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Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.

Safety Checks and Five Rights of Medication Administration

JoVE 10235

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

According to the 1999 Institution of Medicine (IOM) report titled To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, medication errors are significant contributors to avoidable patient deaths in the hospital environment. Therefore, to maintain patient safety and to avoid medication errors, it is important that every nurse adheres to at least five "rights" of safe medication administration. These five "rights" refer to the right patient, right medication, right medication dose, right time of administration, and right route of administration. The nurse should check for these five "rights" at three different checkpoints points in the mediation administration process: 1) while comparing the Medication Administration Record (MAR) when withdrawing medications, 2) while comparing the MAR to acquired medications, and 3) while comparing the MAR to both the medication and patient identifiers at the bedside. This video will demonstrate the acquisition component of medication administration, which consists of performing the five "rights" during the first, second, and third checkpoints. Prior to acquiring medications from a medication dispensing system (M


 Nursing Skills

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 52352


 Medicine

Preparing and Administering Subcutaneous Medications

JoVE 10234

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Subcutaneous medication administration is a parenteral approach to administer small amounts of medication (less than 2 mL) into the layer of tissue just below the skin. Common medications administered via the subcutaneous route include anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or enoxaparin; epinephrine administered for allergic reactions; insulin; and some immunizations. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. Subcutaneous needles have a shorter length and smaller diameter than syringes used for intramuscular injections, are typically less than 5/8th of an inch, and are 26 gauge or smaller. Medication absorption and onset is slower than for intravenous routes, with some absorption rates lasting 24 h or longer. This approach is selected for many medications that may be denatured or deactivated if given via the oral route, given the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose according to


 Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Topical Medications

JoVE 10259

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Topical medications are applied directly to the body surfaces, including the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, ears, nose, vagina, and rectum. There are many classes of topical medications, such as creams, ointments, lotions, patches, and aerosol sprays. Medications that are applied to the skin to produce slow, controlled, systemic effect are also referred to as transdermal. Transdermal absorption can be altered if lesions, burns, or breakdowns are present at the application site. Many transdermal medications are delivered via adhesive patch to achieve the slow, controlled, systemic effect. The patch should be applied to clean and hairless skin areas that do not undergo excessive movement, such as the back of the shoulder or thigh. Other topical creams or eye ointments should be applied according to the packaging and manufacturer instructions using an application device. When instilling eardrop medications, never occlude the ear canal, as this may increase pressure and rupture the ear drum. Medications that can be administered via a topical route include antibiotics, narcotics, hormones, and even chemotherapeutics. This requires adherence to the five "rights" of medicati


 Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Enteric Tube Medications

JoVE 10287

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

An enteric tube is a tube that is inserted and passed into the stomach or intestines. Enteric tubes serve multiple purposes, including stomach decompression (through the removal of air, gastric contents, and secretions), enteric feeding, and/or the administration of medications or oral contrast. Enteric tubes are indicated for patients with impaired swallowing and for patients with neurological or other conditions associated with an increased risk of aspiration, or when the patient is unable to maintain adequate oral intake of fluid or calories. There are multiple types of enteric tubes, with their generic names assigned according to the insertion site and the gastrointestinal termination point. For instance, one of the common tube types is the nasogastric tube, which is inserted through a nostril and passed along the upper gastrointestinal tract into the stomach. When administering medications through an enteric tube, it is important to ensure that the tube terminates in the intended gastrointestinal location. When enteric tubes are initially placed, the position of the tube is verified by X-ray. However, due to gastric peristalsis, enteric tubes may migrate out of their intended


 Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Oral Tablet and Liquid Medications

JoVE 10258

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Oral medications are the route most preferred by patients and are one of the most commonly used routes of medication administration by providers. Most oral preparations are taken by mouth, swallowed with fluid, and absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract. Oral medications are available in solid forms (e.g., tablets, capsules, caplets, and enteric-coated tablets) and liquids forms (e.g., syrups, elixirs, spirits, and suspensions). Most oral medications have a slower onset of action and, in the case of liquids and swallowed oral medications, may also have a more prolonged effect. Enteric-coated tablets are covered with material that prevents dissolution and absorption until the tablet reaches the small intestine. Additional oral medication routes (not shown in this video) include sublingual administration, in which the preparation is placed under the tongue to dissolve, and buccal administration, which involves placing the medication in the cheek area between the gums and mucus membranes to dissolve. When preparing and administering oral tablets and liquid medications, the nurse must consider whether the medication is appropriate given the patient's medical conditi


 Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Intramuscular Injections

JoVE 10261

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications deep into the muscle tissue. Since muscle fibers are well perfused, this route of administration provides quick uptake of the medication and allows for the administration of relatively large volumes. Skeletal muscles have fewer pain-sensing nerves than subcutaneous tissue, which allows for the less painful administration of irritating drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, an anti-psychotic). IM injections are recommended for patients unable to take oral medications and for uncooperative patients. Some examples of medications that are commonly delivered by IM injections include antibiotics, hormones, and vaccinations. As in any other route of administration, the nurse must consider if the medication is appropriate, given the patient's medical conditions, allergies, and current clinical status. In addition, specifically for IM injections, it is important to assess the patient's muscle mass to determine the appropriate needle size. Also, if the patient has already received this injection, it is necessary to verify the injection site that was previously used and to ensure that the previous dose did not result in any adverse


 Nursing Skills

Description of a Novel, Surgically Implanted Neuromodulatory Technique Known As Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (Epcs) for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 5American University of Beirut Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56043


 JoVE In-Press

Preparing and Administering IV Push Medications

JoVE 10262

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intravenous (IV) push is the rapid administration of a small volume of medication into a patient's vein via a previously inserted IV catheter. Preparations for IV push administration are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a syringe. This method is used when a rapid response to a medication is required, or when the medication cannot be administered via the oral route. For instance, medications commonly administered via IV push are the ones used to treat moderate or severe pain. Before administrating IV push, it is important to confirm the correct placement of the IV catheter, because the push medication can cause irritation and damage to the lining of the blood vessel and to surrounding tissues. Since IV push medications act quickly, the patients need to be closely monitored after the drug has been administered, and any error can be especially dangerous. It is imperative that the nurse adheres to the five "rights" and three checks of safe medication administration and is knowledgeable about the medication purpose and adverse effects. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose, based upon the medication concentration in the container. If


 Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Inhaled Medications

JoVE 10390

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Inhaled medications are prescribed for conditions affecting the bronchi, which branch off of the trachea, and bronchioles, which are progressively smaller conducting airways spread throughout the lung tissue. These conditions can be classified as acute (i.e., temporary, with quick onset) or chronic (i.e., persistent and/or recurrent symptoms lasting months to years). Common acute conditions requiring inhaled medications include acute bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chronic conditions requiring inhaled medications encompass those classified as COPD (i.e., asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema), as well as other chronic conditions, including cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumoconiosis. These conditions often require medications to open airways, decrease airway inflammation, and promote airflow. The delivery of medications directly into the airways allows for a faster response when compared to systemically administered medications and decreases the impact of systemic side effects. Inhaled medications come in different forms and delivery devices. Common inhaled medications include short- and


 Nursing Skills

The Goeckerman Regimen for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Psoriasis

1Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, 3University of California Irvine School of Medicine, 4University of Arizona College of Medicine, 5Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine

JoVE 50509


 Medicine

Preparing and Administering Secondary Intermittent Intravenous Medications

JoVE 10288

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Secondary intravenous (IV) infusions are a way to administer smaller volume-controlled amounts of IV solution (25-250 mL). Secondary IV infusions are delivered over longer periods of time than IV push medications, which reduces the risks associated with rapid infusions, such as phlebitis and infiltration. In addition, some antibiotic medications are only stable for a limited time in solution. The secondary IV medication tubing is connected to the primary macrobore (large internal diameter) IV tubing and is therefore "secondary" to the primary infusion. The secondary solution bag is typically hung higher than the primary infusion bag and is subsequently "piggybacked" on top of the primary IV infusion. This higher position places greater gravitational pressure on the secondary IV solution. As a result, the primary infusion is temporarily paused until the secondary infusion volume has been delivered. This approach ensures that the medication is completely infused due to an immediate return of maintenance IV infusion in the IV line. The secondary IV infusion can be safely delivered when the patient's fluid volume status permits temporarily pausing the delivery of maintenance fluid and in hype


 Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Intermittent Intravenous Medications with an Infusion Pump

JoVE 10277

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Primary intermittent intravenous (IV) infusions are delivered alone as volume-controlled infusions, while secondary infusions are delivered with another IV fluid, usually maintenance fluids. Intermittent infusions are delivered over a specific amount of time, which is dictated by the type of medication, such as IV antibiotics. High-volume IV medications, anywhere from 50- to 500-mL infusions, are typically delivered using an infusion pump as either primary or secondary infusions. Infusion pumps deliver IV fluids in a volume-controlled manner, keeping medication side effects to a minimum and helping to prevent nurse medication errors. Careful review of the medication compatibility with maintenance fluids using an approved medication drug guide, pharmacy recommendations in the Medication Administration Record (MAR), and physician orders must be assessed prior to delivering an IV medication. This review will determine if primary or secondary delivery is appropriate based on the risk for patient harm, such as for concentrated electrolyte preparations like potassium. Certain medical conditions that preclude oral fluid intake, specific medication preparations, or situations that require an inc


 Nursing Skills

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129


 Medicine

A Novel Method for Involving Women of Color at High Risk for Preterm Birth in Research Priority Setting

1School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative, University of California, San Francisco, 3School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 4San Francisco Black Infant Health Program, 5Homeless Prenatal Program, San Francisco, CA

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56220


 JoVE In-Press

Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

1Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 54883


 Medicine

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

Initiating Maintenance IV Fluids

JoVE 10274

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Hospitalized patients frequently require the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids to maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain medical conditions that preclude oral fluid intake may necessitate IV fluid administration, with or without electrolytes, to prevent hypovolemia, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances. Pre-surgical and pre-procedure patients who require anesthesia are often required to be NPO (i.e., nil per os; Latin for "nothing by mouth") to prevent aspiration and to maintain hydration during the procedure. Post-surgical and post-procedure patients may also require IV fluid administration to increase intravascular volume following surgical blood loss. IV fluids can be delivered by different types of administrations sets: gravity flow infusion devices, which rely on gravitation force to push the fluid to the patient's bloodstream, or infusion pumps, which use a pump mechanism that generates positive pressure. While administering maintenance IV fluids using an infusion pump is the most common approach, facility policy; availability of infusion pump equipment; and other limitations, such as a power outage, may necessitate the use of IV gravity tub


 Nursing Skills

Esophageal Heat Transfer for Patient Temperature Control and Targeted Temperature Management

1Center for Advanced Design, Research, and Exploration, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2Attune Medical, 3University of Maryland School of Nursing, 4University of Western Ontario, 5University Medical Centre Maribor, 6University of Maryland, 7Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center

JoVE 56579


 Medicine

Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 5Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, 7Department of Neurology, Neurosciences Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

JoVE 51763


 Neuroscience

Surgical Fixation of Sternal Fractures: Preoperative Planning and a Safe Surgical Technique Using Locked Titanium Plates and Depth Limited Drilling

1Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 2Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 3Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, St.-Theresien Hospital, 4Institute of Anatomy I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg

JoVE 52124


 Medicine

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, 3Interdisciplinary Program for Bioengineering, Seoul National University Graduate School, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University

JoVE 54521


 Bioengineering

Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion (PHP) with Melphalan as a Treatment for Unresectable Metastases Confined to the Liver

1Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 4Department of Extracorporeal Circulation, Leiden University Medical Centre, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 6Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute

JoVE 53795


 Medicine

Rapid Detection of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes in Human Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs)

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 5Department of Genetics, Rutgers University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56628


 JoVE In-Press

Sensory Exam

JoVE 10113

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

A complete sensory examination consists of testing primary sensory modalities as well as cortical sensory function. Primary sensory modalities include pain, temperature, light touch, vibration, and joint position sense. Sensation of the face is discussed in the videos Cranial Nerves Exam I and II, as are the special senses of smell, vision, taste, and hearing. The spinothalamic tract mediates pain and temperature information from skin to thalamus. The spinothalamic fibers decussate (cross over) 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry, then travel up to the brainstem until they synapse on various nuclei in thalamus. From the thalamus, information is then relayed to the cortical areas such as the postcentral gyrus (also known as the primary somatosensory cortex). Afferent fibers transmitting vibration and proprioception travel up to medulla in the ipsilateral posterior columns as fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which carry information from the lower limbs and upper limbs, respectively. Subsequently, the afferent projections cross over and ascend to the thalamus, and from there to the primary somatosensory cortex. The pattern of a


 Physical Examinations III

Continuous Manual Exchange Transfusion for Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: An Efficient Method to Avoid Iron Overload

1Reference Centre of Sickle Cell Disease, Hematology Unit, Robert Debré Hospital, AP-HP, 2School of Pharmacy, Université Paris Descartes, 3Etablissement Français du Sang, Robert Debré Hospital, AP-HP, 4Hematology Unit,, Robert Debré Hospital, AP-HP, Univsité Paris Diderot

JoVE 55172


 Medicine

A Quantitative Sensory Testing Paradigm to Obtain Measures of Pain Processing in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery

1Department of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Palliative Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, 3Medical Technology & Clinical Physics, Radboud University Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56918


 JoVE In-Press

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf

JoVE 53466


 Behavior

Adaptation of Semiautomated Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Assays for Clinical and Preclinical Research Applications

1London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 3Special Hematology/Flow Cytometry, London Health Sciences Centre, 4Lawson Health Research Institute, 5Department of Oncology, Western University

JoVE 51248


 Medicine

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242


 Medicine

Operating Procedures of the Electrochemotherapy for Treatment of Tumor in Dogs and Cats

1Clinic for Surgery and Small Animals, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, 2Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 4IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), CNRS, 5IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), Université de Toulouse

JoVE 54760


 Cancer Research

Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion

JoVE 10264

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

The purpose of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is to infuse medications, perform intravenous (IV) fluid therapy, or inject radioactive tracers for special examination procedures. Placing a PIV is an invasive procedure and requires the use of an aseptic, no-touch technique. Common IV venipuncture sites are the arms and hands in adults and the feet in children. According to the Intravenous Nurses Society (INS), the feet should be avoided in the adult population because of the risk of thrombophlebitis. Venipuncture sites should be carefully assessed for contraindications, such as pain, wounds, decreased circulation, a previous cerebral vascular accident (CVA), dialysis fistulas, or a mastectomy on the same side. The median cubital vein and the cephalic vein in the wrist area should be avoided when possible. The cephalic vein has been associated with nerve damage when used for IV placements. The most distal site available on the hand or arm is preferred so that future venipuncture sites may be used if infiltration or extravasation occurs. This video will demonstrate the insertion of a PIV, including the preparation and attachment of an IV extension s


 Nursing Skills

Model Surgical Training: Skills Acquisition in Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation of Monochorionic Diamniotic Twin Placenta Using Realistic Simulators

1Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Health Systems, 3Experimental Fetal Medicine Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57328


 JoVE In-Press

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital

JoVE 54606


 Medicine

Forskolin-induced Swelling in Intestinal Organoids: An In Vitro Assay for Assessing Drug Response in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

1Foundation Hubrecht Organoid Technology, 2Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Regenerative Medicine Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, 3Department of Stem Cells and Cancer, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, University Medical Centre Utrecht

JoVE 55159


 Medicine

Performing Behavioral Tasks in Subjects with Intracranial Electrodes

1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 51947


 Behavior

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