2 articles published in JoVE
Diagnosis of Musculus Gastrocnemius Tightness - Key Factors for the Clinical Examination Sebastian F. Baumbach1,2, Mareen Braunstein1,2, Markus Regauer1,2, Wolfgang Böcker2, Hans Polzer1,2 1Foot and Ankle Surgery, Munich University Hospital, 2Department of Trauma Surgery, Munich University Hospital Isolated Musculus gastrocnemius tightness is a common cause for foot and ankle pathologies. Currently no standardized examination procedure exists. This manuscript demonstrates that 20 degree of knee flexion eliminates the restraining effect of the M. gastrocnemius on ankle dorsiflexion and presents a video description of a standardized examination protocol.
Modeling Stroke in Mice: Permanent Coagulation of the Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Gemma Llovera*1,2, Stefan Roth*1,2, Nikolaus Plesnila1,2, Roland Veltkamp3,4, Arthur Liesz1,2 1Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, University Hospital Munich, 2Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), 3Department of Neurology, University Heidelberg, 4Imperial College, Charing Cross Hospital Various murine models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) are widely used in experimental brain research. Here, we demonstrate the model of transcranial permanent distal MCAO which produces consistent cortical infarction of a size corresponding to damage imposed by the majority of human ischemic strokes.