JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transcatheter closure of a traumatic ventricular septum defect resulting from a stab wound.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2015
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 25-year-old man with a ventricular septal defect resulting from a stab wound to his chest was admitted to our hospital. Because of extensive comorbidity and favourable location, transcatheter closure with an Amplatzer device was preferred over surgical repair. Ventricular septal defects are an uncommon complication of cardiac trauma, but when they do occur from this cause, they often have more dramatic consequences. Transcatheter closure is an attractive, less-invasive alternative in patients with increased surgical risk, multiple previous surgical interventions, or poorly accessible defects.
Related JoVE Video
Paediatric subvalvular aortic stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of natural history and surgical outcome.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sub-valvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is a common form of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, which can lead to aortic valve damage. Although surgery for SAS is an accepted treatment, the timing of surgical intervention of SAS remains controversial. This review aims to establish an overview of the natural history and outcome after surgery and factors associated with prognosis in paediatric SAS patients. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies that reported factors that negatively affected the prognosis of patients with SAS. Studies were included if they were written in English, published between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 and the mean patient age was <18 years at the time of study entry. Studies were excluded if the study size was <20 patients. A distinction was made between natural history and surgical cohorts. Twenty-four studies were included in this review, encompassing a total of 809 natural history and 1476 surgical patients. Fifty-one percent of natural history patients required surgery. After surgery, there was a substantial reoperation rate. Higher LVOT gradient and the presence of aortic regurgitation (AR) were identified as the foremost independent predictors of a worse outcome. Valve-to-membrane distance was also found to be associated with prognosis, although the results were contradictory. This systematic review underlines the importance of LVOT gradient, aortic valve-to-membrane distance and AR in surgical decision-making in paediatric SAS patients. There is need for collaborative effort to further study the optimal timing of surgery based on LVOT gradient, valve-to-membrane distance and the presence of AR.
Related JoVE Video
Potent Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques Induced by Nonviral Delivery of a Self-amplifying RNA Vaccine Expressing HIV Type 1 Envelope With a Cationic Nanoemulsion.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Self-amplifying messenger RNA (mRNA) of positive-strand RNA viruses are effective vectors for in situ expression of vaccine antigens and have potential as a new vaccine technology platform well suited for global health applications. The SAM vaccine platform is based on a synthetic, self-amplifying mRNA delivered by a nonviral delivery system. The safety and immunogenicity of an HIV SAM vaccine encoding a clade C envelope glycoprotein formulated with a cationic nanoemulsion (CNE) delivery system was evaluated in rhesus macaques. The HIV SAM vaccine induced potent cellular immune responses that were greater in magnitude than those induced by self-amplifying mRNA packaged in a viral replicon particle (VRP) or by a recombinant HIV envelope protein formulated with MF59 adjuvant, anti-envelope binding (including anti-V1V2), and neutralizing antibody responses that exceeded those induced by the VRP vaccine. These studies provide the first evidence in nonhuman primates that HIV vaccination with a relatively low dose (50 µg) of formulated self-amplifying mRNA is safe and immunogenic.
Related JoVE Video
Ratio of intratumoral macrophage phenotypes is a prognostic factor in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tumor micro-environment and especially the different macrophage phenotypes appear to be of great influence on the behavior of multiple tumor types. M1 skewed macrophages possess anti-tumoral capacities, while the M2 polarized macrophages have pro-tumoral capacities. We analyzed if the macrophage count and the M2 to total macrophage ratio is a discriminative marker for outcome after surgery in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and studied the prognostic value of these immunological cells.
Related JoVE Video
Bicuspid aortic valve: phosphorylation of c-Kit and downstream targets are prognostic for future aortopathy.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical course of many patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is complicated by ascending aortic dilatation. Currently, the indication for aortic surgery is solely based on the aortic diameter and subsequently only a small proportion of BAV patients undergoing valve surgery require concomitant ascending aortic replacement based on these recommendations. Unfortunately, a substantial number of BAV patients still develop aortic dilatation in the future and would potentially benefit from a more aggressive approach towards ascending aortic replacement. We, therefore, designed this study to identify molecular biological markers in the aortic wall predictive of aortopathy in BAV.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical outcome and blood transfusion after infant cardiac surgery with a routine use of conventional ultrafiltration.
Perfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Priming-related hemodilution is the culprit behind excessive body water accumulation, postoperative coagulopathy and enhanced blood transfusion in infant cardiac surgery patients. In this retrospective, observational study, clinical data were analyzed to assess the effect of conventional ultrafiltration on allogenic blood transfusion and patient clinical outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Does pharmacotherapy influence the inflammatory responses during cardiopulmonary bypass in children?
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) by factors such as contact of the blood with the foreign surface of the extracorporeal circuit, hypothermia, reduction of pulmonary blood flow during CPB and endotoxemia. SIRS is maintained in the postoperative phase, co-occurring with a counter anti-inflammatory response syndrome. Research on the effects of drugs administered before the surgery, especially in the induction phase of anesthesia, as well as drugs used during extracorporeal circulation, has revealed that they greatly influence these postoperative inflammatory responses. A better understanding of these processes may not only improve postoperative recovery but also enable tailor-made pharmacotherapy, with both health and economic benefits. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of SIRS and counter anti-inflammatory response syndrome in the light of CPB in children and the influence of drugs used on these syndromes.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiologist and cardiac surgeon view on decision-making in prosthetic aortic valve selection: does profession matter?
Neth Heart J
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Assess and compare among Dutch cardiothoracic surgeons and cardiologists: opinion on (1) patient involvement, (2) conveying risk in aortic valve selection, and (3) aortic valve preferences.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of race training on volumetric bone mineral density and its spatial distribution in the distal epiphysis of the third metatarsal bone of 2-year-old horses.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study was to use spatial and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to describe and compare the regional proportion and spatial pattern of volumetric bone mineral density (BMDv) values within loaded regions of the plantar metatarsal epiphysis of young horses in race training. A single 2?mm transverse peripheral quantitative computed tomography 'slice', 10?mm proximal from the distal limit of the sagittal ridge of the distal metatarsal epiphysis was obtained from 14 2-year-old Thoroughbred fillies (7 exercised and 7 controls). Six regions of interest were generated and examined for relative BMDv using MCA. The spatial distribution of BMDv was statistically examined at two sites loaded by the proximal sesamoid bones using geographical information software. The BMDv response was focal with distinct regional differences in relation to load. Deposition of new bone within existing high density bone contributed to a greater bone fraction and the distinct profile of clusters of uniformly distributed high density bone as well as a lower proportion of lower density bone in exercised horses. The MCA and spatial analysis provided statistical techniques to quantify and describe non-invasively the exercise induced changes in bone that had previously been described using microradiography of thin slices and by block-face imaging. These statistical techniques may prove useful in quantifying spatial patterns of response to load.
Related JoVE Video
Thyrotropin acts as a T-cell developmental factor in mice and humans.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using gene expression profiling, we detected differential thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) expression during human T-cell development in the thymus. This expression pattern indicated a potential role for the TSH-R within the thymus, independent of its function in the thyroid gland. Here, we demonstrate that TSH-R expression is thymus-specific within the immune system. TSH was able to bind and activate the TSH-R present on thymocytes, thereby activating calcium signaling and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways. Mice lacking functional TSH-R expression (hyt/hyt mice) were shown to have lower frequencies of DP and SP thymocytes compared to their heterozygous littermates. Moreover, addition of TSH to co-cultures of human thymocytes enhanced T-cell development. Thus, TSH acts as a previously unrecognized growth factor for developing T cells, with potential clinical use to enhance thymic output and thereby the functional T-cell repertoire in the periphery. The direct effects of TSH on thymocytes may also explain the thus far enigmatic thymic hyperplasia in Graves' disease.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term outcomes of transatrial-transpulmonary repair of tetralogy of Fallot.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The surgical approach to repair of tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) has shifted over the years. We aimed to report the long-term follow-up after ToF repair with the transatrial-transpulmonary approach and to determine predictors of long-term outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Survival and Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Stage I-II Treated Surgically or with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: Patient and Tumor-Specific Factors Affect the Prognosis.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was designed to define clinical baseline parameters associated with impaired survival of patients with stage I or II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).
Related JoVE Video
Experimental infection of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a European strain of West Nile virus.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infects humans and other mammals. In some cases WNV causes severe neurological disease. During recent years, outbreaks of WNV are increasing in worldwide distribution and novel genetic variants of the virus have been detected. Although a substantial amount of data exists on WNV infections in rodent models, little is known about early events during WNV infection in primates, including humans. To gain a deeper understanding of this process, we performed experimental infections of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a virulent European WNV strain (WNV-Ita09) and monitored virological, hematological, and biochemical parameters. WNV-Ita09 productively infected both monkey species, with higher replication and wider tissue distribution in common marmosets compared to rhesus macaques. The animals in this study however, did not develop clinical signs of WNV disease, nor showed substantial deviations in clinical laboratory parameters. In both species, the virus induced a rapid CD56dimCD16bright natural killer response, followed by IgM and IgG antibody responses. The results of this study show that healthy rhesus macaques and common marmosets are promising animal models to study WNV-Ita09 infection. Both models may be particularly of use to evaluate potential vaccine candidates or to investigate WNV pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
The natural and unnatural history of the Mustard procedure: long-term outcome up to 40 years.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe long-term survival, clinical outcome and ventricular systolic function in a longitudinally followed cohort of patients after Mustard repair for transposition of the great arteries (TGA). There is serious concern about the long-term outcome after Mustard repair.
Related JoVE Video
Retrospective serology study of respiratory virus infections in captive great apes.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera) were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus), H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV, hMPV, and influenza B virus. A high percentage of captive chimpanzees also showed evidence of influenza A H1N1 infections, and had low levels of H3N2 antibodies, while in sera from gorillas and orangutans antibody levels to influenza A and B viruses were much lower or practically absent. Transmission of respiratory viruses was examined in longitudinal sera of young chimpanzees, and in chimpanzee sera taken during health checks. In young animals isolated cases of influenza infections were monitored, but evidence was found for single introductions followed by a rapid dissemination of RSV and hMPV within the group. Implementation of strict guidelines for handling and housing of nonhuman primates was shown to be an efficient method to reduce the introduction of respiratory infections in colonies of captive animals. RSV seroprevalence rates of chimpanzees remained high, probably due to circulating virus in the chimpanzee colony.
Related JoVE Video
Minimally invasive atrial septal defect closure.
Multimed Man Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common congenital cardiac disorder requiring intervention. Nowadays, most defects are closed percutaneously, but there will always remain defects that have to be closed surgically. In the past, techniques other than the standard median sternotomy approach have been advocated such as axial thoracotomy, lateral thoracotomy and limited sternotomy. In the last years, an increasing number of techniques of video-assisted mini-thoracotomy or full thoracoscopic methods including robotic-assisted operations have been described. Here, we describe and illustrate our experience with a video-assisted approach using femoral cannulation and a small thoracotomy for closure of an ASD. With this method, it is easy to perform a (additional) tricuspid valve operation at the same time, should this be indicated.
Related JoVE Video
HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts: an update.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, and especially in developing countries. The link between cervical cancer and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been clearly established. Furthermore, non-oncogenic HPV are responsible for the majority of genital warts. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, which have the potential of considerably reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines are based on virus-like particles of the L1 capsid protein, and are highly efficacious and immunogenic if given before exposure to HPV, i.e. to adolescent girls between 9 and 13 years of age in a three-dose schedule. This review describes the immunology of natural HPV infections and the immune response evoked through vaccination. The current duration of protection is 8.4 years with the bivalent vaccine (HPV16/18) and 5 years with the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18). Research is on-going to evaluate the efficacy of the current vaccines in a two-dose schedule, as compared to the recommended three-dose schedule. To increase the protection, the development and testing of a nine-valent prophylactic HPV vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) is being undertaken. Research is also directed towards therapeutic vaccines and the development of a prophylactic L2 vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
Capturing echocardiographic allograft valve function over time after allograft aortic valve or root replacement.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study describes echocardiographic allograft valve function over time in a cohort of patients who were prospectively followed after allograft aortic valve or root replacement, illustrating the use of longitudinal data analysis for assessing valve function over time.
Related JoVE Video
Exercise capacity in children after total cavopulmonary connection: lateral tunnel versus extracardiac conduit technique.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In patients with univentricular heart disease, the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is the preferred treatment. TCPC can be performed using the intra-atrial lateral tunnel (ILT) or extracardiac conduit (ECC) technique. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate exercise capacity in contemporary TCPC patients and compare the results between the 2 techniques.
Related JoVE Video
Ascending aorta dilation in association with bicuspid aortic valve: a maturation defect of the aortic wall.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve have increased susceptibility to the development of ascending aortic dilation and dissection compared with persons with a tricuspid valve. To unravel a possible different mechanism underlying dilation in bicuspidy and tricuspidy, a comparison of the structure of the aortic wall was made.
Related JoVE Video
Vaccine-Induced Protection of Rhesus Macaques against Plasma Viremia after Intradermal Infection with a European Lineage 1 Strain of West Nile Virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) causes human and animal disease with outbreaks in several parts of the world including North America, the Mediterranean countries, Central and East Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Particularly in elderly people and individuals with an impaired immune system, infection with WNV can progress into a serious neuroinvasive disease. Currently, no treatment or vaccine is available to protect humans against infection or disease. The goal of this study was to develop a WNV-vaccine that is safe to use in these high-risk human target populations. We performed a vaccine efficacy study in non-human primates using the contemporary, pathogenic European WNV genotype 1a challenge strain, WNV-Ita09. Two vaccine strategies were evaluated in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using recombinant soluble WNV envelope (E) ectodomain adjuvanted with Matrix-M, either with or without DNA priming. The DNA priming immunization was performed with WNV-DermaVir nanoparticles. Both vaccination strategies successfully induced humoral and cellular immune responses that completely protected the macaques against the development of viremia. In addition, the vaccine was well tolerated by all animals. Overall, The WNV E protein adjuvanted with Matrix-M is a promising vaccine candidate for a non-infectious WNV vaccine for use in humans, including at-risk populations.
Related JoVE Video
Strong vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses have cytolytic function in a chimpanzee clearing HCV infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A single correlate of effective vaccine protection against chronic HCV infection has yet to be defined. In this study, we analyzed T-cell responses in four chimpanzees, immunized with core-E1-E2-NS3 and subsequently infected with HCV1b. Viral clearance was observed in one animal, while the other three became chronically infected. In the animal that cleared infection, NS3-specific CD8 T-cell responses were observed to be more potent in terms of frequency and polyfunctionality of cytokine producing cells. Unique to this animal was the presence of killing-competent CD8 T-cells, specific for NS3 1258-1272, being presented by the chimpanzee MHC class I molecule Patr-A*03?01, and a high affinity recognition of this epitope. In the animals that became chronically infected, T-cells were able to produce cytokines against the same peptide but no cytolysis could be detected. In conclusion, in the animal that was able to clear HCV infection not only cytokine production was observed but also cytolytic potential against specific MHC class I/peptide-combinations.
Related JoVE Video
Patient age at the ross operation in children influences aortic root dimensions and aortic regurgitation.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ross operation provides the advantage of growth potential of the pulmonary autograft in the aortic position. However, development of autograft dilatation and regurgitation may occur. We sought to assess the progression of autograft diameters and aortic regurgitation (AR) with regard to patient age at the time of the Ross operation.
Related JoVE Video
First trimester size charts of embryonic brain structures.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Can reliable size charts of human embryonic brain structures be created from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) visualizations?
Related JoVE Video
DNA/long peptide vaccination against conserved regions of SIV induces partial protection against SIVmac251 challenge.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We recently developed a HIVconsv vaccine strategy, consisting of combined conserved regions of HIV-1, to adequately cover viral diversity. To evaluate efficacy in nonhuman primates, an equivalent SIV-derived immunogen SIVconsv was designed and delivered as plasmid DNA or synthetic long peptides.
Related JoVE Video
Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology: results of the PALMS study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing.
Related JoVE Video
Probiotics enhance the clearance of human papillomavirus-related cervical lesions: a prospective controlled pilot study.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Probiotics have been proposed for a number of urogenital infectious conditions. In this study, we examine a possible effect on human papillomavirus (HPV)-related precancerous lesions in cervical cytology. We conducted a prospective controlled pilot study, in which 54 women with an HPV+low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion diagnosis in their PAP smear were followed for 6 months. The intervention group consumed a daily probiotic drink during the study period; the control group received no treatment, according to common care policy. Outcome measures were the control PAP smear and HPV status after 6 months. Probiotic users had a twice as high chance of clearance of cytological abnormalities (60 vs. 31%, P=0.05). HPV was cleared in 19% of control patients versus 29% of probiotic users (P=0.41). This exploratory pilot study suggests that the probiotic studied promotes the clearance of HPV-related cytological abnormalities. If confirmed, this would represent an entirely new option to manage cervical cancer precursors.
Related JoVE Video
DNA microarray and quantitative analysis reveal enhanced myocardial VEGF expression with stunted angiogenesis in human tetralogy of Fallot.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is a cyanotic congenital heart disease with prominent right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) associated with impaired myocardial oxygen and nutrient supply. Consequently, the right ventricle may manifest in altered molecular phenotype with a number of adaptive and inherited gene profiles which are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the myocardial differential gene expression profile and to assess myocardial vascularisation in patients with ToF. DNA microarray analysis on right ventricular biopsies from ToF-patients operated for primary corrective surgery (referred as ToF-1; n = 12, mean age 0.5 year) and age matched controls (n = 6) was validated by Northern hybridisation and RT-PCR. Employing immunohistochemistry and video image analysis expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density (by ?-SMA and CD31 staining) and myocyte cross sectional area (Gomoris reticuline staining) were assessed in ToF-1 and adult patients (referred as ToF-2, n = 12, mean age 30 years) who underwent surgery for pulmonary regurgitation and compared the data with respective age matched controls (n = 6/12). DNA microarray analysis revealed altered expression pattern for 236 genes including enhanced (1.5-2.2-fold) expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors including; VEGF, flt-1, flk-1 angiopoietin-2, FGF-2, FGF-R1, PDGF-A, whereas, flt-4, Tie, TGF-?, TGF-?3R showed decreased (1.6-3.4-fold) expression in ToF-patients. Northern blot analysis verified the expression patterns of VEGF and flk-1 in both ToF-1 and ToF-2 patients. VEGF staining in cardiomyocytes was increased in ToF-1 (1.5-fold, p < 0.05) as compared to ToF-2. Video image analysis revealed enhanced vascular density (p < 0.01) with enlarged myocyte cross sectional area (p < 0.01), but vascular wall thickness remained unchanged in ToF-1 patients as compared to age matched controls. Our data suggest that RVH is associated with profound changes in gene profile for a number of genes, where VEGF/VEGF-R system contributes to enhance, but stunted myocardial angiogenesis in patients with ToF.
Related JoVE Video
Multivessel coronary artery disease: quantifying how recent trials should influence clinical practice.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The majority (70%) of coronary revascularizations concern patients with multivessel disease (MVD). Treatment options include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). CABG surgery has been shown to improve survival compared with medical therapy. PCI relieves angina compared with medical therapy and is equivalent to CABG in low complex MVD. Other benefits are currently being evaluated in ongoing trials. In complex MVD, CABG results in lower rates of long-term mortality, myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization compared with PCI. These results are more pronounced in diabetics and in patients with lesions that are anatomically more complex. The application of the results of clinical trials may be limited due to restrictive eligibility criteria. Comparative effectiveness studies are, therefore, needed to complement the results of trials, but also have inherent limitations. Inappropriateness criteria provide an important tool to measure how evidence from trials, large registries and guidelines is integrated in clinical practice. Checklists and decision aids may also lead to better application of the latest evidence and lower rates of inappropriate use. Decision-making is centered around heart team discussions and risk scores. Economic considerations will increasingly be included in decision-making, since the economic impact of ischemic heart disease is high and the growth of healthcare expenditure is unsustainable. In this context, CABG is associated with higher upfront costs, but is economically attractive at long-term follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Ventricular response to dobutamine stress relates to the change in peak oxygen uptake during the 5-year follow-up in young patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the additional value of dobutamine stress testing in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) by relating stress imaging parameters at baseline to relevant parameters of clinical condition and right ventricular (RV) size during a serial follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Diversity of HPV types in cancerous and pre-cancerous penile lesions of South African men: Implications for future HPV vaccination strategies.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study reports the detection of HPV types from cancerous and pre-cancerous penile lesions that were diagnosed histologically. Sixty-six (22 pre-cancerous and 44 cancerous lesions) tissue biopsies, received between 2004 and 2011 by the Anatomical Pathology Department at Dr. George Mukhari Hospital were selected for this study. Total DNA was extracted and genotyped using type specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 18 HPV types. Of 66 samples, only 51 were included in the analysis. Overall, HPV 11 (50.9%) and HPV 16 (49.1%) showed almost similar incidence in the study patients. In pre-cancerous lesions, HPV 11 was more frequent (80.0%), followed by HPV 31 and HPV 16 at 25.0% each and other HPV types included 35 (15.0%), 59 (15.0%), 53 (10.0%), 33 (10.0%), 18 (5.0%), 51 (5.0%), 52 (5.0%), 56 (5.0%), and 67 (5.0%). For cancerous lesions, HPV 16 was the most detected (62.9%), followed by HPV 11 (34.3%), and other HPV types included 18 (11.4%), 33 (5.7%), 39 (5.7%), 45 (5.7%), 66 (5.7%), 52 (2.9%), 58 (2.9%), 6 (2.9%), and 67 (2.9%). Several lesions demonstrated multiple HPV infections, ranging from two to six different types in one lesion. The study showed high diversity of HPV types in cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions of South African males with the most frequent being HPV types 11 and 16. The data suggest that boys could directly benefit from vaccination as they are exposed to variety of HPV types as early as 10 years of age in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 86:257-265, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term psychosocial outcome of adults with tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries: a historical comparison.
Cardiol Young
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: To make a historical comparison on the long-term psychosocial outcome of cardiothoracic surgery during childhood. Methods: Adult patients operated for tetralogy of Fallot or transposition of the great arteries between 1980 and 1990 (recent sample) were compared with patients who underwent surgery and were investigated 10 years earlier (historical sample). In addition, atrial switch and arterial switch patients within the recent sample were compared. Psychosocial functioning was measured using standardised, validated psychological questionnaires. Results: Although the recent sample of patients overall shows a favourable quality of life, impairments were found in income, living conditions, relationships, offspring, and occupational level. Compared with the historical sample, the recent sample showed no significant improvements on psychosocial functioning, except for a better educational level. The amount of educational problems, such as learning difficulties, was still high compared with normative data. Recently operated patients with transposition of the great arteries (arterial switch) scored significantly better on the Short Form-36 vitality scale (p = 0.02) compared with historical patients with transposition of the great arteries (atrial switch). Conclusions: Despite improvements in medical treatment over the past few decades, hardly any change was found in the psychosocial outcome of the recent patient sample compared with the historical patient sample. In particular, the percentage of patients needing special education and showing learning problems remained high, whereas income was low compared with normative data.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of aortic valve replacement on quality of life in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Neth Heart J
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis have a high disease burden and guidelines recommend aortic valve replacement, many are treated conservatively. This study describes to what extent quality of life is changed by aortic valve replacement relative to conservative treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic and epigenetic determinants mediate proneness of oncogene breakpoint sites for involvement in TCR translocations.
Genes Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T-cell receptor (TCR) translocations are a genetic hallmark of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lead to juxtaposition of oncogene and TCR loci. Oncogene loci become involved in translocations because they are accessible to the V(D)J recombination machinery. Such accessibility is predicted at cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS) sites (Type 1) as well as other sites that are subject to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) (Type 2) during early stages of thymocyte development. As chromatin accessibility markers have not been analyzed in the context of TCR-associated translocations, various genetic and epigenetic determinants of LMO2, TAL1 and TLX1 translocation breakpoint (BP) sites and BP cluster regions (BCRs) were examined in human thymocytes to establish DSB proneness and heterogeneity of BP site involvement in TCR translocations. Our data show that DSBs in BCRs are primarily induced in the presence of a genetic element of sequence vulnerability (cRSSs, transposable elements), whereas breaks at single BP sites lacking such elements are more likely induced by chance or perhaps because of patient-specific genetic vulnerability. Vulnerability to obtain DSBs is increased by features that determine chromatin organization, such as methylation status and nucleosome occupancy, although at different levels at different BP sites.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 5 December 2013; doi:10.1038/gene.2013.63.
Related JoVE Video
5-year serial follow-up of clinical condition and ventricular function in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the changes over time in biventricular size and function, and clinical parameters in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) without subsequent pulmonary valve replacement (PVR).
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of soil-transmitted helminth infection intensity and drug efficacy.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In veterinary parasitology samples are often pooled for a rapid assessment of infection intensity and drug efficacy. Currently, studies evaluating this strategy in large-scale drug administration programs to control human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), are absent. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pooling strategy to assess intensity of STH infections and drug efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transcatheter heart valve replacement is an attractive and promising technique for congenital as well as acquired heart valve disease. In this procedure, the replacement valve is mounted in a stent that is expanded at the aimed valve position and fixated by clamping. However, for this technique to be appropriate for pediatric patients, the material properties of the host tissue need to be determined to design stents that can be optimized for this particular application. In this study we performed equibiaxial tensile tests on four adult ovine pulmonary artery walls and compared the outcomes with one pediatric pulmonary artery. Results show that the pediatric pulmonary artery was significantly thinner (1.06 ± 0.36 mm (mean ± SD)) than ovine tissue (2.85 ± 0.40 mm), considerably stiffer for strain values that exceed the physiological conditions (beyond 50% strain in the circumferential and 60% in the longitudinal direction), more anisotropic (with a significant difference in stiffness between the longitudinal and circumferential directions beyond 60% strain) and presented stronger non-linear stress-strain behavior at equivalent strains (beyond 26% strain) compared to ovine tissue. These discrepancies suggest that stents validated and optimized using the ovine pre-clinical model might not perform satisfactorily in pediatric patients. The material parameters derived from this study may be used to develop stent designs for both applications using computational models.
Related JoVE Video
Sexual functioning is impaired in adults with congenital heart disease.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the overall sexual functioning and disease specific sexual problems in congenital heart disease (ConHD) patients, for both genders and different cardiac diagnostic groups, and compare these with Dutch normative data. Also disease specific sexual problems were investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple human papillomavirus infections with high viral loads are associated with cervical lesions but do not differentiate grades of cervical abnormalities.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in smears of different grades of cervical neoplasia. Describing the association between multiple infections and cervical disease is important in generating hypotheses regarding its pathogenesis. We analyzed the prevalence of multiple HPV infections and their attribution to cervical disease in a screening population of 999 consecutive BD SurePath liquid-based cervical cytology samples enriched with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (n = 100), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (n = 100), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) (n = 97). HPV genotyping was performed only on cytology specimens using a broad-spectrum GP5(+)/6(+)-PCR/multiplex HPV genotyping (BSGP5(+)/6(+)-PCR/MPG) assay that detects and quantifies 51 HPV genotypes and 3 subtypes. Using a recently defined high viral load cutoff, the quantitative data were scored as high or low viral load. In the 36-month follow-up, 79 histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) cases were identified. In the screening population, there was a trend of having more multiple infections at a younger age. Multiple HPV infections were common. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in LSIL (75.9% of HPV positives), followed by HSIL (65.5%), ASCUS (64.6%), and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) (36.8%). On average, 3.2 and 2.5 HPV types were detected per LSIL and HSIL sample, respectively. Multiple HPV types with high viral loads were most prevalent in LSIL (62.6% of high viral load positives), followed by HSIL (51.9%), ASCUS (40.7%), and NILM (19.3%). Patients with multiple high viral loads showed a 4- to 6-fold-higher risk of having cervical precancerous cytological lesions than did patients with single high viral loads. Compared to NILM, multiple infections, especially with multiple high viral loads, were significantly associated with cytological precancerous lesions. However, the presence of multiple infections did not distinguish low-grade from high-grade cytological lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Single-centre experience with mitral valve repair in asymptomatic patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guidelines recommend surgical mitral valve repair in selected patients with asymptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR), but the role of repair remains a matter of debate. Survival analyses of operated asymptomatic patients have been reported, but long-term haemodynamics and quality of life are not well defined. The aim of this study was to report the long-term follow-up focusing on these aspects.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical outcome of discrete subaortic stenosis in adults: a multicenter study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Discrete subaortic stenosis is notable for its unpredictable hemodynamic progression in childhood and high reoperation rate; however, data about adulthood are scarce.
Related JoVE Video
The rationale for Heart Team decision-making for patients with stable, complex coronary artery disease.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stable complex coronary artery disease can be treated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or medical therapy. Multidisciplinary decision-making has gained more emphasis over the recent years to select the most optimal treatment strategy for individual patients with stable complex coronary artery disease. However, the so-called Heart Team concept has not been widely implemented. Yet, decision-making has shown to remain suboptimal; there is large variability in PCI-to-CABG ratios, which may predominantly be the consequence of physician-related factors that have raised concerns regarding overuse, underuse, and inappropriate selection of revascularization. In this review, we summarize these and additional data to support the statement that a multidisciplinary Heart Team consisting of at least a clinical/non-invasive cardiologist, interventional cardiologist, and cardiac surgeon, can together better analyse and interpret the available diagnostic evidence, put into context the clinical condition of the patient as well as consider individual preference and local expertise, and through shared decision-making with the patient can arrive at a most optimal joint treatment strategy recommendation for patients with stable complex coronary artery disease. In addition, other aspects of Heart Team decision-making are discussed: the organization and logistics, involvement of physicians, patients, and assisting personnel, the need for validation, and its limitations.
Related JoVE Video
Reactive oxygen species and the cardiovascular system.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ever since the discovery of free radicals, many hypotheses on the deleterious actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed. However, increasing evidence advocates the necessity of ROS for cellular homeostasis. ROS are generated as inherent by-products of aerobic metabolism and are tightly controlled by antioxidants. Conversely, when produced in excess or when antioxidants are depleted, ROS can inflict damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Such a state of oxidative stress is associated with many pathological conditions and closely correlated to oxygen consumption. Although the deleterious effects of ROS can potentially be reduced by restoring the imbalance between production and clearance of ROS through administration of antioxidants (AOs), the dosage and type of AOs should be tailored to the location and nature of oxidative stress. This paper describes several pathways of ROS signaling in cellular homeostasis. Further, we review the function of ROS in cardiovascular pathology and the effects of AOs on cardiovascular outcomes with emphasis on the so-called oxidative paradox.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of life among patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Neth Heart J
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The disease burden of patients with severe aortic stenosis is not often explored, while the incidence is increasing and many patients who have an indication for aortic valve replacement are not referred for surgery. We studied the quality of life of 191 patients with severe aortic stenosis, hypothesising that symptomatic patients have a far worse quality of life than the general population, which could enforce the indication for surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term outcome and quality of life after arterial switch operation: a prospective study with a historical comparison.
Congenit Heart Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AIM.: The study aims to describe the long-term cardiological and psychological results of our first surgical cohort of arterial switch operation (ASO) patients and compare the results with our earlier series of Mustard patients. METHODS.: Twenty-four survivors of ASO operated in our center (1985-1990) were evaluated by electrocardiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, exercise testing, 24-hour Holter-monitoring, and health-related quality of life questionnaire. The results were compared with 58 adult Mustard patients who were evaluated in 2001 using the same study protocol. RESULTS.: Arterial switch operation was performed at a median age of 13 days and Mustard operation at 2 years. Median follow-up was 22 years (range 20-25) and 25 years (22-29), respectively. After ASO, survival was better (P =.04). The event-free survival after 22 years was 77% after ASO vs. 44% after Mustard (P =.03). Good systemic ventricular function was present in 93% after ASO vs. 6% after Mustard (P <.01). Exercise capacity in ASO was 85% of predicted, compared with 72% in Mustard patients (P =.01). Aortic regurgitation was found in 21% of ASO patients vs. 16% in Mustard patients. Arterial switch patients vs. Mustard patients reported significantly better quality of life and less somatic complaints. CONCLUSION.: The progression made in surgical treatment for transposition of the great arteries from Mustard to ASO has had a positive impact on survival, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and also self-reported quality of life and somatic complaints. Longer follow-up is warranted to monitor aortic regurgitation.
Related JoVE Video
Aortic stenosis in the elderly: disease prevalence and number of candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a meta-analysis and modeling study.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of aortic stenosis (AS) in the elderly and to estimate the current and future number of candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
Related JoVE Video
Viral load of high-risk human papillomaviruses as reliable clinical predictor for the presence of cervical lesions.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (Hr-HPV) can cause malignant transformation of the human cervical epithelium. HPV DNA tests generally are very sensitive to detect cervical neoplastic lesions but also identify transient HPV infections. As a consequence, the specificity and positive predictive value are low.
Related JoVE Video
The TRPM6/EGF pathway is downregulated in a rat model of cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia is described in humans and rats, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates Mg(2+) re-absorption in the distal convoluted tubule via the Mg(2+) channel TRPM6. This study investigates the role of TRPM Mg(2+) channels, claudines, and EGF in the Mg(2+) homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Wistar rats were given 2.5 mg/kg cisplatin per week for 3 weeks and were euthanized 4 or 9 weeks after the first administration. The cisplatin treatment significantly increased the fractional excretion of Mg(2+). Real-time RT-PCR and/or Western blots were performed to assess the renal expression TRPM6, TRPM7, claudin-16, claudin-19, EGF, EGF receptor (EGFR) and EGFR-pathway components. The renal mRNA expression of TRPM6 and EGF showed a significant decrease after cisplatin treatment, while the TRPM7, claudin-16 and EGFR expressions remained stable. The claudin-19 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated after cisplatin treatment. Western blotting confirmed the mRNA expression data for the claudins, but an showed upregulation of EGFR only at week 9. The role of the EGFR pathway, involving Pi3-AKT-Rac1, in cisplatin-induced nephropathy, could not be substantiated in further detail. This study shows that cisplatin treatment results in EGF and TRPM6 downregulation in the rat kidney, causing renal Mg(2+) loss. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that EGF influences the renal expression or activation of TRPM6 and plays a significant role in Mg(2+) loss in medication-induced nephropathy.
Related JoVE Video
Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and Cytological Abnormalities of the Cervix in Low Risk Women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) an inducing factor for the development of (pre-)cancerous lesions of the cervix?
Related JoVE Video
In vitro neutralization of low dose inocula at physiological concentrations of a monoclonal antibody which protects macaques against SHIV challenge.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Passive transfer of antibodies can be protective in the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)--rhesus macaque challenge model. The human monoclonal antibody IgG1 b12 neutralizes human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro and protects against challenge by SHIV. Our hypothesis is that neutralizing antibodies can only completely inactivate a relatively small number of infectious virus.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic imprint of vaccination on simian/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted viral genomes in rhesus macaques.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the genetic, antigenic and structural changes that occur during HIV-1 infection in response to pre-existing immunity will facilitate current efforts to develop an HIV-1 vaccine. Much is known about HIV-1 variation at the population level but little with regard to specific changes occurring in the envelope glycoprotein within a host in response to immune pressure elicited by antibodies. The aim of this study was to track and map specific early genetic changes occurring in the viral envelope gene following vaccination using a highly controlled viral challenge setting in the SHIV macaque model. We generated 449 full-length env sequences from vaccinees, and 63 from the virus inoculum. Analysis revealed a different pattern in the distribution and frequency of mutations in the regions of the envelope gene targeted by the vaccine as well as different patterns of diversification between animals in the naïve control group and vaccinees. Given the high stringency of the model it is remarkable that we were able to identify genetic changes associated with the vaccination. This work provides insight into the characterization of breakthrough viral populations in less than fully efficacious vaccines and illustrates the value of HIV-1 Env SHIV challenge model in macaques to unravel the mechanisms driving HIV-1 envelope genetic diversity in the presence of vaccine induced-responses.
Related JoVE Video
Complications of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in pregnant women in The Netherlands: a national cohort study.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic caused an increase in complications in pregnant women. To be well prepared for a next pandemic, we investigated the obstetric and maternal complications of this pandemic. In our national cohort of 59 pregnant women who were admitted to the hospital, no major complications apart from preterm birth and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were observed. Although the small size of this study precludes us drawing any definitive conclusions, comparing our results with those in other countries suggests that the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic had a relatively benign course in pregnant women in The Netherlands.
Related JoVE Video
Washing of irradiated red blood cells in paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: is it clinically useful? A retrospective audit.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the introduction of smaller cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits for paediatrics, it is frequently necessary to add irradiated red blood cell concentrate (IRBC) to maintain adequate haemoglobin levels and the oxygen carrying capacity. Irradiation of blood weakens the cell membranes and results in an increase of lactate and potassium concentration. In addition, prolonged shelf time of IRBC may enhance its lactate level. To avoid the adverse effects of increased lactate and potassium concentration during paediatric bypass, prewashing of homologous blood in a cell-saving device was implemented at our institution. A retrospective audit of clinical data was performed to assess the relevance of this method.
Related JoVE Video
Protection in macaques immunized with HIV-1 candidate vaccines can be predicted using the kinetics of their neutralizing antibodies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A vaccine is needed to control the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). An in vitro assay that can predict the protection induced by a vaccine would facilitate the development of such a vaccine. A potential candidate would be an assay to quantify neutralization of HIV-1.
Related JoVE Video
Herpesvirus saimiri infection of rhesus macaques: a model for acute rhadinovirus-induced t-cell transformation and oncogenesis.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) causes acute lymphoma and leukemia upon experimental infection of various monkey species. HVS strain C488 is also capable of transforming human T-lymphocytes to stable growth in culture. The most susceptible species for oncogenesis are New World primates, in particular the cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). However, Old World monkeys such as macaques are the most used animal model for the close-to-human situation. The limited data on HVS infection in Old World monkeys prompted us to investigate susceptibility to infection and disease induction by HVS in macaques. After having established that rhesus macaques can be infected productively, and that rhesus T-cells can be transformed in vivo by HVS, we observed induction of lymphoma in all inoculated animals. Pre-existing humoral immunity in part of the rhesus colony capable of blocking HVS infection could be overcome by preselecting rhesus macaques for lack of this immunity of unknown origin. HVS infection of rhesus macaques as compared to that of New World monkeys has the advantages that disease progression is more prolonged, and larger blood volumes can be collected, which allows more extended analyses. Also, rhesus monkeys are the best immunologically and immunogenetically characterized primate species next to humans. This model could be useful for the evaluation of candidate tumor vaccines and to test novel approaches for cancer immunotherapy. In addition, HVS infection of macaques could eventually be useful as a surrogate model to address certain questions in rhadinovirus-induced human cancer such as effusion lymphoma or Kaposis sarcoma.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular evolution analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope in simian/human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques: implications for challenge dose selection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since the demonstration that almost 80% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections result from the transmission of a single variant from the donor, biological features similar to those of HIV mucosal transmission have been reported for macaques inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Here we describe the early diversification events and the impact of challenge doses on viral kinetics and on the number of variants transmitted in macaques infected with the chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(sf162p4). We show that there is a correlation between the dose administered and the number of variants transmitted and that certain inoculum variants are preferentially transmitted. This could provide insight into the viral determinants of transmission and could aid in vaccine development. Challenge through the mucosal route with high doses results in the transmission of multiple variants in all the animals. Such an unrealistic scenario could underestimate potential intervention measures. We thus propose the use of molecular evolution analysis to aid in the determination of challenge doses that better mimic the transmission dynamics seen in natural HIV-1 infection.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput detection, genotyping and quantification of the human papillomavirus using real-time PCR.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The establishment of the causal relationship between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of HPV DNA detection systems. Currently, real-time PCR assays for the detection of HPV, such as the RealTime High Risk (HR) HPV assay (Abbott) and the cobas® 4800 HPV Test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics) are commercially available. However, none of them enables the detection and typing of all HR-HPV types in a clinical high-throughput setting. This paper describes the laboratory workflow and the validation of a type-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for high-throughput HPV detection, genotyping and quantification. This assay is routinely applied in a liquid-based cytology screening setting (700 samples in 24 h) and was used in many epidemiological and clinical studies.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of renal distal tubule transporters TRPM6 and NCC in a rat model of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity and effect of EGF treatment.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) loss are well-known side effects of cyclosporine (CsA) treatment in humans, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Recently, it was shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates Mg(2+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) via TRPM6 (Thébault S, Alexander RT, Tiel Groenestege WM, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. J Am Soc Nephrol 20: 78-85, 2009). In the DCT, the final adjustment of renal sodium excretion is regulated by the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which is activated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced hypomagnesemia and hyponatremia. Therefore, the renal expression of TRPM6, TRPM7, EGF, EGF receptor, claudin-16, claudin-19, and the NCC, and the effect of the RAAS on NCC expression, were analyzed in vivo in a rat model of CsA nephrotoxicity. Also, the effect of EGF administration on these parameters was studied. CsA significantly decreased the renal expression of TRPM6, TRPM7, NCC, and EGF, but not that of claudin-16 and claudin-19. Serum aldosterone was significantly lower in CsA-treated rats. In control rats treated with EGF, an increased renal expression of TRPM6 together with a decreased fractional excretion of Mg(2+) (FE Mg(2+)) was demonstrated. EGF did not show this beneficial effect on TRPM6 and FE Mg(2+) in CsA-treated rats. These data suggest that CsA treatment affects Mg(2+) homeostasis via the downregulation of TRPM6 in the DCT. Furthermore, CsA downregulates the NCC in the DCT, associated with an inactivation of the RAAS, resulting in renal sodium loss.
Related JoVE Video
Habenula volume in post-traumatic stress disorder measured with high-resolution MRI.
Biol Mood Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The habenula plays an important role in regulating behavioral responses to stress and shows increased cerebral blood flow and decreased gray matter volume in patients with mood disorders. Here, we compare the volume of the habenula in unmedicated patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy controls (HC) using MRI.
Related JoVE Video
Surgery in current therapy for infective endocarditis.
Vasc Health Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The introduction of the Duke criteria and transesophageal echocardiography has improved early recognition of infective endocarditis but patients are still at high risk for severe morbidity or death. Whether an exclusively antibiotic regimen is superior to surgical intervention is subject to ongoing debate. Current guidelines indicate when surgery is the preferred treatment, but decisions are often based on physician preferences. Surgery has shown to decrease the risk of short-term mortality in patients who present with specific symptoms or microorganisms; nevertheless even then it often remains unclear when surgery should be performed. In this review we i) systematically reviewed the current literature comparing medical to surgical therapy to evaluate if surgery is the preferred option, ii) performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting propensity matched analyses, and iii), briefly summarized the current indications for surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Intraoperative glycemic control without insulin infusion during pediatric cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many studies are reporting that the occurrence of hyperglycemia in the postoperative period is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in children after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. This study sought to determine blood glucose levels in standard pediatric cardiac anesthesiological management without insulin infusions.
Related JoVE Video
Prior knowledge of HPV status improves detection of CIN2+ by cytology screening.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the study was to investigate whether knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) deoxyribonucleic acid test results increases sensitivity of guided cytology screening for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-2 or higher-grade cervical lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term outcome of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with bicuspidalized homografts.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Given the shortage of small-sized cryopreserved homografts for right ventricle (RV) to pulmonary artery (PA) reconstructions, more readily available larger-sized homografts can be used after size reduction by bicuspidalization. The aim of our study was to determine and compare function over time of standard and bicuspidalized homografts in infants younger than 12 months, including patients with a Ross or extended Ross procedure.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular analysis of a novel simian virus 40 (SV40) type in rhesus macaques and evidence for double infections with the classical SV40 type.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) and in uninfected animals was determined using PCR. Rates varied from 5% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of uninfected monkeys to 19.6% in SHIV-infected macaques. Much higher detection rates, up to 75%, were found in lymph nodes and spleen samples of SHIV-infected animals. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that they form two genetic clusters, one containing the majority of known SV40 strains and the other formed by variants with 7% genetic difference. Based on this difference, we propose two SV40 types: "type 1" or "classical type" for the majority of SV40 strains and "type 2" for the novel SV40 variants. The genome of one variant, SV40-Ri257, was completely sequenced and analyzed. The agnogene of SV40-Ri257 extends into the VP2 open reading frame and encodes a typical agnoprotein fused to a C-terminal hydrophobic region. The transcriptional control region (TCR) of SV40-Ri257 is the least conserved region compared to type 1 viruses. Particularly, the 3 end of the TCR, containing the early promoter and enhancer region, exhibits considerable variation. Further analysis of SHIV-infected macaques with type-specific PCRs revealed that the TCR of type 1 was completely conserved, whereas this region in type 2 varied considerably within the early enhancer region. We provide evidence here for the existence of a novel SV40 type in rhesus macaques and show that double infections with both types frequently occur.
Related JoVE Video
Right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with an allograft conduit in patients after tetralogy of Fallot correction: long-term follow-up.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) pulmonary regurgitation is a frequent complication after initial repair. The objective of the present study was to describe the long-term experience with the use of allograft conduits for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction after correction of TOF in our institution.
Related JoVE Video
BD-ProExC as adjunct molecular marker for improved detection of CIN2+ after HPV primary screening.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the efficacy of 8 cervical cancer screening strategies relative to cytology with emphasis on immunocytochemical detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-induced cell transformation (BD-ProExC) as a tool of triage following primary cytology or hrHPV testing. 3,126 women were tested with BD-SurePath liquid-based cytology, hrHPV PCR genotyping and BD-ProExC immunostaining, and colposcopy verification to calculate sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2(+)).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.