JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mutant PIK3CA accelerates HER2-driven transgenic mammary tumors and induces resistance to combinations of anti-HER2 therapies.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ERBB2) amplification and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) mutations often co-occur in breast cancer. Aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been shown to correlate with a diminished response to HER2-directed therapies. We generated a mouse model of HER2-overexpressing (HER2(+)), PIK3CA(H1047R)-mutant breast cancer. Mice expressing both human HER2 and mutant PIK3CA in the mammary epithelium developed tumors with shorter latencies compared with mice expressing either oncogene alone. HER2 and mutant PIK3CA also cooperated to promote lung metastases. By microarray analysis, HER2-driven tumors clustered with luminal breast cancers, whereas mutant PIK3CA tumors were associated with claudin-low breast cancers. PIK3CA and HER2(+)/PIK3CA tumors expressed elevated transcripts encoding markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem cells. Cells from HER2(+)/PIK3CA tumors more efficiently formed mammospheres and lung metastases. Finally, HER2(+)/PIK3CA tumors were resistant to trastuzumab alone and in combination with lapatinib or pertuzumab. Both drug resistance and enhanced mammosphere formation were reversed by treatment with a PI3K inhibitor. In sum, PIK3CA(H1047R) accelerates HER2-mediated breast epithelial transformation and metastatic progression, alters the intrinsic phenotype of HER2-overexpressing cancers, and generates resistance to approved combinations of anti-HER2 therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Endothelial-like properties of claudin-low breast cancer cells promote tumor vascular permeability and metastasis.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The vasculature serves as the main conduit for breast tumor metastases and is a target of therapeutics in many tumor types. In this study, we aimed to determine if tumor-associated vascular properties could help to explain the differences observed in metastagenicity across the intrinsic subtypes of human breast tumors. Analysis of gene expression signatures from more than 3,000 human breast tumors found that genomic programs that measured vascular quantity, vascular proliferation, and a VEGF/Hypoxia-signature were the most highly expressed in claudin-low and basal-like tumors. The majority of the vascular gene signatures added metastasis-predictive information to immunohistochemistry-defined microvessel density scores and genomically defined-intrinsic subtype classification. Interestingly, pure claudin-low cell lines, and subsets of claudin-low-like cells within established basal-like cancer cell lines, exhibited endothelial/tube-like morphology when cultured on Matrigel. In vivo xenografts found that claudin-low tumors, but not luminal tumors, extensively perfused injected contrast agent through paracellular spaces and non-vascular tumor-lined channels. Taken together, the endothelial-like characteristics of the cancer cells, combined with both the amount and the physiologic state of the vasculature contribute to breast cancer metastatic progression. We hypothesize that the genetic signatures we have identified highlight patients that should respond most favorably to anti-vascular agents.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptomic classification of genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer identifies human subtype counterparts.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of multiple molecular subtypes. Genetically engineered mouse models are a useful resource for studying mammary cancers in vivo under genetically controlled and immune competent conditions. Identifying murine models with conserved human tumor features will facilitate etiology determinations, highlight the effects of mutations on pathway activation, and should improve preclinical drug testing.
Related JoVE Video
Conditional loss of ErbB3 delays mammary gland hyperplasia induced by mutant PIK3CA without affecting mammary tumor latency, gene expression, or signaling.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110? catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have been shown to transform mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Studies suggest this transforming activity requires binding of mutant p110? via p85 to phosphorylated YXXM motifs in activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or adaptors. Using transgenic mice, we examined if ErbB3, a potent activator of PI3K, is required for mutant PIK3CA-mediated transformation of MECs. Conditional loss of ErbB3 in mammary epithelium resulted in a delay of PIK3CA(H1047R)-dependent mammary gland hyperplasia, but tumor latency, gene expression, and PI3K signaling were unaffected. In ErbB3-deficient tumors, mutant PI3K remained associated with several tyrosyl phosphoproteins, potentially explaining the dispensability of ErbB3 for tumorigenicity and PI3K activity. Similarly, inhibition of ErbB RTKs with lapatinib did not affect PI3K signaling in PIK3CA(H1047R)-expressing tumors. However, the p110?-specific inhibitor BYL719 in combination with lapatinib impaired mammary tumor growth and PI3K signaling more potently than BYL719 alone. Furthermore, coinhibition of p110? and ErbB3 potently suppressed proliferation and PI3K signaling in human breast cancer cells harboring PIK3CA(H1047R). These data suggest that PIK3CA(H1047R)-driven tumor growth and PI3K signaling can occur independently of ErbB RTKs. However, simultaneous blockade of p110? and ErbB RTKs results in superior inhibition of PI3K and mammary tumor growth, suggesting a rational therapeutic combination against breast cancers harboring PIK3CA activating mutations.
Related JoVE Video
A potential role for glucose transporters in the evolution of human brain size.
Brain Behav. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Differences in cognitive abilities and the relatively large brain are among the most striking differences between humans and their closest primate relatives. The energy trade-off hypothesis predicts that a major shift in energy allocation among tissues occurred during human origins in order to support the remarkable expansion of a metabolically expensive brain. However, the molecular basis of this adaptive scenario is unknown. Two glucose transporters (SLC2A1 and SLC2A4) are promising candidates and present intriguing mutations in humans, resulting, respectively, in microcephaly and disruptions in whole-body glucose homeostasis. We compared SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 expression between humans, chimpanzees and macaques, and found compensatory and biologically significant expression changes on the human lineage within cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, consistent with mediating an energy trade-off. We also show that these two genes are likely to have undergone adaptation and participated in the development and maintenance of a larger brain in the human lineage by modulating brain and skeletal muscle energy allocation. We found that these two genes show human-specific signatures of positive selection on known regulatory elements within their 5-untranslated region, suggesting an adaptation of their regulation during human origins. This study represents the first case where adaptive, functional and genetic lines of evidence implicate specific genes in the evolution of human brain size.
Related JoVE Video
A pipeline to determine RT-QPCR control genes for evolutionary studies: application to primate gene expression across multiple tissues.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because many species-specific phenotypic differences are assumed to be caused by differential regulation of gene expression, many recent investigations have focused on measuring transcript abundance. Despite the availability of high-throughput platforms, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) is often the method of choice because of its low cost and wider dynamic range. However, the accuracy of this technique heavily relies on the use of multiple valid control genes for normalization. We created a pipeline for choosing genes potentially useful as RT-QPCR control genes for measuring expression between human and chimpanzee samples across multiple tissues, using published microarrays and a measure of tissue-specificity. We identified 13 genes from the pipeline and from commonly used control genes: ACTB, USP49, ARGHGEF2, GSK3A, TBP, SDHA, EIF2B2, GPDH, YWHAZ, HPTR1, RPL13A, HMBS, and EEF2. We then tested these candidate genes and validated their expression stability across species. We established the rank order of the most preferable set of genes for single and combined tissues. Our results suggest that for at least three tissues (cerebral cortex, liver, and skeletal muscle), EIF2B2, EEF2, HMBS, and SDHA are useful genes for normalizing human and chimpanzee expression using RT-QPCR. Interestingly, other commonly used control genes, including TBP, GAPDH, and, especially ACTB do not perform as well. This pipeline could be easily adapted to other species for which expression data exist, providing taxonomically appropriate control genes for comparisons of gene expression among species.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative expression analysis of the phosphocreatine circuit in extant primates: Implications for human brain evolution.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While the hominid fossil record clearly shows that brain size has rapidly expanded over the last ~2.5 M.yr. the forces driving this change remain unclear. One popular hypothesis proposes that metabolic adaptations in response to dietary shifts supported greater encephalization in humans. An increase in meat consumption distinguishes the human diet from that of other great apes. Creatine, an essential metabolite for energy homeostasis in muscle and brain tissue, is abundant in meat and was likely ingested in higher quantities during human origins. Five phosphocreatine circuit proteins help regulate creatine utilization within energy demanding cells. We compared the expression of all five phosphocreatine circuit genes in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and skeletal muscle tissue for humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. Strikingly, SLC6A8 and CKB transcript levels are higher in the human brain, which should increase energy availability and turnover compared to non-human primates. Combined with other well-documented differences between humans and non-human primates, this allocation of energy to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum may be important in supporting the increased metabolic demands of the human brain.
Related JoVE Video
Both noncoding and protein-coding RNAs contribute to gene expression evolution in the primate brain.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite striking differences in cognition and behavior between humans and our closest primate relatives, several studies have found little evidence for adaptive change in protein-coding regions of genes expressed primarily in the brain. Instead, changes in gene expression may underlie many cognitive and behavioral differences. Here, we used digital gene expression: tag profiling (here called Tag-Seq, also called DGE:tag profiling) to assess changes in global transcript abundance in the frontal cortex of the brains of 3 humans, 3 chimpanzees, and 3 rhesus macaques. A substantial fraction of transcripts we identified as differentially transcribed among species were not assayed in previous studies based on microarrays. Differentially expressed tags within coding regions are enriched for gene functions involved in synaptic transmission, transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Importantly, because Tag-Seq technology provides strand-specific information about all polyadenlyated transcripts, we were able to assay expression in noncoding intragenic regions, including both sense and antisense noncoding transcripts (relative to nearby genes). We find that many noncoding transcripts are conserved in both location and expression level between species, suggesting a possible functional role. Lastly, we examined the overlap between differential gene expression and signatures of positive selection within putative promoter regions, a sign that these differences represent adaptations during human evolution. Comparative approaches may provide important insights into genes responsible for differences in cognitive functions between humans and nonhuman primates, as well as highlighting new candidate genes for studies investigating neurological disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Combined PI3K/mTOR and MEK inhibition provides broad antitumor activity in faithful murine cancer models.
Clin. Cancer Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anticancer drug development is inefficient, but genetically engineered murine models (GEMM) and orthotopic, syngeneic transplants (OST) of cancer may offer advantages to in vitro and xenograft systems.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative oncogenomics implicates the neurofibromin 1 gene (NF1) as a breast cancer driver.
Genetics
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying genomic alterations driving breast cancer is complicated by tumor diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Relevant mouse models are powerful for untangling this problem because such heterogeneity can be controlled. Inbred Chaos3 mice exhibit high levels of genomic instability leading to mammary tumors that have tumor gene expression profiles closely resembling mature human mammary luminal cell signatures. We genomically characterized mammary adenocarcinomas from these mice to identify cancer-causing genomic events that overlap common alterations in human breast cancer. Chaos3 tumors underwent recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs), particularly deletion of the RAS inhibitor Neurofibromin 1 (Nf1) in nearly all cases. These overlap with human CNAs including NF1, which is deleted or mutated in 27.7% of all breast carcinomas. Chaos3 mammary tumor cells exhibit RAS hyperactivation and increased sensitivity to RAS pathway inhibitors. These results indicate that spontaneous NF1 loss can drive breast cancer. This should be informative for treatment of the significant fraction of patients whose tumors bear NF1 mutations.
Related JoVE Video
LKB1/STK11 inactivation leads to expansion of a prometastatic tumor subpopulation in melanoma.
Cancer Cell
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Germline mutations in LKB1 (STK11) are associated with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), which includes aberrant mucocutaneous pigmentation, and somatic LKB1 mutations occur in 10% of cutaneous melanoma. By somatically inactivating Lkb1 with K-Ras activation (±p53 loss) in murine melanocytes, we observed variably pigmented and highly metastatic melanoma with 100% penetrance. LKB1 deficiency resulted in increased phosphorylation of the SRC family kinase (SFK) YES, increased expression of WNT target genes, and expansion of a CD24(+) cell population, which showed increased metastatic behavior in vitro and in vivo relative to isogenic CD24(-) cells. These results suggest that LKB1 inactivation in the context of RAS activation facilitates metastasis by inducing an SFK-dependent expansion of a prometastatic, CD24(+) tumor subpopulation.
Related JoVE Video
Oncogenic PI3K mutations lead to NF-?B-dependent cytokine expression following growth factor deprivation.
Cancer Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is one of the most commonly misregulated signaling pathways in human cancers, but its impact on the tumor microenvironment has not been considered as deeply as its autonomous impact on tumor cells. In this study, we show that NF-?B is activated by the two most common PI3K mutations, PIK3CA E545K and H1047R. We found that markers of NF-?B are most strongly upregulated under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Gene expression analysis conducted on cells deprived of growth factors identified the repertoire of genes altered by oncogenic PI3K mutations following growth factor deprivation. This gene set most closely correlated with gene signatures from claudin-low and basal-like breast tumors, subtypes frequently exhibiting constitutive PI3K/Akt activity. An NF-?B-dependent subset of genes driven by oncogenic PI3K mutations was also identified that encoded primarily secreted proteins, suggesting a paracrine role for this gene set. Interestingly, while NF-?B activated by oncogenes such as Ras and EGF receptor leads to cell-autonomous effects, abrogating NF-?B in PI3K-transformed cells did not decrease proliferation or induce apoptosis. However, conditioned media from PI3K mutant-expressing cells led to increased STAT3 activation in recipient THP-1 monocytes or normal epithelial cells in a NF-?B and interleukin-6-dependent manner. Together, our findings describe a PI3K-driven, NF-?B-dependent transcriptional profile that may play a critical role in promoting a microenvironment amenable to tumor progression. These data also indicate that NF-?B plays diverse roles downstream from different oncogenic signaling pathways.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.