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Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.

Development of Recombinant Proteins to Treat Chronic Pain

1Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 2Department of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3Laboratory of Neuroimmunology and Developmental Origins of Disease, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University

JoVE 57071

 Medicine

Nociception

JoVE 10873

Nociception—the ability to feel pain—is essential for an organism’s survival and overall well-being. Noxious stimuli such as piercing pain from a sharp object, heat from an open flame, or contact with corrosive chemicals are first detected by sensory receptors, called nociceptors, located on nerve endings. Nociceptors express ion channels that convert noxious stimuli into electrical signals. When these signals reach the brain via sensory neurons, they are perceived as pain. Thus, pain helps the organism avoid noxious stimuli. The immune system plays an essential role in pain pathology. Upon encountering noxious stimuli, immune cells such as mast cells and macrophages present at the site of injury release inflammatory chemicals such as cytokines, chemokines, histamines, and prostaglandins. These chemicals attract other immune cells such as monocytes and T cells to the injury site. They also stimulate nociceptors, resulting in hyperalgesia—a more intense response to a previously painful stimulus, or allodynia—a painful response to a normally innocuous stimulus such as light touch. Such pain sensitization helps protect the injured site during healing. In some cases, pain outlives its role as an acute warning system if sensitization fails to resolve over time. Chronic pain—persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than t

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

JoVE 10879

The response to stress—be it physical or psychological, acute or chronic—involves activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis is part of the neuroendocrine system because it involves both neuronal and hormonal communication. Its function is to regulate homeostatic systems—metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune—providing the necessary means to respond to a stressor. In response to stress, the neurons in the hypothalamus release corticotropin-releasing hormone, or CRH, into the bloodstream. CRH takes a short journey to the pituitary gland where it stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH. The site of action for ACTH are the adrenal glands which lay just on the surface of the kidneys. When stimulated, the adrenal glands release two types of stress messages. Neural stimulation initiates the first message—the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla. This activates the sympathetic nervous system resulting in elevated heart rate, blood flow, and respiration—processes designed to activate states of alertness and arousal. These two chemicals are also referred to as adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. ACTH initiates the second message—the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex. In humans, cortisol is the primary hormone

 Core: Endocrine System

Rodent Identification I

JoVE 10189

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


A fundamental requirement of biomedical research is the proper identification of research animals. It is essential that the right animal is utilized for procedures and data collection. Laboratory mice and rats can be identified with the…

 Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration IV

JoVE 10214

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized…

 Lab Animal Research

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 2744

 Neuroscience

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan

JoVE 50309

 Medicine

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631

 Neuroscience

Chronic Post-Ischemia Pain Model for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type-I in Rats

1Department of Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research, The Third Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Neurology of Zhejiang Province, 2Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60562

 JoVE In-Press

Use of In Vivo Single-fiber Recording and Intact Dorsal Root Ganglion with Attached Sciatic Nerve to Examine the Mechanism of Conduction Failure

1Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 2Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, ShanXi Medical University, 3Department of Psychology, Fourth Military Medical University, 4Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University, 5Neuroscience Research Institute, Key Lab for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education/National Health Commission, Peking University, 6Department of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University

JoVE 59234

 Neuroscience

Real-time Video Projection in an MRI for Characterization of Neural Correlates Associated with Mirror Therapy for Phantom Limb Pain

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation & Center for Clinical Research Learning, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, 2University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, 3Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, Psychology Institute, University of Sao Paulo, 4The Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 5Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 6Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 7Department of Psychology & Milan Center for Neuroscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, 8Neuropsychological Laboratory, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Auxologico Italiano

JoVE 58800

 Neuroscience

Laboratory Administration of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS): Technique, Targeting, and Considerations

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York, 2U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 3Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 4Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, 5Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, 6Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center

JoVE 58984

 Neuroscience

Ethanol-Induced Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion Block Applications for Promoting Canine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Regeneration Using an Artificial Nerve

1Department of Dental Anesthesia, Nippon Dental University Hospital at Tokyo, 2Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, 3Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Science, Kyoto University

JoVE 58039

 Neuroscience

Objective Nociceptive Assessment in Ventilated ICU Patients: A Feasibility Study Using Pupillometry and the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex

1Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), University of Antwerp (UA), 2Multidisciplinary Pain Center (PCT), Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), 3Critical Care Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), University of Antwerp (UA)

JoVE 57972

 Medicine

Home-Based Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Device Development: An Updated Protocol Used at Home in Healthy Subjects and Fibromyalgia Patients

1Post-Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 2Laboratory of Pain & Neuromodulation, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), 3School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 4Faculdade de Desenvolvimento do Rio Grande do Sul (FADERGS), Health and Wellness School Laureate International Universities, 5Biomedical Engineering Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), 6Pharmacology Department, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 7Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, 8Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, 9Pain and Palliative Care Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), 10Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

JoVE 57614

 Medicine

In Vivo Morphometric Analysis of Human Cranial Nerves Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Menière's Disease Ears and Normal Hearing Ears

1Department of Radiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorder

JoVE 57091

 Medicine

A Quantitative Sensory Testing Paradigm to Obtain Measures of Pain Processing in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery

1Department of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Palliative Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, 3Medical Technology & Clinical Physics, Radboud University Medical Center

JoVE 56918

 Medicine

Automated Gait Analysis in Mice with Chronic Constriction Injury

1Department of Physiology and Medical Science, College of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Chungnam National University, 2KM Fundamental Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 3Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

JoVE 56402

 Neuroscience
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