A low-power wideband mixer is designed and implemented in 0.13 µm standard CMOS technology based on resistive feedback current-reuse (RFCR) configuration for the application of cognitive radio receiver. The proposed RFCR architecture incorporates an inductive peaking technique to compensate for gain roll-off at high frequency while enhancing the bandwidth. A complementary current-reuse technique is used between transconductance and IF stages to boost the conversion gain without additional power consumption by reusing the DC bias current of the LO stage. This downconversion double-balanced mixer exhibits a high and flat conversion gain (CG) of 14.9 ± 1.4 dB and a noise figure (NF) better than 12.8 dB. The maximum input 1-dB compression point (P1dB) and maximum input third-order intercept point (IIP3) are -13.6 dBm and -4.5 dBm, respectively, over the desired frequency ranging from 50 MHz to 10 GHz. The proposed circuit operates down to a supply headroom of 1 V with a low-power consumption of 3.5 mW.
Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms.
In diversity combining at the receiver, the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is often maximized by using the maximal ratio combining (MRC) provided that the channel is perfectly estimated at the receiver. However, channel estimation is rarely perfect in practice, which results in deteriorating the system performance. In this paper, an imperialistic competitive algorithm (ICA) is proposed and compared with two other evolutionary based algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA), for diversity combining of signals travelling across the imperfect channels. The proposed algorithm adjusts the combiner weights of the received signal components in such a way that maximizes the SNR and minimizes the bit error rate (BER). The results indicate that the proposed method eliminates the need of channel estimation and can outperform the conventional diversity combining methods.
Although ray tracing based propagation prediction models are popular for indoor radio wave propagation characterization, most of them do not provide an integrated approach for achieving the goal of optimum coverage, which is a key part in designing wireless network. In this paper, an accelerated technique of three-dimensional ray tracing is presented, where rough surface scattering is included for making a more accurate ray tracing technique. Here, the rough surface scattering is represented by microfacets, for which it becomes possible to compute the scattering field in all possible directions. New optimization techniques, like dual quadrant skipping (DQS) and closest object finder (COF), are implemented for fast characterization of wireless communications and making the ray tracing technique more efficient. In conjunction with the ray tracing technique, probability based coverage optimization algorithm is accumulated with the ray tracing technique to make a compact solution for indoor propagation prediction. The proposed technique decreases the ray tracing time by omitting the unnecessary objects for ray tracing using the DQS technique and by decreasing the ray-object intersection time using the COF technique. On the other hand, the coverage optimization algorithm is based on probability theory, which finds out the minimum number of transmitters and their corresponding positions in order to achieve optimal indoor wireless coverage. Both of the space and time complexities of the proposed algorithm surpass the existing algorithms. For the verification of the proposed ray tracing technique and coverage algorithm, detailed simulation results for different scattering factors, different antenna types, and different operating frequencies are presented. Furthermore, the proposed technique is verified by the experimental results.
Non-Fourier heat conduction model with dual phase lag wave-diffusion model was analyzed by using well-conditioned asymptotic wave evaluation (WCAWE) and finite element method (FEM). The non-Fourier heat conduction has been investigated where the maximum likelihood (ML) and Tikhonov regularization technique were used successfully to predict the accurate and stable temperature responses without the loss of initial nonlinear/high frequency response. To reduce the increased computational time by Tikhonov WCAWE using ML (TWCAWE-ML), another well-conditioned scheme, called mass effect (ME) T-WCAWE, is introduced. TWCAWE with ME (TWCAWE-ME) showed more stable and accurate temperature spectrum in comparison to asymptotic wave evaluation (AWE) and also partial Pade AWE without sacrificing the computational time. However, the TWCAWE-ML remains as the most stable and hence accurate model to analyze the fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction model.
Interference resulting from Cognitive Radios (CRs) is the most important aspect of cognitive radio networks that leads to degradation in Quality of Service (QoS) in both primary and CR systems. Power control is one of the efficient techniques that can be used to reduce interference and satisfy the Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) constraint among CRs. This paper proposes a new distributed power control algorithm based on game theory approach in cognitive radio networks. The proposal focuses on the channel status of cognitive radio users to improve system performance. A new cost function for SIR-based power control via a sigmoid weighting factor is introduced. The existence of Nash Equilibrium and convergence of the algorithm are also proved. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to utilize and implement it in a distributed manner. Simulation results show considerable savings on Nash Equilibrium power compared to relevant algorithms while reduction in achieved SIR is insignificant.
For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is increasing progressively pushing the demand of automatic extraction and classification of severity of diseases. Blood vessel extraction from the fundus image is a vital and challenging task. Therefore, this paper presents a new, computationally simple, and automatic method to extract the retinal blood vessel. The proposed method comprises several basic image processing techniques, namely edge enhancement by standard template, noise removal, thresholding, morphological operation, and object classification. The proposed method has been tested on a set of retinal images. The retinal images were collected from the DRIVE database and we have employed robust performance analysis to evaluate the accuracy. The results obtained from this study reveal that the proposed method offers an average accuracy of about 97 %, sensitivity of 99 %, specificity of 86 %, and predictive value of 98 %, which is superior to various well-known techniques.
An improved and efficient method is presented in this paper to achieve a better trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation, thereby detecting the tumor region of MRI brain images automatically. Compass operator has been used in the fourth order Partial Differential Equation (PDE) based denoising technique to preserve the anatomically significant information at the edges. A new morphological technique is also introduced for stripping skull region from the brain images, which consequently leading to the process of detecting tumor accurately. Finally, automatic seeded region growing segmentation based on an improved single seed point selection algorithm is applied to detect the tumor. The method is tested on publicly available MRI brain images and it gives an average PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) of 36.49. The obtained results also show detection accuracy of 99.46 %, which is a significant improvement than that of the existing results.
Due to increasing number of diabetic retinopathy cases, ophthalmologists are experiencing serious problem to automatically extract the features from the retinal images. Optic disc (OD), exudates, and cotton wool spots are the main features of fundus images which are used for diagnosing eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a new algorithm for the extraction of these bright objects from fundus images based on marker-controlled watershed segmentation is presented. The proposed algorithm makes use of average filtering and contrast adjustment as preprocessing steps. The concept of the markers is used to modify the gradient before the watershed transformation is applied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the test images of STARE and DRIVE databases. It is shown that the proposed method can yield an average sensitivity value of about 95%, which is comparable to those obtained by the known methods.
The increasing number of diabetic retinopathy (DR) cases world wide demands the development of an automated decision support system for quick and cost-effective screening of DR. We present an automatic screening system for detecting the early stage of DR, which is known as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The proposed system involves processing of fundus images for extraction of abnormal signs, such as hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and large plaque of hard exudates. A rule based classifier is used for classifying the DR into two classes, namely, normal and abnormal. The abnormal NPDR is further classified into three levels, namely, mild, moderate, and severe. To evaluate the performance of the proposed decision support framework, the algorithms have been tested on the images of STARE database. The results obtained from this study show that the proposed system can detect the bright lesions with an average accuracy of about 97%. The study further shows promising results in classifying the bright lesions correctly according to NPDR severity levels.
The detection of bright objects such as optic disc (OD) and exudates in color fundus images is an important step in the diagnosis of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a novel approach to automatically segment the OD and exudates is proposed. The proposed algorithm makes use of the green component of the image and preprocessing steps such as average filtering, contrast adjustment, and thresholding. The other processing techniques used are morphological opening, extended maxima operator, minima imposition, and watershed transformation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using the test images of STARE and DRIVE databases with fixed and variable thresholds. The images drawn by human expert are taken as the reference images. The proposed method yields sensitivity values as high as 96.7%, which are better than the results reported in the literature.
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