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Errata

Erratum: Generation of Human Neurons and Oligodendrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Neuron-Oligodendrocyte Interactions

doi: 10.3791/6455 Published: December 29, 2020

Abstract

An erratum was issued for: Generation of Human Neurons and Oligodendrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Neuron-Oligodendrocyte Interactions. The Representative Results section has been updated.

Figure 3 was updated from:

Figure 3
Figure 3: Co-culture of iNs and iOPCs. (A) Representative bright field image of co-cultured iNs and iOPCs at Day 7, showing a proper density for further maturation. (B) Representative immunofluorescence image of iNs and iOPCs co-cultured for 28 days. Axonal marker neurofilament NF is shown in green and oligodendrocytic marker MBP in red. Right, a segment of iN axon ensheathed by iOL process (MBP+). (C) Synapse formation assayed in 4-week-old co-cultures. Cells were stained for Synapsin 1 (Syn1, green) and MAP2 (red), and synaptic puncta were quantified by confocal analysis of density along the dendritic segments as described17,18. (D) In our co-cultures of iNs and iOPCs (7 days of co-culturing), the expression of astrocyte markers, ALDHL1 and GFAP, is minimal (top), and the expression of microglia markers, TMEM119, TREM2, and CD33, is not detected (N.D.) by qPCR. The contamination from these two glial cell types is thus excluded. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

to:

Figure 3
Figure 3: Co-culture of iNs and iOPCs. (A) Representative bright field image of co-cultured iNs and iOPCs at Day 7, showing a proper density for further maturation. (B) Representative immunofluorescence image of iNs and iOPCs co-cultured for 28 days. Axonal marker neurofilament NF is shown in green and oligodendrocytic marker MBP in red. Right, a segment of iN axon ensheathed by iOL process (MBP+). (C) Synapse formation assayed in 4-week-old co-cultures. Cells were stained for Synapsin 1 (Syn1, green) and MAP2 (red), and synaptic puncta were quantified by confocal analysis of density along the dendritic segments as described17,18. (D) In our co-cultures of iNs and iOPCs (7 days of co-culturing), the expression of astrocyte markers, ALDHL1 and GFAP, is minimal (top), and the expression of microglia markers, TMEM119, TREM2, and CD33, is not detected (N.D.) by qPCR. The contamination from these two glial cell types is thus excluded. (E) Coculturing iOPC with iN leads to the formation of neuron-OPC synapses. The fluorescence-tagged post-synaptic marker PSD95-mCherry is expressed only in OPCs, and display a diffuse pattern in single cultures (left) but aggregate to form puncta in cocultures (right, indicated by arrows; Tuj1, neuronal marker). (F) The expression of well-characterized oligodendroglial genes that can sense and respond to neuronal activities in the pure cultures of iOPCs at Day 14. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

The fourth paragraph was updated from:

Co-culturing of iNs and iOPCs
This protocol is optimized specifically for co-culturing iNs and iOPCs and allow our real-time monitoring of the inter-cellular communications between these two cell types along the course of neural development. The ideal plating densities for both cell types need to be decided with a series of cell number titration to achieve proper differentiation (Figure 3A). After 4 weeks in co-cultures, the iOPCs are expected to be adequately differentiated into OLs that are positive for specific markers such as MBP and extend processes to ensheath axons (Figure 3B). The co-culture system can robustly boost up the number of synapses, indicating that the iOPCs provide a neuronal support through physical contacts or release of trophic factors (Figure 3C). We can maintain the co-cultures in acceptable health condition for up to 6 weeks and observe that the synapse number and other neuronal attributes plateau around the fifth week. Of note, astrocytes and microglia are not present in our preparations and their absence can be documented by checking the expression of specific markers (Figure 3D).

to:

Co-culturing of iNs and iOPCs
This protocol is optimized specifically for co-culturing iNs and iOPCs and allow our real-time monitoring of the inter-cellular communications between these two cell types along the course of neural development. The ideal plating densities for both cell types need to be decided with a series of cell number titration to achieve proper differentiation (Figure 3A). After 4 weeks in co-cultures, the iOPCs are expected to be adequately differentiated into OLs that are positive for specific markers such as MBP and extend processes to ensheath axons (Figure 3B). The co-culture system can robustly boost up the number of synapses, indicating that the iOPCs provide a neuronal support through physical contacts or release of trophic factors (Figure 3C). We can maintain the co-cultures in acceptable health condition for up to 6 weeks and observe that the synapse number and other neuronal attributes plateau around the fifth week. Of note, astrocytes and microglia are not present in our preparations and their absence can be documented by checking the expression of specific markers (Figure 3D). The iOPCs express a good number of well-characterized genes that can potentially respond to and mediate the activity-dependent signals from neighboring neurons, in a paracrine (e.g. neurotrophins and metabolites) and/or a synaptic manner (Figure 3E and 3F). 

Protocol

An erratum was issued for: Generation of Human Neurons and Oligodendrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Neuron-Oligodendrocyte Interactions. The Representative Results section has been updated.

Figure 3 was updated from:

Figure 3
Figure 3: Co-culture of iNs and iOPCs. (A) Representative bright field image of co-cultured iNs and iOPCs at Day 7, showing a proper density for further maturation. (B) Representative immunofluorescence image of iNs and iOPCs co-cultured for 28 days. Axonal marker neurofilament NF is shown in green and oligodendrocytic marker MBP in red. Right, a segment of iN axon ensheathed by iOL process (MBP+). (C) Synapse formation assayed in 4-week-old co-cultures. Cells were stained for Synapsin 1 (Syn1, green) and MAP2 (red), and synaptic puncta were quantified by confocal analysis of density along the dendritic segments as described17,18. (D) In our co-cultures of iNs and iOPCs (7 days of co-culturing), the expression of astrocyte markers, ALDHL1 and GFAP, is minimal (top), and the expression of microglia markers, TMEM119, TREM2, and CD33, is not detected (N.D.) by qPCR. The contamination from these two glial cell types is thus excluded. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

to:

Figure 3
Figure 3: Co-culture of iNs and iOPCs. (A) Representative bright field image of co-cultured iNs and iOPCs at Day 7, showing a proper density for further maturation. (B) Representative immunofluorescence image of iNs and iOPCs co-cultured for 28 days. Axonal marker neurofilament NF is shown in green and oligodendrocytic marker MBP in red. Right, a segment of iN axon ensheathed by iOL process (MBP+). (C) Synapse formation assayed in 4-week-old co-cultures. Cells were stained for Synapsin 1 (Syn1, green) and MAP2 (red), and synaptic puncta were quantified by confocal analysis of density along the dendritic segments as described17,18. (D) In our co-cultures of iNs and iOPCs (7 days of co-culturing), the expression of astrocyte markers, ALDHL1 and GFAP, is minimal (top), and the expression of microglia markers, TMEM119, TREM2, and CD33, is not detected (N.D.) by qPCR. The contamination from these two glial cell types is thus excluded. (E) Coculturing iOPC with iN leads to the formation of neuron-OPC synapses. The fluorescence-tagged post-synaptic marker PSD95-mCherry is expressed only in OPCs, and display a diffuse pattern in single cultures (left) but aggregate to form puncta in cocultures (right, indicated by arrows; Tuj1, neuronal marker). (F) The expression of well-characterized oligodendroglial genes that can sense and respond to neuronal activities in the pure cultures of iOPCs at Day 14. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

The fourth paragraph was updated from:

Co-culturing of iNs and iOPCs
This protocol is optimized specifically for co-culturing iNs and iOPCs and allow our real-time monitoring of the inter-cellular communications between these two cell types along the course of neural development. The ideal plating densities for both cell types need to be decided with a series of cell number titration to achieve proper differentiation (Figure 3A). After 4 weeks in co-cultures, the iOPCs are expected to be adequately differentiated into OLs that are positive for specific markers such as MBP and extend processes to ensheath axons (Figure 3B). The co-culture system can robustly boost up the number of synapses, indicating that the iOPCs provide a neuronal support through physical contacts or release of trophic factors (Figure 3C). We can maintain the co-cultures in acceptable health condition for up to 6 weeks and observe that the synapse number and other neuronal attributes plateau around the fifth week. Of note, astrocytes and microglia are not present in our preparations and their absence can be documented by checking the expression of specific markers (Figure 3D).

to:

Co-culturing of iNs and iOPCs
This protocol is optimized specifically for co-culturing iNs and iOPCs and allow our real-time monitoring of the inter-cellular communications between these two cell types along the course of neural development. The ideal plating densities for both cell types need to be decided with a series of cell number titration to achieve proper differentiation (Figure 3A). After 4 weeks in co-cultures, the iOPCs are expected to be adequately differentiated into OLs that are positive for specific markers such as MBP and extend processes to ensheath axons (Figure 3B). The co-culture system can robustly boost up the number of synapses, indicating that the iOPCs provide a neuronal support through physical contacts or release of trophic factors (Figure 3C). We can maintain the co-cultures in acceptable health condition for up to 6 weeks and observe that the synapse number and other neuronal attributes plateau around the fifth week. Of note, astrocytes and microglia are not present in our preparations and their absence can be documented by checking the expression of specific markers (Figure 3D). The iOPCs express a good number of well-characterized genes that can potentially respond to and mediate the activity-dependent signals from neighboring neurons, in a paracrine (e.g. neurotrophins and metabolites) and/or a synaptic manner (Figure 3E and 3F). 

Disclosures

No conflicts of interest declared.

DOI

Cite this Article

Erratum: Generation of Human Neurons and Oligodendrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Neuron-Oligodendrocyte Interactions. J. Vis. Exp. (166), e6455, (2020).More

Erratum: Generation of Human Neurons and Oligodendrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling Neuron-Oligodendrocyte Interactions. J. Vis. Exp. (166), e6455, (2020).

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