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Спираль ДНК
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the genetic material responsible for passing traits from generation to generation in all organisms and most…
Центральная догма
The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the synthesis of…
Прокариоты
Prokaryotes are small unicellular organisms in the domains Archaea and Bacteria. Bacteria include many common organisms such as Salmonella and…
Эукариотическая компартментализация
One of the distinguishing features of eukaryotic cells is that they contain membrane-bound organelles—such as the nucleus and…
"Древо жизни" - бактерии, археи, эукариоты.
The “tree of life” describes the evolution of life and the evolutionary relationships between organisms. The root of the tree is the…
Мутации
Mutations are changes in the sequence of DNA. These changes can occur spontaneously or they can be induced by exposure to environmental factors.…
Эволюция гена - быстро или медленно?
The genomes of eukaryotes are punctuated by long stretches of sequence which do not code for proteins or RNAs. Although some of these regions do…
Размер генома и эволюция новых генов
While every living organism has a genome of some kind (be it RNA, or DNA), there is considerable variation in the sizes of these blueprints. One…
Генные семьи
Gene families consist of groups of genes proposed to have originated from a common ancestor. Typically these arise through events in which a gene or…
Типы генетического переноса между организмами
Genetic transfer occurs when genetic information is passed from one organism to another. It occurs via two mechanisms: vertical gene transfer and…

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