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Chapter 24

Immune System

What is the Immune System?
Overview The immune system comprises diverse biological structures and processes that protect the body from disease. These processes can be…
Cell-mediated Immune Responses
Overview The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular…
Humoral Immune Responses
Overview The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, targets pathogens circulating in “humors,” or…
Antibody Structure
Overview Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are essential players of the adaptive immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are…
Affinity and Avidity
Overview Antibodies bind to toxins or substances on the surface of cells, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The substance is called an antigen, and the…
Cross-reactivity
Overview The ability of a single antibody to recognize multiple structurally similar epitopes is an important immune defense strategy that enables…
Allergic Reactions
Overview We speak of an allergy when the immune system triggers a response against a benign foreign structure, like food, pollen or pet dander.…
Inflammation
Overview In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability…
Vaccinations
Overview Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material from pathogens to confer immunity against a specific microorganism. Vaccination…
Orthotopic Implantation and Peripheral Immune Cell Monitoring in the II-45 Syngeneic Rat Mesothelioma Model
The enormous upsurge of interest in immune-based treatments for cancer such as vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and increased understanding…
Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination
A major hallmark of the autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is immune cell infiltration into the brain and spinal cord resulting…
Live Imaging of Innate Immune and Preneoplastic Cell Interactions Using an Inducible Gal4/UAS Expression System in Larval Zebrafish Skin
Here we describe a method to conditionally induce epithelial cell transformation by the use of the 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) inducible…
Injections of Lipopolysaccharide into Mice to Mimic Entrance of Microbial-derived Products After Intestinal Barrier Breach
The intestinal epithelial barrier separates the host from the microbiota that is normally tolerated or ignored. The breach of this barrier results in…

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