Login processing...

Trial ends in Request Full Access Tell Your Colleague About Jove
Chapter 34

Plant Structure, Growth, and Nutrition

Introduction to Plant Diversity
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
Non-vascular Seedless Plants
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
Seedless Vascular Plants
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
Introduction to Seed Plants
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
Basic Plant Anatomy: Roots, Stems, and Leaves
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
Plant Cells and Tissues
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
Meristems and Plant Growth
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
Primary and Secondary Growth in Roots and Shoots
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
Morphogenesis
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
Light Acquisition
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
Water and Mineral Acquisition
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
Short-distance Transport of Resources
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
Xylem and Transpiration-driven Transport of Resources
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
Regulation of Transpiration by Stomata
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
Adaptations that Reduce Water Loss
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
Phloem and Sugar Transport
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
The Soil Ecosystem
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
Key Elements for Plant Nutrition
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
The Roles of Bacteria and Fungi in Plant Nutrition
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
Epiphytes, Parasites, and Carnivores
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
The Apoplast and Symplast
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…
Identification of Novel Regulators of Plant Transpiration by Large-Scale Thermal Imaging Screening in <em>Helianthus Annuus</em>
Plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses is governed by a variety of factors, among which the regulation of stomatal aperture in response to…
Lateral Root Inducible System in <em>Arabidopsis</em> and Maize
Lateral root development contributes significantly to the root system, and hence is crucial for plant growth. The study of lateral root initiation is…
Using High Resolution Computed Tomography to Visualize the Three Dimensional Structure and Function of Plant Vasculature
High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique with sub-micron resolution capability that is now…

Get cutting-edge science videos from JoVE sent straight to your inbox every month.

Waiting X
simple hit counter