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الفصل 5
ما هي الأغشية؟
A key characteristic of life is the ability to separate the external environment from the internal space. To do this, cells have evolved…
سيولة الغشاء
Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates loosely attached to one another through chemical interactions. Molecules…
نموذج الفسيفساء السائل
The fluid mosaic model was first proposed as a visual representation of research observations. The model comprises the composition and dynamics of…
ما هو التدرج الكهروكيميائي؟
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered the primary energy source in cells. However, energy can also be stored in the electrochemical gradient…
الانتشار
Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down their concentration gradients—requiring no expenditure of cellular energy. Substances,…
الخاصية الأسموزية
Approximately 60% to 95% of the weight of living organisms is attributed to water. Therefore, maintaining appropriate water balance within cells is…
التناضحية في الحيوانات
The tonicity of a solution determines if a cell gains or loses water in that solution. The tonicity depends on the permeability of the cell membrane…
التناضحية في النباتات
Tonicity describes the capacity of a cell to lose or gain water. It depends on the quantity of solute that does not penetrate the membrane. Tonicity…
ارتباطات البروتينات
The cell membrane—or plasma membrane—is an ever-changing landscape. It is described as a fluid mosaic as various macromolecules are embedded in…
نقل مسهّل
The chemical and physical properties of plasma membranes cause them to be selectively permeable. Since plasma membranes have both hydrophobic and…
النقل النشط الأساسي
In contrast to passive transport, active transport involves a substance being moved through membranes in a direction against its concentration or…
النقل النشط الثانوي
One example of how cells use the energy contained in electrochemical gradients is demonstrated by glucose transport into cells. The ion vital to this…
الإدخال الخلوي بواسطة المستقبلات
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a process through which bulk amounts of specific molecules can be imported into a cell after binding to cell…
امتصاص السوائل الخلوي
Cells use energy-requiring bulk transport mechanisms to transfer large particles, or large amounts of small particles, into or out of the cell. The…
البلعمة
Cells pull particles inward and engulf them in spherical vesicles in an energy-requiring process called endocytosis. Phagocytosis (“cellular…
الإخراج الخلوي
Exocytosis is used to release material from cells. Like other bulk transport mechanisms, exocytosis requires energy. While endocytosis takes…
إنتشار الجزيئي في أغشية البلازما الخلايا اللمفاوية الابتدائية تقاس الإسفار الارتباط الطيفي
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful technique for studying the diffusion of molecules within biological membranes with high…
في دراسة لالإلتقام وإعادة غشاء البلازما من البروتينات القائم على خلية L-الجلوتاثيون حماية فحوصات
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to…
فحص متشابك الحويصلة عن طريق إعادة تدوير الأصباغ FM خلال مستدعى، العفوي، والأنشطة متشابك مصغرة
Synaptic vesicles in functional nerve terminals undergo exocytosis and endocytosis. This synaptic vesicle recycling can be effectively analyzed using…

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