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Chapter 16
In-vitro Mutagenesis
To learn more about the function of a gene, researchers can observe what happens when the gene is inactivated or “knocked out,” by…
Genetic Screens
Genetic screens are tools used to identify genes and mutations responsible for phenotypes of interest. Genetic screens help identify individuals or a…
Test Cross
Alleles are different forms of the same gene. Humans and other diploid organisms inherit two alleles of every gene, one from each parent. An allele…
Complementation Tests and Epistasis Analysis
A complementation test is a simple cross to identify whether the two mutations are located on the same gene or different genes. It was first…
SNPs and GWAS
A single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP, is a single nucleotide variation or point mutation at a specific genomic position in a large…
Bacterial Transformation
In 1928, bacteriologist Frederick Griffith worked on a vaccine for pneumonia, which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Griffith studied…
Transgenic Organisms
Transgenic organisms are genetically engineered to carry transgenes—genes from a different species—as part of their genome. The…
Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive cloning is the process of producing a genetically identical copy—a clone—of an entire organism. While clones can be produced…
CRISPR
Genome editing technologies allow scientists to modify an organism’s DNA via the addition, removal, or rearrangement of genetic material at…
Experimental RNAi
RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular mechanism that inhibits gene expression by suppressing its transcription or activating the RNA degradation…
Reporter Genes
Reporter genes are a type of protein-coding gene that are often tagged to a gene of interest. Once inside a target cell, reporter genes…
In-situ Hybridization
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a technique used to detect and localize specific DNA or RNA molecules in cells, tissue, or tissue sections using a…
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation- ChIP
Chromatin immunoprecipitation, or ChIP, is an antibody-based technique used to identify sites on DNA that bind to transcription factors of interest…
Synthetic Biology
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary science that involves using principles from disciplines such as engineering, molecular biology, cell…
Ribosome Profiling
Ribosome profiling or ribo-sequencing is a deep sequencing technique that produces a snapshot of active translation in a cell. It selectively…
Transgenic Plants
Recombinant DNA technology called transgenesis is often used to add a foreign gene or remove a detrimental gene from an organism. Such genetically…
Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is a technique where a gene is inserted into a person’s cells to prevent or treat a serious disease. The added gene may be a…
Isolation and Cultivation of Neural Progenitors Followed by Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation of Histone 3 Lysine 79 Dimethylation Mark
Brain development is a complex process, which is controlled in a temporo-spatial manner by gradients of morphogens and different transcriptional…
Forward Genetics Screens Using Macrophages to Identify <em>Toxoplasma gondii </em>Genes Important for Resistance to IFN-&#947;-Dependent Cell Autonomous Immunity
Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular protozoan pathogen. The parasite invades and replicates within…
Generation of Genomic Deletions in Mammalian Cell Lines via CRISPR/Cas9
The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system may be re-purposed for…

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