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Что такое иммунная система?
The immune system comprises diverse biological structures and processes that protect the body from disease. These processes can be classified into…
Клеточный иммунитет
The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular infections. It…
Гуморальный иммунный ответ
The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, targets pathogens circulating in “humors,” or…
Структура антител
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are essential players of the adaptive immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are produced by…
Аффинность и авидность
Antibodies bind to toxins or substances on the surface of cells, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The substance is called an antigen, and the precise…
Перекрестная реактивность
The ability of a single antibody to recognize multiple structurally similar epitopes is an important immune defense strategy that enables the host…
Аллергические реакции
We speak of an allergy when the immune system triggers a response against a benign foreign structure, like food, pollen or pet dander. These…
Воспаление
In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability of…
Вакцинации
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material from pathogens to confer immunity against a specific microorganism. Vaccination primes the…

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