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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).
Primates
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is transmitted by mosquitoes, infects many animal species and causes serious acute encephalitis in humans and horses. In this study, a serosurvey of JEV in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) reared in Aichi Prefecture was conducted using purified JEV as an antigen for ELISA. The results revealed that 146 of 332 monkeys (44 %) were seropositive for JEV. In addition, 35 of 131 monkeys (27 %) born in the facility were seropositive, and the annual infection rate in the facility was estimated as 13 %. Our results provide evidence of the frequent exposure of many Japanese macaques to JEV, suggesting that there is a risk of JEV transmission to humans by mosquitoes.
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Generation of rhesus macaque-tropic HIV-1 clones that are resistant to major anti-HIV-1 restriction factors.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in macaque cells is restricted mainly by antiviral cellular APOBEC3, TRIM5?/TRIM5CypA, and tetherin proteins. For basic and clinical HIV-1/AIDS studies, efforts to construct macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) have been made by us and others. Although rhesus macaques are commonly and successfully used as infection models, no HIV-1 derivatives suitable for in vivo rhesus research are available to date. In this study, to obtain novel HIV-1mt clones that are resistant to major restriction factors, we altered Gag and Vpu of our best HIV-1mt clone described previously. First, by sequence- and structure-guided mutagenesis, three amino acid residues in Gag-capsid (CA) (M94L/R98S/G114Q) were found to be responsible for viral growth enhancement in a macaque cell line. Results of in vitro TRIM5? susceptibility testing of HIV-1mt carrying these substitutions correlated well with the increased viral replication potential in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with different TRIM5 alleles, suggesting that the three amino acids in HIV-1mt CA are involved in the interaction with TRIM5?. Second, we replaced the transmembrane domain of Vpu of this clone with the corresponding region of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVgsn166 Vpu. The resultant clone, MN4/LSDQgtu, was able to antagonize macaque but not human tetherin, and its Vpu effectively functioned during viral replication in a macaque cell line. Notably, MN4/LSDQgtu grew comparably to SIVmac239 and much better than any of our other HIV-1mt clones in rhesus macaque PBMCs. In sum, MN4/LSDQgtu is the first HIV-1 derivative that exhibits resistance to the major restriction factors in rhesus macaque cells.
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Characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 in naturally infected Japanese macaques as a model of HTLV-1 infection.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2013
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Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes chronic infection leading to development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and inflammatory diseases. Non-human primates infected with simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) are considered to constitute a suitable animal model for HTLV-1 research. However, the function of the regulatory and accessory genes of STLV-1 has not been analyzed in detail. In this study, STLV-1 in naturally infected Japanese macaques was analyzed.
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Efficient in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in common marmosets by novel CD8 monoclonal antibody administration.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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In order to directly demonstrate the roles of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in non-human primates, in vivo depletion of the CD8(+) T cells by administration of a CD8-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) is one of the crucial techniques. Recently, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is classified as a New World monkey, has been shown useful as an experimental animal model for various human diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease and a number of infectious diseases. Here we show that an anti-marmoset CD8 mAb 6F10, which we have recently established, efficiently depletes the marmoset CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo, i.e., the administration of 6F10 induces drastic and specific reduction in the ratio of the CD8(+) T cell subset for at least three weeks or longer. Our finding will help understand the pivotal role of CD8(+) T cells in vivo in the control of human diseases.
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TRIM5 genotypes in cynomolgus monkeys primarily influence inter-individual diversity in susceptibility to monkey-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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TRIM5? restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in cynomolgus monkey (CM) cells. We previously reported that a TRIMCyp allele expressing TRIM5-cyclophilin A fusion protein was frequently found in CMs. Here, we examined the influence of TRIM5 gene variation on the susceptibility of CMs to a monkey-tropic HIV-1 derivative (HIV-1mt) and found that TRIMCyp homozygotes were highly susceptible to HIV-1mt not only in vitro but also in vivo. These results provide important insights into the inter-individual differences in susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt.
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Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection.
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Systemic biological analysis of the mutations in two distinct HIV-1mt genomes occurred during replication in macaque cells.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Fundamental property of viruses is to rapidly adapt themselves under changing conditions of virus replication. Using HIV-1 derivatives that poorly replicate in macaque cells as model viruses, we studied here mechanisms for promoting viral replication in non-natural host cells. We found that the HIV-1s could evolve to grow better in both macaque and human cells by the continuous culture in macaque lymphocyte cell lines. Notably, only several mutations at defined sites of the Pol-integrase and/or the Env-gp120 reproducibly appeared in repeated adaptation experiments and were sufficient to cause the phenotypic change. Meanwhile, no amino acid changes to enhance viral replication in macaque cells were found in interaction sites for the known anti-retroviral proteins. These findings disclose a hitherto unappreciated evolutionary pathway to augment HIV-1 replication in primate cells, where tuning of viral interactions with positive rather than negative factors for replication can play a dominant role.
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Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors.
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Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5?/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between ?-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses.
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Long-Term Persistent GBV-B Infection and Development of a Chronic and Progressive Hepatitis C-Like Disease in Marmosets.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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It has been shown that infection of GB virus B (GBV-B), which is closely related to hepatitis C virus, develops acute self-resolving hepatitis in tamarins. In this study we sought to examine longitudinally the dynamics of viral and immunological status following GBV-B infection of marmosets and tamarins. Surprisingly, two of four marmosets but not tamarins experimentally challenged with GBV-B developed long-term chronic infection with fluctuated viremia, recurrent increase of alanine aminotransferase and plateaued titers of the antiviral antibodies, which was comparable to chronic hepatitis C in humans. Moreover, one of the chronically infected marmosets developed an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis as revealed by biochemical, histological, and immunopathological analyses. Of note, periodical analyses of the viral genomes in these marmosets indicated frequent and selective non-synonymous mutations, suggesting efficient evasion of the virus from antiviral immune pressure. These results demonstrated for the first time that GBV-B could induce chronic hepatitis C-like disease in marmosets and that the outcome of the viral infection and disease progression may depend on the differences between species and individuals.
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CD16(+) natural killer cells play a limited role against primary dengue virus infection in tamarins.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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CD16 is a major molecule expressed on NK cells. To directly assess the role of natural killer (NK) cells in dengue virus (DENV) infection in vivo, CD16 antibody-treated tamarins were inoculated with a DENV-2 strain. This resulted in the transient depletion of CD16(+) NK cells, whereas no significant effects on the overall levels or kinetics of plasma viral loads and antiviral antibodies were observed in the treated monkeys when compared to control monkeys. It remains elusive whether the CD16(-) NK subpopulation could play an important role in the control of primary DENV infection.
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Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model of dengue virus infection: development of high levels of viraemia and demonstration of protective immunity.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Dengue virus (DENV) causes a wide range of illnesses in humans: dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Animal models that constantly develop high levels of viraemia are required for the development of protective and preventive measures. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrated high levels of viraemia after inoculation with clinical isolates of four serotypes of DENV; in particular, over 10(6) genome copies ml(-1) after inoculation with DENV-2. Non-structural protein 1 and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were consistently detected. The DENV-2 genome was detected in lymphoid organs including the lymph nodes, spleen and thymus, and also in non-lymphoid organs. DENV antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the liver and spleen from inoculated marmosets. Four marmosets were reinoculated with DENV-2 at 33 weeks after primary inoculation with DENV-2. The DENV-2 genome was not detected in any of these marmosets, indicating protection from a secondary infection. The results indicate that common marmosets are highly sensitive to DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets could be a reliable primate model for the evaluation of candidate vaccines.
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Improved capacity of a monkey-tropic HIV-1 derivative to replicate in cynomolgus monkeys with minimal modifications.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in Old World monkeys. Recently, a mutant HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, in which a small part of gag and the entire vif gene are replaced with SIVmac239-derived ones, was shown to be able to replicate in pigtail monkeys but not in rhesus monkeys (RM). In the present study, we found that a modified monkey-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt), MN4-5S, acquired the ability to replicate efficiently in cynomolgus monkeys as compared with the NL-DT5R, while neither NL-DT5R nor MN4-5S replicated in RM cells. These results suggest that multiple determinants may be involved in the restriction of HIV-1 replication in macaques, depending on the species of macaques. The new HIV-1mt clone will be useful for studying molecular mechanisms by which anti-viral host factors regulate HIV-1 replication in macaques.
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Adaptation of wild-type measles virus to cotton rat lung cells: E89K mutation in matrix protein contributes to its fitness.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Wild-type measles virus (wtMeV) adapted well to cotton rat lung (CRL) cells after serial passages. In order to evaluate the contributions of the individual genes of wtMeV for adaptation, whole genome sequences of the adapted and original viruses were determined and analyzed. The results showed that there were two mutations in the whole genome of the adapted virus. One mutation was located at the 265th nucleotide in the open reading frame (ORF) of the M gene, resulting in the substitution of the 89th amino acid from E (glutamate) to K (lysine). The other was a silent mutation located at the 4182nd nucleotide in the ORF of the L gene. It was demonstrated that the E89K mutation in the M protein is responsible for the adaptation of wtMeV MV99Y in CRL cells. Cotton rats were infected with adapted virus and the original strain via intranasal inoculation. Virus titer results showed that adapted strain replicated better than the original strain in cotton rat lungs. It is suggested that the E89K mutation also contributes to the enhancement of wtMeV replication in a cotton rat model infected intranasally. The results revealed that the E89K mutation in the M protein plays a key role in wtMeV adaptation in cotton rat and CRL cells.
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Analysis of antibody response by temperature-sensitive measles vaccine strain in the cotton rat model.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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Measles virus (MeV) vaccine strain, AIK-C, is temperature sensitive (ts), which is thought to be associated with attenuation of virus pathogenicity. In this study, replication and antibody response were examined in cotton rats using viruses carrying different forms of the P gene, which is responsible for the ts phenotype of strain AIK-C and its parental Edmonston strain. When cotton rats were inoculated intranasally, ts viruses neither replicated in lungs, nor reproducibly generated an antibody response. When inoculated intramusculary (i.m.), however, ts strains raised an antibody titer in all animals. This response was not observed when ultraviolet-inactivated virus was used. ts virus, inoculated i.m., was recovered from cotton rat drainage lymph nodes. These results suggest that ts virus, inoculated i.m., could replicate in the cotton rat, presumably at the superficial lymph node, and induce an antibody response. Therefore, cotton rats can serve as a small-animal model for investigating immune responses to safer ts vaccine, as well as recombinant vaccine using AIK-C as a vector for protection against other infectious agents.
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Modification of a loop sequence between alpha-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA) protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239) vif and CA alpha-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replic
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac) readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between alpha-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5) of capsid protein (CA) and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5alpha restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between alpha-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7) of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5alpha.
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Gag-CA Q110D mutation elicits TRIM5-independent enhancement of HIV-1mt replication in macaque cells.
Microbes Infect.
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HIV-1 is strictly adapted to humans, and cause disease-inducing persistent infection only in humans. We have generated a series of macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) to establish non-human primate models for basic and clinical studies. HIV-1mt clones available to date grow poorly in macaque cells relative to SIVmac239. In this study, viral adaptive mutation in macaque cells, G114E in capsid (CA) helix 6 of HIV-1mt, that enhances viral replication was identified. Computer-assisted structural analysis predicted that another Q110D mutation in CA helix 6 would also increase viral growth potential. A new proviral construct MN4Rh-3 carrying CA-Q110D exhibited exquisitely enhanced growth property specifically in macaque cells. Susceptibility of MN4Rh-3 to macaque TRIM5?/TRIMCyp proteins was examined by their expression systems. HIV-1mt clones so far constructed already completely evaded TRIMCyp restriction, and further enhancement of TRIMCyp resistance by Q110D was not observed. In addition, Q110D did not contribute to evasion from TRIM5? restriction. However, the single-cycle infectivity of MN4Rh-3 in macaque cells was enhanced relative to the other HIV-1mt clones. Our results here indicate that CA-Q110D accelerates viral growth in macaque cells irrelevant to TRIM5 proteins restriction.
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Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
Front Microbiol
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A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp.
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Epidemiological study of zoonoses derived from humans in captive chimpanzees.
Primates
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Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wildlife are major threats both to human health and to biodiversity conservation. An estimated 71.8 % of zoonotic EID events are caused by pathogens in wildlife and the incidence of such diseases is increasing significantly in humans. In addition, human diseases are starting to infect wildlife, especially non-human primates. The chimpanzee is an endangered species that is threatened by human activity such as deforestation, poaching, and human disease transmission. Recently, several respiratory disease outbreaks that are suspected of having been transmitted by humans have been reported in wild chimpanzees. Therefore, we need to study zoonotic pathogens that can threaten captive chimpanzees in primate research institutes. Serological surveillance is one of several methods used to reveal infection history. We examined serum from 14 captive chimpanzees in Japanese primate research institutes for antibodies against 62 human pathogens and 1 chimpanzee-borne infectious disease. Antibodies tested positive against 29 pathogens at high or low prevalence in the chimpanzees. These results suggest that the proportions of human-borne infections may reflect the chimpanzees history, management system in the institute, or regional epidemics. Furthermore, captive chimpanzees are highly susceptible to human pathogens, and their induced antibodies reveal not only their history of infection, but also the possibility of protection against human pathogens.
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Changes in hematological and serum biochemical parameters in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after inoculation with dengue virus.
J. Med. Primatol.
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Marmosets are susceptible to dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, blood parameter data and clinical signs of DENV-infected marmosets are limited.
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The E89K Mutation in the Matrix Protein of the Measles Virus Affects In Vitro Cell Death and Virus Replication Efficiency in Human PBMC.
Open Virol J
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Matrix protein is known to have an important role in the process of virus assembly and virion release during measles virus replication. In the present in vitro study, a single mutation of E89K in the matrix protein was shown to affect cell death and virus replication efficiency in human PBMC. One strain with this mutation caused less cell death than the parental virus, and possessed high virus replication efficiency. Moreover, by Annexin V-FITC staining, polycaspase FLICA staining, and double labeling with poly-caspase FLICA and the Hoechst stain, the cell death seen was shown to be apoptosis.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.