic fields that exert forces on other magnets. When there is relative motion, a connection between electric and magnetic forces emerges, with each affecting the other.

## Suggested Reading

1. OpenStax. (2019). University Physics Vol. 2. [Web version], section 11.2, pages 496–500. Retrieved from https://openstax.org/books/university-physics-volume-2/pages/11-2-magnetic-fields-and-lines