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植物多様性入門
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
維管束のない種なし植物
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
種なし維管束植物
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
種子植物入門
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
基礎植物解剖学:根、茎、葉
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
植物の細胞と組織
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
分裂組織と植物成長
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
根および芽の一次成長および二次成長
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
形態形成
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
光捕捉
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
水およびミネラルの獲得
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
資源の短距離輸送
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
木部と蒸散駆動の資源輸送
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
気孔による蒸散の調節
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
水の損失を減らす適応
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
師部と糖輸送
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
土壌生態系
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
植物栄養で重要となる元素
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
植物栄養におけるバクテリアと真菌の役割
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
着生植物、寄生生物、食虫植物
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
アポプラストとシンプラスト
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…

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