The high-quality draft genomes of two Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, one that causes the acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultured shrimps (FIM-S1708(+)), and another that does not (FIM-S1392(-)) are reported. A chromosome-scale assembly for the FIM-S1392(-) genome is reported here. The analysis of the two genomes gives some clues regarding the genomic differences between the strains.
The efforts for synthesis of enantiomerically pure bis-(1,2,3-triazolylmethyl)amino esters 6 are reported in good yields from an in situ generated ?-azidomethyl ketone. Optimum experimental conditions were established for preparation of ?-halomethyl ketones 10 and ?-N,N-dipropargylamino esters 11, all derived from ?-amino acids. The starting materials reacted under conventional click chemistry conditions, revealing a specific reactivity of bromomethyl ketones over chloromethyl ketones. The antioxidant activity of compounds 6 was assayed by DPPH method. The compound 6c with an IC50 of 75.57 ± 1.74??g?mL(-1) was the most active. Technically, this methodology allows the preparation of a combinatorial library of analogues with different structural characteristics depending on the nature of the modified ?-amino acids employed in the synthesis.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of 10 new 3-oxazolidin-2-one analogues on 12 methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. S. aureus confirmation was achieved via catalase and coagulase test. Molecular characterization of MRSA was performed by amplification of the mecA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated via the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test protocol, using commonly applied antibiotics and the oxazolidinone analogues. Only (R)-5-((S)-1-dibenzylaminoethyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (7a) exhibited antibacterial activity at 6.6 ?g. These results, allow us to infer that molecules such as 7a can be potentially used to treat infections caused by MRSA strains.
A regioselective synthesis has been developed for the preparation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted 4,4'-carbonylbis(carbamoylbenzoic) acids and N,N'-disubstituted bis(carbamoyl) terephthalic acids by treatment of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (1) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (2) with arylalkyl primary amines (A-N). The carbamoylcarboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized with good yield and high purity. The specific reaction conditions were established to obtain carbamoyl and carboxylic acid functionalities over the thermodynamically most favored imide group. Products derived from both anhydrides 1 and 2 were isolated as pure regioisomeric compounds under innovative experimental conditions. The chemo- and regioselectivity of products derived from dianhydrides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by density functional theory (DFT). All products were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MS.
It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (VL) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the VL protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.
After the surprisingly low number of genes identified in the human genome, alternative splicing emerged as a major mechanism to generate protein diversity in higher eukaryotes. However, it is still not known if its prevalence along the genome evolution has contributed to the overall functional protein diversity or if it simply reflects splicing noise. The (??)8 barrel or TIM barrel is one of the most frequent, versatile, and ancient fold encountered among enzymes. Here, we analyze the structural modifications present in TIM barrel proteins from the human genome product of alternative splicing events. We found that 87% of all splicing events involved deletions; most of these events resulted in protein fragments that corresponded to the (??)2, (??)4, (??)5, (??)6, and (??)7 subdomains of TIM barrels. Because approximately 7% of all the splicing events involved internal ?-strand substitutions, we decided, based on the genomic data, to design ?-strand and ?-helix substitutions in a well-studied TIM barrel enzyme. The biochemical characterization of one of the chimeric variants suggests that some of the splice variants in the human genome with ?-strand substitutions may be evolving novel functions via either the oligomeric state or substrate specificity. We provide results of how the splice variants represent subdomains that correlate with the independently folding and evolving structural units previously reported. This work is the first to observe a link between the structural features of the barrel and a recurrent genetic mechanism. Our results suggest that it is reasonable to expect that a sizeable fraction of splice variants found in the human genome represent structurally viable functional proteins. Our data provide additional support for the hypothesis of the origin of the TIM barrel fold through the assembly of smaller subdomains. We suggest a model of how nature explores new proteins through alternative splicing as a mechanism to diversify the proteins encoded in the human genome.
Bile acids facilitate postprandial absorption of nutrients. Bile acids also activate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 and play a major role in regulating lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. Transgenic expression of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) prevented high fat diet-induced diabetes and obesity in mice. In this study, we investigated the nutrient effects on bile acid synthesis. Refeeding of a chow diet to fasted mice increased CYP7A1 expression, bile acid pool size, and serum bile acids in wild type and humanized CYP7A1-transgenic mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that glucose increased histone acetylation and decreased histone methylation on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Refeeding also induced CYP7A1 in fxr-deficient mice, indicating that FXR signaling did not play a role in postprandial regulation of bile acid synthesis. In streptozocin-induced type I diabetic mice and genetically obese type II diabetic ob/ob mice, hyperglycemia increased histone acetylation status on the CYP7A1 gene promoter, leading to elevated basal Cyp7a1 expression and an enlarged bile acid pool with altered bile acid composition. However, refeeding did not further increase CYP7A1 expression in diabetic mice. In summary, this study demonstrates that glucose and insulin are major postprandial factors that induce CYP7A1 gene expression and bile acid synthesis. Glucose induces CYP7A1 gene expression mainly by epigenetic mechanisms. In diabetic mice, CYP7A1 chromatin is hyperacetylated, and fasting to refeeding response is impaired and may exacerbate metabolic disorders in diabetes.
Evolution of proteins involves sequence changes that are frequently localized at loop regions, revealing their important role in natural evolution. However, the development of strategies to understand and imitate such events constitutes a challenge to design novel enzymes in the laboratory. In this study, we show how to adapt loop swapping as semiautonomous units of functional groups in an enzyme with the (?/?)(8)-barrel and how this functional adaptation can be measured in vivo. To mimic the natural mechanism providing loop variability in antibodies, we developed an overlap PCR strategy. This includes introduction of sequence diversity at two hinge residues, which connect the new loops with the rest of the protein scaffold, and we demonstrate that this is necessary for a successful exploration of functional sequence space. This design allowed us to explore the sequence requirements to functional adaptation of each loop replacement that may not be sampled otherwise. Libraries generated following this strategy were evaluated in terms of their folding competence and their functional proficiency, an observation that was formalized as a Structure-Function Loop Adaptability value. Molecular details about the function and structure of some variants were obtained by enzyme kinetics and circular dichroism. This strategy yields functional variants that retain the original activity at higher frequencies, suggesting a new strategy for protein engineering that incorporates a more divergent sequence exploration beyond that limited to point mutations. We discuss how this approach may provide insights into the mechanism of enzyme evolution and function.
Protein engineering by directed evolution has proven effective in achieving various functional modifications, but the well-established protocols for the introduction of variability, typically limited to random point mutations, seriously restrict the scope of the approach. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we sought to explore variant libraries with richer diversity at regions recognized as functionally important through an exchange of natural components, thus combining design with combinatorial diversity. With this approach, we expected to maintain interactions important for protein stability while directing the introduction of variability to areas important for catalysis. Our strategy consisted in loop exchange over a (beta/alpha)(8) fold. Phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase was chosen as scaffold, and we investigated its tolerance to loop exchange by fusing variant libraries to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase coding gene as an in vivo folding reporter. We replaced loops 2, 4, and 6 of phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase with loops of varied types and sizes from enzymes sharing the same fold. To allow for a better structural fit, saturation mutagenesis was adopted at two amino acid positions preceding the exchanged loop. Our results showed that 30% to 90% of the generated mutants in the different libraries were folded. Some variants were selected for further characterization after removal of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene, and their stability was studied by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The sequences of 545 clones show that the introduction of variability at "hinges" connecting the loops with the scaffold exhibited a noticeable effect on the appearance of folded proteins. Also, we observed that each position accepted foreign loops of different sizes and sequences. We believe our work provides the basis of a general method of exchanging variably sized loops within the (beta/alpha)(8) fold, affording a novel starting point for the screening of novel activities as well as modest diversions from an original activity.
The glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase catalyses the isomerization between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Here we report that Trichomonas vaginalis contains 2 fully functional tpi genes. Both genes are located in separated chromosomal context with different promoter regulatory elements and encode ORFs of 254 amino acids; the only differences between them are the character of 4 amino acids located in ?-helices 1, 2 and 8. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that tpi2 transcript is approximately 3·3-fold more abundant than tpi1. Using an anti-TvTIM2 polyclonal antibody it was demonstrated that TIM proteins have a cytoplasmic localization and both enzymes are able to complement an Escherichia coli strain carrying a deletion of its endogenous tpi gene. Both TIM proteins assemble as dimers and their secondary structure assessment is essentially identical to TIM from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinetic catalytic constants of the recombinant enzymes using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate as substrate are similar to the catalytic constants of TIMs from other organisms including parasitic protozoa. As T. vaginalis depends on glycolysis for ATP production, we speculate 2 possible reasons to maintain a duplicated tpi copy on its genome: an increase in gene dosage or an early event of neofunctionalization of TIM as a moonlighting protein.
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