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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Loss-of-function mutations in PNPLA6 encoding neuropathy target esterase underlie pubertal failure and neurological deficits in Gordon Holmes syndrome.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Gordon Holmes syndrome (GHS) is characterized by cerebellar ataxia/atrophy and normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nHH). The underlying pathophysiology of this combined neurodegeneration and nHH remains unknown.
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Mutations in FEZF1 cause Kallmann syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons originate outside the CNS in the olfactory placode and migrate into the CNS, where they become integral components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Disruption of this migration results in Kallmann syndrome (KS), which is characterized by anosmia and pubertal failure due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Using candidate-gene screening, autozygosity mapping, and whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of 30 individuals with KS, we searched for genes newly associated with KS. We identified homozygous loss-of-function mutations in FEZF1 in two independent consanguineous families each with two affected siblings. The FEZF1 product is known to enable axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to penetrate the CNS basal lamina in mice. Because a subset of axons in these tracks is the migratory pathway for GnRH neurons, in FEZF1 deficiency, GnRH neurons also fail to enter the brain. These results indicate that FEZF1 is required for establishment of the central component of the HPG axis in humans.
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Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a novel homozygous nonsense c.C969A (p.Y323X) mutation in the KISS1R gene in three unrelated families.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The spectrum of genetic alterations in cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism continue to expand. However, KISS1R mutations remain rare. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular basis of normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
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A rare variant in human fibroblast activation protein associated with ER stress, loss of enzymatic function and loss of cell surface localisation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a focus of interest as a potential cancer therapy target. This membrane bound protease possesses the unique catalytic activity of hydrolysis of the post-proline bond two or more residues from the N-terminus of substrates. FAP is highly expressed in activated fibroblastic cells in tumours, arthritis and fibrosis. A rare, novel, human polymorphism, C1088T, encoding Ser363 to Leu, occurring in the sixth blade of the ? propeller domain, was identified in a family. Both in primary human fibroblasts and in Ser363LeuFAP transfected cells, we showed that this single substitution ablates FAP dimerisation and causes loss of enzyme activity. Ser363LeuFAP was detectable only in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in contrast to the distribution of wild-type FAP on the cell surface. The variant FAP showed decreased conformational antibody binding, consistent with an altered tertiary structure. Ser363LeuFAP expression was associated with upregulation of the ER chaperone BiP/GRP78, ER stress sensor ATF6, and the ER stress response target phospho-eIF2?, all indicators of ER stress. Proteasomal inhibition resulted in accumulation of Ser363LeuFAP, indicating the involvement of ER associated degradation (ERAD). Neither CHOP expression nor apoptosis was elevated, so ERAD is probably important for protecting Ser363LeuFAP expressing cells. These data on the first loss of function human FAP gene variant indicates that although the protein is vulnerable to an amino acid substitution in the ?-propeller domain, inactive, unfolded FAP can be tolerated by cells.
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Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs.
FEBS Open Bio
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAPs unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ?20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.
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Etiological Evaluation of Patients Presenting with Isolated Micropenis to an Academic Health Care Center.
Indian J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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To evaluate etiology of the patients with micropenis presenting to a tertiary health care center.
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The novel mutation p.Trp147Arg of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein causes classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia with adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorder of sex development.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroidogenesis by mediating cholesterol transfer into mitochondria. Inactivating StAR mutations cause lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
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Neurokinin B signalling in the human reproductive axis.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Recent human genetic studies have established that neurokinin B (NKB) signalling via the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) is required for normal developmental activation of pulsatile GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus. As increasing numbers of patients with loss-of-function mutations have been described, evidence has emerged that peripheral NKB is not necessary for normal pregnancy despite high placental expression and high plasma levels of NKB in late gestation. Nevertheless many key questions about the role of NKB in the function of the GnRH pulse generator remain to be answered. Differences in requirement for NKB/NK3R for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) maturation amongst different species, and their varied responses to stimulation with NKB represent a challenge for higher resolution studies. Neuroanatomical investigation has, however, identified key "KNDy" (Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, Dynorphin) arcuate neurones that are conserved amongst different species and that are intimately connected both to each other and to the GnRH nerve termini. Several lines of evidence suggest that these may be the core of the GnRH pulse generator, and with experimental tools now in place in humans, monkeys and other experimental animals to pursue the function of these interconnected neurones and the functional hierarchy of their neuroendocrine inputs, understanding of the enigmatic GnRH pulse generator may at last be within reach.
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A homozygous recurring mutation in WISP3 causing progressive pseudorheumatoid arthropathy.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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WISP3 is a member of the CCN (for CTGF, CYR61, and NOV) gene family, which encodes cysteine-rich secreted proteins with roles in cell growth and differentiation. Mutations in the WISP3 gene are associated with the autosomal recessive skeletal disorder, also known as progressive pseudorheumatoid arthropathy of childhood (PPAC). We diagnosed three siblings from a non-consanguineous family with PPAC. The patients were asymptomatic in early childhood. Signs and symptoms of disease that include progressive joint stiffness, swelling of the finger joints, and osteopenia, and slow linear growth developed between 2 and 8 years of age. PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the WISP3 gene revealed a homozygous mutation at nucleotide 156 of the WISP3 gene, resulting in a Cys52-to-ter substitution. This mutation has previously been reported in French, Italian, and Arab families. Interestingly, the C52X mutation was found to be associated with a c.248G-->A (G83E) variation, suggesting the existence of a founder effect. By contrast, the presence of the same aberration in three different ethnic groups could imply that this particular site is prone to mutation. Basal fasting concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, as well as glucose and insulin levels revealed no aberrations. In conclusion, consideration of this rare disease that causes significant morbidity with short stature, osteopenia and arthritic complaints would prevent unnecessary examinations and treatment attempts. Testing for this specific mutation in suspected cases could provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis.
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Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in chondroitin synthase 1, a potential target of BMP signaling.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
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Altered Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling leads to multiple developmental defects, including brachydactyly and deafness. Here we identify chondroitin synthase 1 (CHSY1) as a potential mediator of BMP effects. We show that loss of human CHSY1 function causes autosomal-recessive Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome (TPBS), mainly characterized by limb malformations, short stature, and hearing loss. After mapping the TPBS locus to chromosome 15q26-qterm, we identified causative mutations in five consanguineous TPBS families. In zebrafish, antisense-mediated chsy1 knockdown causes defects in multiple developmental processes, some of which are likely to also be causative in the etiology of TPBS. In the inner ears of zebrafish larvae, chsy1 is expressed similarly to the BMP inhibitor dan and in a complementary fashion to bmp2b. Furthermore, unrestricted Bmp2b signaling or loss of Dan activity leads to reduced chsy1 expression and, during epithelial morphogenesis, defects similar to those that occur upon Chsy1 inactivation, indicating that Bmp signaling affects inner-ear development by repressing chsy1. In addition, we obtained strikingly similar zebrafish phenotypes after chsy1 overexpression, which might explain why, in humans, brachydactyly can be caused by mutations leading either to loss or to gain of BMP signaling.
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Novel growth hormone receptor gene mutation in a patient with Laron syndrome.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Growth Hormone (GH) is a 22 kDa protein that has effects on growth and glucose and fat metabolisms. These effects are initiated by binding of growth hormone (GH) to growth hormone receptors (GHR) expressed in target cells. Mutations or deletions in the growth hormone receptor cause an autosomal disorder called Laron-type dwarfism (LS) characterized by high circulating levels of serum GH and low levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We analyzed the GHR gene for genetic defect in seven patients identified as Laron type dwarfism. We identified two missense mutations (S40L and W104R), and four polymorphisms (S473S, L526I, G168G and exon 3 deletion). We are reporting a mutation (W104R) at exon 5 of GHR gene that is not previously reported, and it is a novel mutation.
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Molecular causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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What controls puberty remains largely unknown and current gene mutations account for only about one-third of the apparently genetic cases of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Lately important developments have occurred in this field.
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Neurokinin B and its receptor in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Front Horm Res
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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The hypothalamus integrates multiple environmental and developmental cues relevant to reproductive function, serving to transduce these into a pulsatile output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Although neuroanatomical and physiological studies have yielded key clues about the functional organisation of the so-called GnRH pulse generator, only in the last decade have the molecular components of the circuitry upstream from GnRH begun to be elucidated. A major contributor to this has been human genetics, through identification of mutations causing isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) without developmental defects. The greatest success of this approach was the finding in 2003 that mutations of KISS1R cause IHH, producing a quantum leap in understanding of regulation of GnRH secretion, and energising the field. New evidence has now emerged that loss of function of neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor, the neurokinin-3 receptor, produces IHH of similar severity to that caused by KISS1R mutations in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests that the role of NKB in reproductive function differs significantly between humans and rodents, posing challenges for future studies. We review the human genetics of NKB and its receptor, and discuss the future work required to elucidate their precise role in the regulation of human GnRH secretion.
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Wolcott-Rallison syndrome due to the same mutation (W522X) in EIF2AK3 in two unrelated families and review of the literature.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an early-infancy-onset diabetes mellitus associated with a variety of multisystemic clinical manifestations. Here, we present six patients with WRS, carrying the same homozygous mutation (EIF2AK3-W522X), from two unrelated Turkish families. This is the largest series of patients with the same mutation for this rare syndrome. In this communication we compare clinical features of these six patients with the other 34 patients who have been reported to date, and review the clinical features of WRS. All WRS patients presented first with symptoms of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, with a mean age at onset of 2 months. All patients had skeletal dysplasia or early signs of it, and growth retardation. Many of the patients with WRS have been reported to have developmental delay, mental retardation, and learning difficulties; in contrast, none of our patients showed abnormal development at age up to 30 months. Acute attacks of hepatic failure were reported in 23 cases out of 37 patients; in 15 of those 23 cases an acute attack of renal failure accompanied the liver failure. Exocrine pancreatic deficiency has been reported in only four cases other than our four patients. Central hypothyroidism was observed in six of 28 cases. We propose that central hypothyroidism is not a component of WRS, but rather a reflection of euthyroid sick syndrome. Four of our patients experienced severe neutropenia, compared to only five of the 27 other cases, suggesting that the W522X mutation may be specifically associated with neutropenia. Other than the consistent features of diabetes mellitus and epiphyseal dysplasia, WRS patients are otherwise characterized by extensive phenotypic variability that correlates poorly to genotype.
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Neurokinin B signaling in puberty: human and animal studies.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Recent reports of humans who have normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to TAC3 or TACR3 (encoding neurokinin B and its receptor, NK3R, respectively) mutations provided compelling evidence for the involvement of neurokinin B (NKB) signaling in puberty. This apparently stimulated the field to understand the exact mechanism through which NKB signaling exerts its effects. With the important findings from these recent studies a sketch of GnRH pulse generator has emerged in which NKB signaling appears to play a key role. In this communication, NKB involvement in puberty is reviewed from the perspective of the fundamental question of "what controls puberty?"
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Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a novel missense mutation in the first extracellular loop of the neurokinin B receptor.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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The neurokinin B (NKB) receptor, encoded by TACR3, is widely expressed within the central nervous system, including hypothalamic nuclei involved in regulating GnRH release. We have recently reported two mutations in transmembrane segments of the receptor and a missense mutation in NKB in patients with normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH).
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The recent genetics of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism - novel insights and new questions.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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The complex organization and regulation of the human hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis render it susceptible to dysfunction in the face of a variety of genetic insults, leading to different degrees of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH). Although the genetic basis of some HH was recognized more than 60 years ago the first specific pathogenic defect, in the KAL1 gene, was only identified within the last 20 years. In the past decade, the rate of genetic discovery has dramatically accelerated, with defects in more than 10 genes now associated with HH. Several themes have emerged as the genetic basis of HH has gradually been uncovered, including the association of some genes such as FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2 and PROKR2, both with HH in association with hyposmia/anosmia (Kallmann syndrome) and with normosmic HH, thus blurring the clinical distinction between ontogenic and purely functional defects in the axis. Many examples of digenic inheritance of HH have also been reported, sometimes producing variable reproductive and accessory phenotypes within a family with non-Mendelian inheritance patterns. In strictly normosmic HH, human genetics has made a particularly dramatic impact in the past 6 years through homozygosity mapping in consanguineous families, first through identification of a key role for kisspeptin in triggering GnRH release, and very recently through demonstration of a critical role for neurokinin B in normal sexual maturation. This review summarises current understanding of the genetic architecture of HH, as well as its diagnostic and mechanistic implications.
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Thyroid peroxidase gene mutations causing congenital hypothyroidism in three Turkish families.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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In Turkey congenital hypothyroidism (CH) occurs with a prevalence of one in 2,736 newborns while the worldwide incidence is one in 3,000-4,000 newborns. 85-90% of these cases are due to dysgenesis of the thyroid gland, whereas defects in thyroid hormone synthesis account for 10-15%. The majority of patients with dyshormonogenesis have a defect in thyroid peroxidase (TPO). To date, more than 60 different mutations have been described in the TPO gene, mostly single nucleotide substitutions. Five children from three consanguineous families were diagnosed with CH on the basis of clinical symptoms and signs--goiter, macroglossia and prolonged jaundice at newborn age. Two different mutations in the TPO gene were identified. Affected children in families I and II had a nonsense mutation in exon 10 (R540X). Genotyping of polymorphic markers within the TPO gene revealed that these families shared a common haplotype, suggesting a founder effect. In the third family, a novel mutation (G319R) in exon 8 was identified.
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Metabolic acidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by methanol and amitriptyline intoxication.
Eur J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a widely known acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can be potentially fatal. It is not difficult to diagnose when a patient with DM comes with symptoms such as coma, fruity breath, hyperglycemia, acidosis, and tachypnea. If the patient has not been diagnosed with DM before, then other sicknesses characterized by an increased anion gap should be considered. A 12-year-old boy with type 1 DM and repeated earlier admissions for DKA was admitted to the emergency department in another apparent case of DKA with coma, hyperglycemia, and profound metabolic acidosis. When his condition did not improve with initial treatment, intoxication was suspected as an alternate cause of his condition. Further laboratory tests detected methanol and amitriptyline. The patient underwent hemodialysis and recovered completely. This case illustrates that a seemingly obvious medical condition can mask serious intoxication. This report is the only publication on two different entities characterized by an increased anion gap and at the end the patient has been cured completely without any complications.
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TAC3 and TACR3 mutations in familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism reveal a key role for Neurokinin B in the central control of reproduction.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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The timely secretion of gonadal sex steroids is essential for the initiation of puberty, the postpubertal maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and the normal perinatal development of male external genitalia. Normal gonadal steroid production requires the actions of the pituitary-derived gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. We report four human pedigrees with severe congenital gonadotropin deficiency and pubertal failure in which all affected individuals are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 (encoding Neurokinin B) or its receptor TACR3 (encoding NK3R). Neurokinin B, a member of the substance P-related tachykinin family, is known to be highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons that also express kisspeptin, a recently identified regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. These findings implicate Neurokinin B as a critical central regulator of human gonadal function and suggest new approaches to the pharmacological control of human reproduction and sex hormone-related diseases.
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Relationship between metabolic control and neurocognitive functions in children diagnosed with type I diabetes mellitus before and after 5 years of age.
Turk. J. Pediatr.
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We aimed to investigate the effects of age onset of diabetes, glycemic control and frequency of hypoglycemia on neurocognitive functions in type I diabetic children. Sixty type I diabetic children with diagnosis before (Group 1) or after (Group 2) five years of age and 40 healthy children were tested. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R), Stroop Test, and Visual Auditory Digit Span Test Form B were applied to all children in the two groups. Neurocognitive functions such as visual perception, short-term memory and selective attention were seen to be negatively affected at a significant level. Group 1 patients with poor glycemic control were found to have significant dysfunction in verbal, performance and general intelligence. Neurocognitive functions were negatively affected by early onset of diagnosis, poor glycemic control and frequent hypoglycemia in children with type I diabetes mellitus. We suggest that negative effects on neurocognitive functions in type I diabetes should be considered in the follow-up of these patients.
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Chromium levels in healthy and newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic children.
Pediatr Int
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The aim of this study was to compare the chromium levels of plasma (PCL), erythrocyte (ECL) and urine (UCL) in type 1 diabetics and healthy subjects and to review the relation between metabolic parameters.
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Distribution of gene mutations associated with familial normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol
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Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH) is characterized by failure of initiation or maintenance of puberty due to insufficient gonadotropin release, which is not associated with anosmia/hyposmia. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of causative mutations in a hereditary form of nIHH.
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Inactivating KISS1 mutation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of gonadotropins, which stimulate gonadal function. Hypothalamic neurons that produce kisspeptin and neurokinin B stimulate GnRH release. Inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the human kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R, formerly called GPR54), neurokinin B (TAC3), and the neurokinin B receptor (TACR3) result in pubertal failure. However, human kisspeptin loss-of-function mutations have not been described, and contradictory findings have been reported in Kiss1-knockout mice. We describe an inactivating mutation in KISS1 in a large consanguineous family that results in failure of pubertal progression, indicating that functional kisspeptin is important for puberty and reproduction in humans. (Funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey [TÜB?TAK] and others.).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.