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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Regression from prediabetes to normal glucose regulation is associated with reduction in cardiovascular risk: results from the Diabetes Prevention Program outcomes study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Restoration of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in people with prediabetes significantly decreases the risk of future diabetes. We sought to examine whether regression to NGR is also associated with a long-term decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
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Look inside Look AHEAD: why the glass is more than half-full.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Look AHEAD is the only long-term study in a large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes that assessed the effect of intensive lifestyle, predominantly diet and exercise, on a number of outcomes. While Look AHEAD was not able to detect a significant effect of intensive lifestyle modification on cardiovascular outcomes, it clearly demonstrated numerous beneficial and sustained effects on health outcomes that are relevant to this population. Without the exceptional retention of study participants, it would have been difficult to detect these benefits. Our review provides a perspective on aspects related to exercise, diet, and weight loss in relation to cardiovascular outcomes and potential future research.
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Lifestyle and metformin interventions have a durable effect to lower CRP and tPA levels in the diabetes prevention program except in those who develop diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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We evaluate whether lifestyle and metformin interventions used to prevent diabetes have durable effects on markers of inflammation and coagulation and whether the effects are influenced by the development of diabetes.
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Baseline adiponectin levels do not influence the response to pioglitazone in ACT NOW.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. We examined whether plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and after pioglitazone treatment in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were associated with improved insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose tolerance status.
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Long-term impact of behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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It is unknown whether intentional weight loss provides long-term benefits for cognitive function.
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Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying nonresponders to an intensive lifestyle intervention.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. The utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes was examined.
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Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Reduces Urinary Incontinence in Overweight/Obese Men with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Trial.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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We determined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the prevalence, incidence and resolution of bothersome nocturia, increased daytime urinary voiding and urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes after 1 year in the Look AHEAD trial.
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Prediction of diabetes based on baseline metabolic characteristics in individuals at high risk.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined which characteristics at baseline predicted the development of T2DM versus maintenance of IGT or conversion to normal glucose tolerance.
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Prevention of diabetes with pioglitazone in ACT NOW: physiologic correlates.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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We examined the metabolic characteristics that attend the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 441 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects who participated in the ACT NOW Study and had complete end-of-study metabolic measurements. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone (PGZ; 45 mg/day) or placebo and were observed for a median of 2.4 years. Indices of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index [MI]), insulin secretion (IS)/insulin resistance (IR; ?I0-120/?G0-120, ?IS rate [ISR]0-120/?G0-120), and ?-cell function (?I/?G × MI and ?ISR/?G × MI) were calculated from plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations during oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and study end. Diabetes developed in 45 placebo-treated vs. 15 PGZ-treated subjects (odds ratio [OR] 0.28 [95% CI 0.15-0.49]; P < 0.0001); 48% of PGZ-treated subjects reverted to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus 28% of placebo-treated subjects (P < 0.005). Higher final glucose tolerance status (NGT > IGT > T2DM) was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.54-0.80]), IS (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.50-0.75]), and ?-cell function (ln IS/IR index and ln ISR/IR index) (OR 0.26 [95% CI 0.19-0.37]; all P < 0.0001). Of the factors measured, improved ?-cell function was most closely associated with final glucose tolerance status.
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Do genetic modifiers of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels also modify their response to a lifestyle intervention in the setting of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus?: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides are cardiovascular risk factors susceptible to lifestyle behavior modification and genetics. We hypothesized that genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies as associated with HDL-C or triglyceride levels modify 1-year treatment response to an intensive lifestyle intervention, relative to a usual care of diabetes mellitus support and education.
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Effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on sexual dysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes: results from an ancillary Look AHEAD study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Sexual dysfunction is a prevalent problem in obese women with type 2 diabetes. This study examined the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in these women.
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Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
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Coronary artery bypass grafting: a precipitating factor for perioperative diabetic ketoacidosis.
Int J Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is a common disease entity in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is not only one of the major complications of Diabetes Mellitus but also a significant challenging clinical entity for the patients undergoing any elective or emergency surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) being done in a patient with DKA has not been reported. We are presenting a rare case with DKA in whom CABG was carried out in a hospital devoted exclusively to cardiac cases. Insulin was given in very large doses as a part of therapeutic regimen and the outcome was favorable. This report concludes that if a patient undergoing urgent cardiac surgery incidentally develops DKA after induction of anesthesia, then the operation can be carried out provided DKA is managed aggressively. Also, major stress factors like cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypothermia should be avoided and care should be taken to avoid cerebral edema.
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The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ?40 kg/m(2)) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus, nonsurgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared with overweight (25 ?BMI <30), class I (30 ?BMI <35), and class II obese (35 ?BMI <40) participants.
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Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of ?-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points (glucoregulation, oxidative stress [dichlorofluorescein], lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde], proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6], adipokines, and resting energy expenditure [REE]) with high protein-low carbohydrate (HP) and high carbohydrate-low protein (HC) diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention.
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Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Rates of severe obesity (BMI ?40 kg/m(2)) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed. We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diabetes who were severely obese compared with overweight (BMI 25 to <30 kg/m(2)), class I (BMI 30 to <35 kg/m(2)), and class II (BMI 35 to <40 kg/m(2)) obese participants.
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Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions.
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Evidence-based management of hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The hyperglycemic emergencies, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are potentially fatal complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The incidence of DKA and the economic burden of its treatment continue to rise, but its associated mortality rate which was uniformly high has diminished remarkably over the years. This Improvement in outcome is largely due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic emergencies and the application of evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of patients. In this article, we present a critical review of the evidence behind the recommendations that have resulted in the improved prognosis of patients with hyperglycemic crises. A succinct discussion of the pathophysiology and important etiological factors in DKA and HHS are provided as a prerequisite for understanding the rationale for the effective therapeutic maneuvers employed in these acute severe metabolic conditions. The evidence for the role of preventive measures in DKA and HHS is also discussed. The unanswered questions and future research needs are also highlighted.
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Pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in impaired glucose tolerance.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance.
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Management of type 2 diabetes: evolving strategies for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at an alarming rate around the world, with even more people being affected by prediabetes. Although the pathogenesis and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are fairly well known, its treatment has remained challenging, with only half of the patients achieving the recommended hemoglobin A(1c) target. This narrative review explores the pathogenetic rationale for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with the view of fostering better understanding of the evolving treatment modalities. The diagnostic criteria including the role of hemoglobin A(1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes are discussed. Due attention is given to the different therapeutic maneuvers and their utility in the management of the diabetic patient. The evidence supporting the role of exercise, medical nutrition therapy, glucose monitoring, and antiobesity measures including pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery is discussed. The controversial subject of optimum glycemic control in hospitalized and ambulatory patients is discussed in detail. An update of the available pharmacologic options for the management of type 2 diabetes is provided with particular emphasis on newer and emerging modalities. Special attention has been given to the initiation of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes, with explanation of the pathophysiologic basis for insulin therapy in the ambulatory diabetic patient. A review of the evidence supporting the efficacy of the different preventive measures is also provided.
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A comparison study of continuous insulin infusion protocols in the medical intensive care unit: computer-guided vs. standard column-based algorithms.
J Hosp Med
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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To compare the safety and efficacy of continuous insulin infusion (CII) via a computer-guided and a standard paper form protocol in a medical intensive care unit (ICU).
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Effects of oral and intravenous fat load on blood pressure, endothelial function, sympathetic activity, and oxidative stress in obese healthy subjects.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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We compared the effects of high and low oral and intravenous (iv) fat load on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, autonomic nervous system, and oxidative stress in obese healthy subjects. Thirteen obese subjects randomly received five 8-h infusions of iv saline, 20 (32 g, low iv fat) or 40 ml/h intralipid (64 g, high iv fat), and oral fat load at 32 (low oral) or 64 g (high oral). Systolic BP increased by 14 ± 10 (P = 0.007) and 12 ± 9 mmHg (P = 0.007) after low and high iv lipid infusions and by 13 ± 17 (P = 0.045) and 11 ± 11 mmHg (P = 0.040) after low and high oral fat loads, respectively. The baseline flow-mediated dilation was 9.4%, and it decreased by 3.8 ± 2.1 (P = 0.002) and 4.1 ± 3.1% (P < 0.001) after low and high iv lipid infusion and by 3.8 ± 1.8 (P = 0.002) and 5.0 ± 2.5% (P < 0.001) after low and high oral fat load, respectively. Oral and iv fat load stimulated oxidative stress, increased heart rate, and decreased R-R interval variability. Acute iv fat load decreased blood glucose by 6-10 mg/dl (P < 0.05) without changes in insulin concentration, whereas oral fat increased plasma insulin by 3.7-4.0 ?U/ml (P < 0.01) without glycemic variations. Intravenous saline and both oral and iv fat load reduced leptin concentration from baseline (P < 0.01). In conclusion, acute fat load administered orally or intravenously significantly increased blood pressure, altered endothelial function, and activated sympathetic nervous system by mechanisms not likely depending on changes in leptin, glucose, and insulin levels in obese healthy subjects. Thus, fat load, independent of its source, has deleterious hemodynamic effects in obese subjects.
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Acidosis: the prime determinant of depressed sensorium in diabetic ketoacidosis.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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The etiology of altered sensorium in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to determine the origin of depressed consciousness in DKA.
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Effects of intravenous glucose load on insulin secretion in patients with ketosis-prone diabetes during near-normoglycemia remission.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Most patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) discontinue insulin therapy and remain in near-normoglycemic remission. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glucotoxicity on beta-cell function during remission in obese patients with KPD.
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Lack of lipotoxicity effect on {beta}-cell dysfunction in ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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OBJECTIVE Over half of newly diagnosed obese African Americans with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) discontinue insulin therapy and go through a period of near-normoglycemia remission. This subtype of diabetes is known as ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate the role of lipotoxicity on beta-cell function, eight obese African Americans with KPDM, eight obese subjects with type 2 diabetes with severe hyperglycemia without ketosis (ketosis-resistant type 2 diabetes), and nine nondiabetic obese control subjects underwent intravenous infusion of 20% intralipid at 40 ml/h for 48 h. beta-Cell function was assessed by changes in insulin and C-peptide concentration during infusions and by changes in acute insulin response to arginine stimulation (AIR(arg)) before and after lipid infusion. RESULTS The mean time to discontinue insulin therapy was 11.0 +/- 8.0 weeks in KPDM and 9.6 +/- 2.2 weeks in ketosis-resistant type 2 diabetes (P = NS). At remission, KPDM and ketosis-resistant type 2 diabetes had similar glucose (94 +/- 14 vs. 109 +/- 20 mg/dl), A1C (5.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 6.3 +/- 1.1%), and baseline AIR(arg) response (34.8 +/- 30 vs. 64 +/- 69 microU/ml). P = NS despite a fourfold increase in free fatty acid (FFA) levels (0.4 +/- 0.3 to 1.8 +/- 1.1 mmol/l, P < 0.01) during the 48-h intralipid infusion; the response to AIR(arg) stimulation, as well as changes in insulin and C-peptide levels, were similar among obese patients with KPDM, patients with ketosis-resistant type 2 diabetes, and nondiabetic control subjects. CONCLUSIONS Near-normoglycemia remission in obese African American patients with KPDM and ketosis-resistant type 2 diabetes is associated with a remarkable recovery in basal and stimulated insulin secretion. A high FFA level by intralipid infusion for 48 h was not associated with beta-cell decompensation (lipotoxicity) in KPDM patients.
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Effects of weight loss intervention on erectile function in older men with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD trial.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2009
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Overweight men with diabetes often report erectile dysfunction (ED), but few studies have examined effects of weight loss on this problem.
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Actos Now for the prevention of diabetes (ACT NOW) study.
BMC Endocr Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a prediabetic state. If IGT can be prevented from progressing to overt diabetes, hyperglycemia-related complications can be avoided. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether pioglitazone (ACTOS) can prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a prospective randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial.
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The association of ENPP1 K121Q with diabetes incidence is abolished by lifestyle modification in the diabetes prevention program.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Insulin resistance is an important feature of type 2 diabetes. Ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) inhibits insulin signaling, and a recent meta-analysis reported a nominal association between the Q allele in the K121Q (rs1044498) single nucleotide polymorphism in its gene ENPP1 and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE AND INTERVENTION: We examined the impact of this polymorphism on diabetes incidence as well as insulin secretion and sensitivity at baseline and after treatment with a lifestyle intervention or metformin vs. placebo in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND OUTCOME: We genotyped ENPP1 K121Q in 3548 DPP participants and performed Cox regression analyses using genotype, intervention, and interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence.
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Intravenous intralipid-induced blood pressure elevation and endothelial dysfunction in obese African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Increased free fatty acids (FFAs) are leading candidates in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hypertension in obese subjects. We evaluated the effect of sustained elevations of FFA on blood pressure, endothelial function, insulin secretion, inflammatory markers, and renin-angiotensin system.
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Proinflammatory cytokines in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemic stress in healthy subjects.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Hyperglycemic crises of diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperglycemia are associated with elevation of counterregulatory hormones and proinflammatory cytokines, markers of lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress. To investigate if other conditions besides hyperglycemia could evoke such a prompt increase in cytokine levels, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress markers, we induced hypoglycemic stress by standard insulin tolerance test and measured proinflammatory cytokines, markers of lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and counterregulatory hormones. Insulin tolerance test was performed in 13 healthy male subjects with no history of infection, cardiovascular risk factors, or abnormal glucose. At baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after insulin injection, the following parameters were measured: glucose, cortisol, corticotropin, epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE), growth hormone, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, IL-8, free fatty acids, white blood cells, lipid peroxidation markers by thiobarbituric acid assay, and ROS by dichlorofluorescein method. The peak value of white blood cell count at 120 minutes was significantly associated with the peak values of NE at 30 minutes and cortisol at 60 minutes. By comparing the area under the curve of measured parameters, EP emerged as significant predictor of TNF-alpha (P = .05) and IL-8 (P = .027). Cortisol emerged as predictor of IL-1beta significantly (P = .05). Corticotropin predicted area under the curve of IL-6 with borderline significance (P = .06). In the present study, insulin-induced hypoglycemia in nondiabetic male subjects is associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8), markers of lipid peroxidation, ROS, and leukocytosis. Elevations of NE, EP, corticotropin, and cortisol in hypoglycaemia are associated with the elevation of the proinflammatory cytokines and leukocytosis.
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Pioglitazone slows progression of atherosclerosis in prediabetes independent of changes in cardiovascular risk factors.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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To determine whether changes in standard and novel risk factors during the Actos Now for Prevention of Diabetes trial explained the slower rate of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) progression with pioglitazone treatment in persons with prediabetes.
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Patterns of weight change associated with long-term weight change and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Look AHEAD Study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
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This article provides an assessment of the associations that weight-loss patterns during the first year of an intensive lifestyle intervention have with 4-year maintenance and health outcomes. Two components described patterns of weight change during the first year of intervention: one reflected the typical pattern of weight loss over the 12 months, but distinguished those who lost larger amounts across the monthly intervals from those who lost less. The second component reflected the weight change trajectory, and distinguished a pattern of initial weight loss followed by regain vs. a more sustained pattern of weight loss. Two thousand four hundred and thirty eight individuals aged 45-76 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who enrolled in the weight-loss intervention of a randomized clinical trial, were assigned scores according to how their weight losses reflected these patterns. Relationships these scores had with weight losses and health outcomes (glycosolated hemoglobin--hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides) over 4 years were described. When compared to those with lower scores on the two components, both individuals who had larger month-to-month weight losses in year 1 and whose weight loss was more sustained during the first year had better maintenance of weight loss over 4 years, independent of characteristics traditionally linked to weight loss success (P < 0.001). While relationships with year 4 weight loss were stronger, the pattern of larger monthly weight loss during year 1 was also independently predictive of year 4 levels of HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure.
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Safety of rapid-acting insulin analogs versus regular human insulin.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
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Insulin is the most effective treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are several differences in the safety profiles of each type of insulin, including rapid-acting insulin analogs and regular human insulin. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of those insulin types also differ, as do their safety parameters. Treatment with rapid-acting analogs results in less hypoglycemia overall and decreased frequency of both severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. In addition, the more rapid onset and shorter duration of action of rapid-acting insulin analogs are associated with greater control of postprandial glucose than regular human insulin. This review will describe the similarities and differences between the safety profiles of rapid-acting insulin analogs.
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Venous Serum Bicarbonate Concentration Predicts Arterial pH in Adults with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Endocr Pract
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Objective: Initial assessment of metabolic acidosis in subjects with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is performed using arterial blood gas analysis. This process is expensive, painful and technically difficult. Furthermore, blood gas analysis may not be available in some facilities especially in developing countries where the morbidity and mortality from DKA remain high. Therefore we investigated the utility of venous bicarbonate concentration obtained from basic metabolic panel in predicting arterial pH in adults with DKA.Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical data of 396 adults admitted with DKA in two community teaching hospitals. We determined the correlation between arterial pH and venous serum parameters. Using multiple logistic regression module we obtained a predictive formula for arterial pH from serum venous bicarbonate level.Results: The patient population was composed of 59.0% males and had mean age of 36.7 ± 13.3 years. We derived that arterial pH = 6.97 + (0.0163 x bicarbonate); applying this equation, we determined that serum venous bicarbonate concentration of ? 20.6 mEq/L predicted arterial pH of ? 7.3 with over 95% sensitivity and 92% accuracy.Conclusion: Venous serum bicarbonate obtained from the basic metabolic panel proved to be an affordable and reliable way of estimating arterial pH in adults with DKA. Validation of this formula in a prospective study would offer a more accessible means of estimating metabolic acidosis in adults with DKA especially in developing countries where the incidence and mortality of DKA remain high.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.