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Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of Plant tumors in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.

Transgenic Organisms

JoVE 10809

Transgenic organisms are genetically engineered to carry transgenes—genes from a different species—as part of their genome. The transgene may either be a different version of one of the organism’s genes or a gene that does not exist in their genome. Transgenes are usually generated by recombinant DNA and DNA cloning techniques. Transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals allow scientists to address biological queries and design practical solutions. Scientists begin the process of transgenesis—introducing a transgene into an organism’s genome—by selecting an appropriate technique. There are several biological, chemical, and physical methods of transgenesis. A common biological method involves the virus-mediated introduction of foreign DNA into a host cell genome, called transduction. A popular chemical method uses calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2). The method is based on the formation of a Ca3(PO4)2/DNA precipitate to facilitate DNA binding to and entering cells. Physical methods such as microinjection—a technique that uses a thin, glass needle to manually insert genetic material into cells—artificially introduce DNA by force. Once inside the cell, a transgene can either integrate randomly or at a specific site in the genome with the help of DNA repa

 Core: Biotechnology

Testing For Genetically Modified Foods

JoVE 10044

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Genetic modification of foods has been a controversial issue due to debated concerns over health and environmental safety. This experiment demonstrates technical understanding of how food DNA is genetically identified, allowing for educated decision making about …

 Environmental Science

Transforming, Genome Editing and Phenotyping the Nitrogen-fixing Tropical Cannabaceae Tree Parasponia andersonii

1Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, 2Center of Technology for Agricultural Production, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), 3Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 4Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing University of Agriculture

JoVE 59971

 Genetics

The Use of Induced Somatic Sector Analysis (ISSA) for Studying Genes and Promoters Involved in Wood Formation and Secondary Stem Development

1School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, 2Victorian AgriBiosciences Centre, La Trobe University R&D Park, 3College of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria

JoVE 54553

 Genetics

Inducible, Cell Type-Specific Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana Through LhGR-Mediated Trans-Activation

1Department of Developmental Physiology, Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) Heidelberg, 2Department of Cell Biology, Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) Heidelberg, 3Department of Stem Cell Biology, Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) Heidelberg

JoVE 59394

 Genetics
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