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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sleep Duration and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Cohort: Interrelationships With Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Body Mass Index.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Both short and long durations of sleep are associated with higher mortality, but little is known about the interrelationship between sleep and other modifiable factors in relation to mortality. In the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-1996), we examined associations between sleep duration and total, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality among 239,896 US men and women aged 51-72 years who were free of cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease. We evaluated the influence of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) on the sleep-mortality association and assessed their combined association with mortality. During an average of 14 years of follow-up, we identified 44,100 deaths. Compared with 7-8 hours of sleep per day, both shorter and longer sleep durations were associated with higher total and CVD mortality. We found a greater elevation in CVD mortality associated with shorter sleep among overweight and obese people, suggesting a synergistic interaction between sleep and BMI. People in the unhealthy categories of all 4 risk factors (sleep <7 hours/day, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ?1 hour/week, television viewing ?3 hours/day, and BMI ?25) had significantly higher all-cause (relative risk (RR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 1.52), CVD (RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.17), and cancer (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34) mortality. Short sleep duration may predict higher mortality, particularly CVD mortality, among overweight and obese people.
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A Prospective Cohort Study of Body Size and Risk of Head and Neck Cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The association between body size and head and neck cancers (HNCA) is unclear, partly because of the biases in case-control studies.
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Attained height, sex, and risk of cancer at different anatomic sites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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To examine the association of adult height with risk of cancer at different anatomic sites in a cohort of men and women.
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Body size and physical activity in relation to incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
CMAJ
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Limited evidence suggests that adiposity and lack of physical activity may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the relation of body size and physical activity with incidence of COPD.
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Dietary flavonoid intake and thyroid cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Experimental studies suggested that flavonoids may influence thyroid carcinogenesis, but epidemiologic evidence is sparse. No study has examined different classes of flavonoids in relation to thyroid cancer risk. Using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 491,840 U.S. men and women, ages 50 to 71 years at baseline, we prospectively examined the risk of thyroid cancer in relation to dietary intakes of catechins, flavanones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, and total flavonoids. Dietary intakes were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Cancer cases were ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During follow up (mean = 9 years), we identified 586 thyroid cancer cases. Thyroid cancer risk was inversely associated with dietary flavan-3-ols [HRQ5 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.55, 0.91), PTrend = 0.03], but positively associated with flavanones [HRQ5 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.14, 1.96), PTrend = 0.004]. Other classes of flavonoids and total flavonoids were not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Similar associations were found for papillary thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that dietary intake of different classes of dietary flavonoids may have divergent effects on thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify a role of flavonoids in thyroid cancer development. Results from our study suggest a potential nutritional etiology of thyroid cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1102-8. ©2014 AACR.
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Prediagnostic lifestyle factors and survival after colon and rectal cancer diagnosis in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Few studies have examined the relationship of lifestyle factors with mortality among patients with colorectal cancer.
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Breast cancer risk in older women: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Divergent risk factors exist for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancers, but it is unclear whether differences by age exist among postmenopausal women.
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Sugars and risk of mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown.
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Sedentary behavior and prostate cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Sedentary behavior (sitting time) has been proposed as an independent risk factor for some cancers; however, its role in the development of prostate cancer has not been determined. We examined the prospective associations of self-reported daily sitting time and daily television/video viewing time with the risk of developing or dying from prostate cancer among 170,481 men in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We estimated HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Between 1996 and 2006, there were 13,751 incident (including 1,365 advanced) prostate cancer cases identified; prostate cancer mortality (through 2008) was 669. No strong or significant association with prostate cancer risk was seen in fully adjusted models for either daily sitting or television/video time. There were some suggestions of effect modification by body mass index (BMI; interaction for television/video time and BMI, P = 0.02). For total prostate cancer risk, television/video time was associated with a slightly elevated, but nonsignificant, increase amongst obese men (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 0.98-1.69); a null association was observed amongst overweight men (HR = 1.04; 0.89-1.22); and, for men with a normal BMI, television/video time was associated with a nonsignificant risk decrease (HR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.01). Similar patterns were observed for total daily sitting and television/video time in advanced prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. Sedentary behavior seems to play a limited role in the development of prostate cancer; however, we cannot rule out potential effect modification by BMI or the impact of measurement error on results.
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Index-based dietary patterns and risk of head and neck cancer in a large prospective study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Although diet has been proposed to play an important role in HNC, few associations with diet have been convincing other than alcohol intake. Studies of dietary patterns that examine overall diets may provide broader insight than studies of individual foods. Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and risk of HNC.
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Index-based dietary patterns and risk of incident hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality from chronic liver disease in a prospective study.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The role of diet in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its typical precursor, chronic liver disease (CLD), is poorly understood. Following dietary recommendations has been shown to reduce risk of many cancers, but whether such diets are associated with HCC and CLD is unknown. We prospectively evaluated the association of two dietary indices, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), with HCC incidence and CLD mortality in a large U.S. prospective cohort. We calculated the HEI-2010 and aMED scores for 494,942 participants in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health study, based on typical diet assessed using a food frequency questionnaire FFQ between 1995 and 1996. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for quintiles of each index were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards regression, after adjusting for alcohol intake, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and other covariates. A total of 509 HCC cases (1995-2006) and 1,053 CLD deaths (1995-2011) were documented during follow-up. Higher HEI-2010 scores, reflecting favorable adherence to dietary guidelines, were associated with lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.97 for the highest quintile, compared to lowest; P trend = 0.03) and lower mortality resulting from CLD (HR, 0.57; 95% CI: 0.46-0.71; P trend < 0.0001). High aMED scores were also associated with lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47-0.84; P trend = 0.0002) and lower risk of CLD mortality (HR, 0.52; 95% CI: 0.42-0.65; P trend < 0.0001).
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Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ?4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk.
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A prospective study of vitamin and mineral supplement use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We examined the association of use of multivitamins or single vitamin/mineral supplements with risk of four upper gastrointestinal cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort with 11 years of follow-up. After exclusions, 490,593 persons were included in our analytic cohort and 1780 upper gastrointestinal cancers were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox models with adjustment for potential confounders. We observed no significant associations between multivitamin use and risk for the four cancer outcomes in crude or adjusted models. Among individual vitamin or mineral supplements, use of iron supplements was associated with significantly lower risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR?=?0.68, 95% CI?=?0.49 to 0.94) and a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (HR?=?1.59, 95% CI?=?1.24 to 2.05). For gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma, we saw associations with zinc use (HR?=?1.28, 95% CI?=?1.01 to 1.62) and vitamin C use (HR?=?0.79 95% CI?=?0.65 to 0.96). Calcium use, some of which was reported as antacids and used to treat reflux disease, was associated with higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.06 to 1.52) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (HR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.03 to 1.56) cancers. We saw no evidence that multivitamin use was associated with reduced risk of four highly fatal upper gastrointestinal cancers, but there were some differences in risk with reported use of individual supplements.
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Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years.
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A Large Prospective Investigation of Sleep Duration, Weight Change, and Obesity in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The relationship between sleep and obesity or weight gain in adults, particularly older populations, remains unclear. In a cohort of 83,377 US men and women aged 51-72 years, we prospectively investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and weight change over an average of 7.5 years of follow-up (1995-2004). Participants were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline and throughout the follow-up. We observed an inverse association between sleep duration per night and weight gain in both men (P for trend = 0.02) and women (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with 7-8 hours of sleep, shorter sleep (<5 hours or 5-6 hours) was associated with more weight gain (in kilograms; men: for <5 hours, ? = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19, 1.13, and for 5-6 hours, ? = 0.12, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.26; women: for <5 hours, ? = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.86, and for 5-6 hours, ? = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.37). Among men and women who were not obese at baseline, participants who reported less than 5 hours of sleep per night had an approximately 40% higher risk of developing obesity than did those who reported 7-8 hours of sleep (for men, odds ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.99; for women, odds ratio = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.79). The association between short sleep and excess weight gain was generally consistent across different categories of age, educational level, smoking status, baseline body mass index, and physical activity level.
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Lifetime adiposity and risk of pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The association of excess body weight across a lifetime with pancreatic cancer has not been examined extensively.
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Physical activity in different periods of life, sedentary behavior, and the risk of ovarian cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Physical activity and sedentary behavior may influence ovarian cancer risk, but clear evidence is lacking.
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Physical activity and cancer-specific mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Higher physical activity levels have been associated with a lower risk of developing various cancers and all-cancer mortality, but the impact of pre-diagnosis physical activity on cancer-specific death has not been fully characterized. In the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with 293,511 men and women, we studied prediagnosis moderate to vigorous intensity leisure time physical activity (MVPA) in the past 10 years and cancer-specific mortality. Over a median 12.1 years, we observed 15,001 cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MVPA with cancer mortality overall and by 20 specific cancer sites, adjusting for relevant risk factors. Compared to participants reporting never/rare MVPA, those reporting >7 hr/week MVPA had a lower risk of total cancer mortality (HR?=?0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.94; p-trend <0.001). When analyzed by cancer site-specific deaths, comparing those reporting >7 hr/week of MVPA to those reporting never/rare MVPA, we observed a lower risk of death from colon (HR?=?0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.85; p-trend <0.001), liver (0.71; 0.52-0.98; p-trend?=?0.012) and lung cancer (0.84; 0.77-0.92; p-trend <0.001) and a significant p-trend for non-Hodgkins lymphoma (0.80; 0.62-1.04; p-trend?=?0.017). An unexpected increased mortality p-trend with increasing MVPA was observed for death from kidney cancer (1.42; 0.98-2.03; p-trend?=?0.016). Our findings suggest that higher prediagnosis leisure time physical activity is associated with lower risk of overall cancer mortality and mortality from multiple cancer sites. Future studies should confirm observed associations and further explore timing of physical activity and underlying biological mechanisms.
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The Healthy Eating Index 2005 and risk for pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Dietary pattern analyses characterizing combinations of food intakes offer conceptual and statistical advantages over food- and nutrient-based analyses of disease risk. However, few studies have examined dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk and none focused on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We used the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) to estimate the association between meeting those dietary guidelines and pancreatic cancer risk.
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Height, weight, and body mass index associations with gastric cancer subsites.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Although excess body weight has been associated with cancers of the gastric cardia, relationships with gastric cancer at other anatomic subsites are not well defined. Furthermore, subsite-specific associations with attained height have not been fully assessed.
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Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge.
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Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and mortality risk in the United States.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Geographic variations in mortality rate in the United States could be due to several hypothesized factors, one of which is exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Limited evidence from previous prospective studies has been inconclusive. The association between ambient residential UVR exposure and total and cause-specific mortality risks in a regionally diverse cohort (346,615 white, non-Hispanic subjects, 50-71 years of age, in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study) was assessed, with accounting for individual-level confounders. UVR exposure (averaged for 1978-1993 and 1996-2005) from NASAs Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer was linked to the US Census Bureau 2000 census tract of participants baseline residence. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Over 12 years, UVR exposure was associated with total deaths (n = 41,425; hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest quartiles (HRQ4 vs. Q1) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.09; Ptrend < 0.001) and with deaths (all Ptrend < 0.05) due to cancer (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.11), cardiovascular disease (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12), respiratory disease (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.55), and stroke (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33) but not with deaths due to injury, diabetes, or infectious disease. These results suggest that UVR exposure might not be beneficial for longevity.
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Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.
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Risk factors for specific histopathological types of postmenopausal breast cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Risk factor associations for rare breast cancer variants are often imprecise, obscuring differences between tumor types. To clarify differences, we examined risk factors for 5 histological types of breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Risk factor information was self-reported. We followed 192,076 postmenopausal women aged 50-71 years from 1995-1996 through 2006. During that time period, 5,334 ductal, 836 lobular, 639 mixed ductal-lobular, 216 mucinous, and 132 tubular breast cancers were diagnosed. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was evaluated using case-only logistic regression. The strongest differences were for menopausal hormone therapy (Pheterogeneity < 0.01) and age at first birth (Pheterogeneity < 0.01). Risk of tubular cancer in relation to current menopausal hormone therapy (for current use vs. never use, hazard ratio (HR) = 4.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.77, 6.96) was several times stronger than risk of other histological types (range of HRs, 1.39-1.75). Older age at first birth was unassociated with risk of mucinous (for ?30 years vs. 20-24 years, HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.42) or tubular (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.51, 2.29) tumors, in contrast to clear positive associations with lobular (HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.37) and mixed ductal-lobular (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.51) tumors. Differing associations for hormonal factors and mucinous and tubular cancers suggest etiologies distinct from those of common breast cancers.
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Comparison of associations of body mass index, abdominal adiposity, and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective cohort study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Increased body mass index (BMI) is an established colorectal cancer risk factor. High waist circumference or waist-hip-ratio (WHR) may better reflect an abnormal metabolic state and be more predictive of colorectal cancer risk than BMI.
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Female reproductive factors, menopausal hormone use, and Parkinsons disease.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine the associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use with risk of Parkinsons disease (PD) among postmenopausal women. The study comprised 119,166 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 71 years in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, who completed a baseline questionnaire in 1995-1996 and a follow-up survey in 2004-2006. A total of 410 self-reported PD diagnoses were identified between 1995 and 2006. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from logistic regression models. PD risk was not significantly associated with female reproductive factors including age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, and age at menopause. For example, compared with women with natural menopause at age 50 to 54 years, the ORs were 1.18, (95% CI, 0.78-1.79) for women with natural menopause aged <45, 1.19 (95% CI, 0.88-1.61) for those aged 45 to 49, and 1.33 (95% CI, 0.91-1.93) for those aged 55 or older. We found that oral contraceptive use for ?10 years (vs. never used) was associated with lower PD risk (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38-0.92), but shorter use showed no association. Use of menopausal hormone therapy showed inconsistent results. Compared with non-hormone users at baseline, current hormone users for <5 years showed a higher risk of PD (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.08). However, no associations were observed for past hormone users or current users of ?5 years. Overall, this large prospective study provides little support for an association between female reproductive factors and PD risk. Our findings on long-term oral contraceptive use and current hormone therapy warrant further investigations. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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Local geographic variation in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma: contributions of socioeconomic deprivation, alcohol retail outlets, and lifestyle.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence rates continue to increase in the United States. Geographic variation in rates suggests a potential contribution of area-based factors, such as neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, retail alcohol availability, and access to health care.
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Lifestyle and dietary factors in relation to risk of chronic myeloid leukemia in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Aside from exposure to ionizing radiation and benzene, little is known about lifestyle risk factors for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the general population.
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Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation.
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Dietary fat, fatty acids, and risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Observational studies report inconsistent associations of fat and fatty acids with prostate cancer.
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Body mass index and physical activity at different ages and risk of multiple myeloma in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Several studies have reported an increased risk of multiple myeloma associated with excess body weight. We investigated the risk of multiple myeloma in relation to separate measures of adiposity and energy balance at different ages in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort study in the United States. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire (1995-1996; n = 485,049), and a subset of participants completed a second questionnaire (1996-1997; n = 305,618) in which we solicited more detailed exposure information. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the risk of multiple myeloma (overall, n = 813; subset, n = 489) in relation to several measures of obesity and leisure time physical activity. Multiple myeloma risk was associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) at cohort entry (per 5-kg/m(2) increase, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.22); similar associations were observed for BMI at age 50 years (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28), age 35 years (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36), and age 18 years (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.32) without adjustment for baseline BMI. Risk of multiple myeloma was not associated with physical activity level at any age. These findings support the hypothesis that excess body weight, both in early adulthood and later in life, is a risk factor for multiple myeloma and suggest that maintaining a healthy body weight throughout life may reduce multiple myeloma risk.
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Intake of fiber and fiber-rich plant foods is associated with a lower risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large US cohort.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Plant-based and fiber-rich diets high in vegetables, fruit, and whole grains are recommended to prevent cancer and chronic conditions associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Diet may play a role in the etiology of RCC directly and/or indirectly.
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Healthy lifestyle behaviors and decreased risk of mortality in a large prospective study of U.S. women and men.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Adiposity, insufficient physical activity, cigarette smoking, and poor diet have all been related independently to increased chronic disease risk, but their joint impact on overall health remains unclear. In a cohort of 170,672 women and men aged 51-71 years at baseline in 1996/1997 and followed-up through 2009, we investigated the individual and joint impact of four low-risk lifestyle factors: abdominal leanness (waist circumference <88 cm in women and <102 cm in men); recommended physical activity level (30 min or more of moderate exercise at least 5 times per week or 20 min or more of vigorous exercise at least 3 times per week); long-term non-smoking (never-smoker or quit smoking more than 10 years ago); and healthy diet (Mediterranean diet score within the upper two sex-specific quintiles). During 2,126,089 person-years of follow-up, 20,903 participants died. In multivariate Cox models, statistically significant decreased risks of mortality were observed for the low-risk factors abdominal leanness (relative risk (RR) = 0.86; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-0.89), physical activity (RR = 0.86; 95 % CI = 0.84-0.89), non-smoking (RR = 0.43; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.45), and healthy diet (RR = 0.86; 95 % CI = 0.83-0.88). The larger the number of low-risk lifestyle factors, the lower was the mortality risk. The RR comparing adherence to all versus none of the factors was 0.27 (95 % CI = 0.25-0.29). We estimate that 33 % (95 % CI = 30-35 %) of deaths in our cohort were premature and could have been avoided if all study participants had adhered to all low-risk factors.
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Index-based dietary patterns and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large cohort study.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Diet could affect risk for esophageal and gastric cancers, but associations have been inconsistent. The diet is complex, so studies of dietary patterns, rather than studies of individual foods, might be more likely to identify cancer risk factors. There is limited research on index-based dietary patterns and esophageal and gastric cancers. We prospectively evaluated associations between the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) scores and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers.
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The association between self-reported diabetes and cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Epidemiological studies have observed associations between diabetes and a number of different cancers. Yet the association with cancer overall and the interrelationship of diabetes and obesity with cancer have been unclear. OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We evaluated the association between self-reported diabetes and cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP (National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort in which 295,276 men and 199,591 women completed a questionnaire in 1995-1996 and were followed up for cancer through 2006.
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Index-based dietary patterns and the risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Few studies have investigated the relationship between overall diet and the risk of prostate cancer. We examined the association between 3 diet quality indices-the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED)-and prostate cancer risk. At baseline, dietary intake was assessed in a cohort of 293,464 US men in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios. Between 1995 and 2006, we ascertained 23,453 incident cases of prostate cancer, including 2,251 advanced cases and 428 fatal cases. Among men who reported a history of prostate-specific antigen testing, high HEI-2005 and AHEI-2010 scores were associated with lower risk of total prostate cancer (for the highest quintile compared with the lowest, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.98, P for trend = 0.01; and HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99, P for trend = 0.05, respectively). No significant association was observed between aMED score and total prostate cancer or between any of the indices and advanced or fatal prostate cancer, regardless of prostate-specific antigen testing status. In individual component analyses, the fish component of aMED and ?-3 fatty acids component of AHEI-2010 were inversely associated with fatal prostate cancer (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.96, and HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98, respectively).
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A large prospective study of risk factors for adenocarcinomas and malignant carcinoid tumors of the small intestine.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Small intestinal cancer is increasing in the U.S.A, yet little is known about its etiology. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate risk factors for this malignancy by the two main histologic subtypes (adenocarcinomas and carcinoids).
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The association between frequency of vigorous physical activity and hepatobiliary cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Despite a potential preventive effect of physical activity on hepatobiliary cancer, little information is available on the relation between the two. We studied the association between frequency of vigorous physical activity and hepatobiliary cancer among 507,897 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, aged 50-71 years at baseline in 1995/1996. During 10 years of follow-up, 628 incident cases of liver cancer and 317 cases of extrahepatic biliary tract cancer were registered. Physical activity levels were assigned according to the frequency of engagement in 20 min or more of vigorous physical activity per week: never/rarely (lowest level), less than once per week, 1-2 times per week, 3-4 times per week, 5 or more times per week (highest level). Using Cox regression, multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RR) comparing the highest with the lowest level of physical activity revealed a statistically significant decreased risk for liver cancer (RR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.84, p-trend <0.001), particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (RR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.41-0.78, p-trend <0.001), independent of body mass index. By comparison, multivariate analyses indicated that physical activity was not statistically significantly associated with extrahepatic bile duct cancer (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.45-1.65), ampulla of Vater cancer (RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.29-1.48), or gallbladder cancer (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.33-1.21). These results suggest a potential preventive effect of physical activity on liver cancer but not extrahepatic biliary tract cancer, independent of body mass index.
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Alcohol consumption, folate intake, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver disease mortality.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Excessive alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have found that increased alcohol consumption can lead to lower absorption of folate. Conversely, higher folate intake has been inversely associated with liver damage and HCC. In the current study, we investigate the effect of alcohol consumption and folate intake on HCC incidence and liver disease mortality in the NIH-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study.
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Prediagnosis body mass index, physical activity, and mortality in endometrial cancer patients.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Background Higher body mass index (BMI) and inactivity have been associated with a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer, but the impact on endometrial cancer survival is unclear. Methods Among incident endometrial cancer case subjects in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined associations of prediagnosis BMI (n = 1400) and physical activity (n = 875) with overall and disease-specific 5- and 10-year mortality. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for tumor characteristics, treatment, and other risk factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with women with a BMI in the range of 18.5 to less than 25kg/m(2), the hazard ratios for 5-year all-cause mortality were 1.74 (95% CI = 1.13 to 2.66) for BMI in the range of 25 to less than 30kg/m(2), 1.84 (95% CI = 1.17 to 2.88) for BMI in the range of 30 to less than 35kg/m(2), and 2.35 (95% CI = 1.48 to 3.73) for BMI greater than or equal to 35kg/m(2) (P trend < .001). Higher BMI was also statistically significantly associated with poorer endometrial cancer-specific but not cardiovascular disease 5-year mortality. Hazard ratio estimates for 10-year all-cause and endometrial cancer-specific mortality as related to BMI were similar to 5-year hazard ratio estimates, whereas 10-year cardiovascular disease mortality became statistically significant (HR = 4.08; 95% CI = 1.56 to 10.71 comparing extreme BMI groups). More physical activity was related to lower all-cause 5-year mortality (HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.98 for >7 hours/week vs never/rarely), but the association was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.37 to 1.12). No association was observed between physical activity and disease-specific mortality. Conclusions Our findings suggest that higher prediagnosis BMI increases risk of overall and disease-specific mortality among women diagnosed with endometrial cancer, whereas physical activity lowers risk. Intervention studies of the effect of these modifiable lifestyle factors on mortality are needed.
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A comparison of the polytomous logistic regression and joint cox proportional hazards models for evaluating multiple disease subtypes in prospective cohort studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Polytomous logistic regression models are commonly used in case-control studies of cancer to directly compare the risks associated with an exposure variable across multiple cancer subtypes. However, the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of this approach for prospective cohort studies have not been formally evaluated.
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Anthropometric measures and physical activity and the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Worldwide, lung cancer in never-smokers is ranked the seventh most common cause of cancer death; however, the etiology of lung cancer in never-smokers is unclear. We investigated associations for body mass index (BMI) at various ages, waist circumference, hip circumference, and physical activity with lung cancer in 158,415 never-smokers of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models. Over 11 years of follow-up, 532 lung cancer cases occurred. The risk estimate for obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) participants at baseline was 1.21 (95%CI = 0.95-1.53) relative to those with a normal BMI between 18.5 ? BMI<25.0. Overweight (25.0 ? BMI<30.0) at age 18 (HR(overweight-vs-normal) = 1.51;95%CI = 1.01-2.26) and time spent sitting (HR(? 3 hrs-vs-<3 hrs) = 1.32;95%CI = 1.00-1.73) was each associated with lung cancer after adjustment for baseline BMI, as was waist (HR(Q4-vs-Q1) = 1.75;95%CI = 1.09-2.79) and hip circumference (HRQ4-vs-Q1 = 0.62;95%CI = 0.39-0.99), after mutual adjustment for each other and baseline BMI. No associations were observed for vigorous activity or television watching. In summary, using a large prospective cohort study, we found no evidence that BMI at baseline or middle age was associated with decreased lung cancer risk in never smokers. If anything, we observed some evidence for positive associations with a larger BMI or waist circumference.
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Alcohol Consumption, Types of Alcohol, and Parkinsons Disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The epidemiologic evidence on alcohol consumption and Parkinsons disease (PD) is equivocal. We prospectively examined total alcohol consumption and consumption of specific types of alcoholic beverage in relation to future risk of PD.
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A prospective cohort study of obesity and risk of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased rapidly over the past 40 years and accumulating evidence suggests that obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), is a major risk factor. It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity is associated with EAC and gastric adenocarcinoma.
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Large prospective investigation of meat intake, related mutagens, and risk of renal cell carcinoma.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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The evidence for meat intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk is inconsistent. Mutagens related to meat cooking and processing, and variation by RCC subtype may be important to consider.
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Health status, neighborhood socioeconomic context, and premature mortality in the United States: The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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We examined whether the risk of premature mortality associated with living in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods varies according to the health status of individuals.
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Adolescent and mid-life diet: risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Colorectal cancer has a natural history of several decades; therefore, the diet consumed decades before diagnosis may aid in understanding this malignancy.
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Fatherhood and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Fertility potential and reproductive fitness may reflect a mans future health, given that over one-third of the male human genome is involved in reproduction. We sought to determine if offspring number predicts cardiovascular death in the US men.
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Lifestyle factors and risk for new-onset diabetes: a population-based cohort study.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Epidemiologic data on the combined influence of several lifestyle factors on diabetes risk are rare, particularly among older adults.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Several case-control studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce risk for glioblastoma, an aggressive form of brain cancer. Prospective investigations have not observed such an association, but these studies lacked adequate brain cancer case numbers and did not stratify by histologic subtype. We prospectively investigated the association between NSAID use and risk of all glioma as well as the risk of glioblastoma subtype in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. The frequency of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID use 1 year prior to baseline was ascertained using a self-administered questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models with age as the underlying time metric, adjusted for sex, race, and history of heart disease. The analysis included 302,767 individuals, with 341 incident glioma cases (264 glioblastoma). No association was observed between regular use (>2 times/wk) of aspirin and risk of glioma (HR = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.87-1.56) or glioblastoma (HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.83-1.64) as compared with no use. Null associations were also observed for nonaspirin NSAID use (HR for glioma = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.65-1.25 and HR for glioblastoma = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56-1.20) as compared with no use. Our findings from this large prospective study do not support an inverse association between NSAIDs and risk of all glioma or glioblastoma.
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Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Previous studies indicate that the population attributable risk (PAR) of bladder cancer for tobacco smoking is 50% to 65% in men and 20% to 30% in women and that current cigarette smoking triples bladder cancer risk relative to never smoking. During the last 30 years, incidence rates have remained stable in the United States in men (123.8 per 100,000 person-years to 142.2 per 100,000 person-years) and women (32.5 per 100,000 person-years to 33.2 per 100,000 person-years); however, changing smoking prevalence and cigarette composition warrant revisiting risk estimates for smoking and bladder cancer.
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Geographic variation in colorectal cancer survival and the role of small-area socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel survival analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Adverse socioeconomic conditions, at both the individual and the neighborhood level, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) death, but little is known regarding whether CRC survival varies geographically and the extent to which area-level socioeconomic deprivation affects this geographic variation. Using data from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, the authors examined geographic variation and the role of area-level socioeconomic deprivation in CRC survival. CRC cases (n = 7,024), identified during 1995-2003, were followed for their CRC-specific vital status through 2005 and overall vital status through 2006. Bayesian multilevel survival models showed that there was significant geographic variation in overall (variance = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.2) and CRC-specific (variance = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4) risk of death. More socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods had a higher overall risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and a higher CRC-specific risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5). However, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation did not account for the geographic variation in overall and CRC-specific risks of death. In future studies, investigators should evaluate other neighborhood characteristics to help explain geographic heterogeneity in CRC survival. Such research could facilitate interventions for reducing geographic disparity in CRC survival.
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Pre- and postfortification intake of folate and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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A higher folate intake is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer risk in observational studies, but recent evidence suggests that excessive folate supplementation may increase colorectal cancer risk in some individuals. Therefore, mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products in the United States may have unintended negative consequences.
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Prospective investigation of poultry and fish intake in relation to cancer risk.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Dietary guidelines advise consumers to limit intake of red meat and choose lean protein sources, such as poultry and fish. Poultry consumption has been steadily increasing in the United States, but the effect on cancer risk remains unclear. In a large U.S. cohort, we prospectively investigated poultry and fish intake and cancer risk across a range of malignancies in men and women. Diet was assessed at baseline (1995-1996) with a food frequency questionnaire in 492,186 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Over a mean follow-up of 9 years, we identified 74,418 incident cancer cases. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated the substitution and addition effects of white meat (poultry and fish) intake in relation to cancer risk. In substitution models with total meat intake held constant, a 10-g (per 1,000 kcal) increase in white meat intake offset by an equal decrease in red meat intake was associated with a statistically significant reduced (3%-20%) risk of cancers of the esophagus, liver, colon, rectum, anus, lung, and pleura. In addition models with red meat intake held constant, poultry intake remained inversely associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, liver cancer, and lung cancer, but we observed mixed findings for fish intake. As the dietary recommendations intend, the inverse association observed between white meat intake and cancer risk may be largely due to the substitution of red meat. Simply increasing fish or poultry intake, without reducing red meat intake, may be less beneficial for cancer prevention.
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Ovarian cancer risk factors by histologic subtypes in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Data suggest that risk factors for ovarian carcinoma vary by histologic type, but findings are inconsistent. We prospectively evaluated risk factors by histological subtypes of incident ovarian cancer (n = 849) in a cohort of 169,391 women in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We constructed Cox models of individual exposures by comparing case subtypes to the entire non-case group and assessed p-heterogeneity in case-case comparisons using serous as the reference category. Substantial risk differences between histologic subtypes were observed for menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, oral contraceptive (OC) use, parity and body mass index (p-heterogeneity = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.03, respectively). MHT users were at increased risk for all histologic subtypes except for mucinous carcinomas, where risk was reduced (relative risk (RR) = 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.80). OC users were only at significantly decreased risk for serous cancers (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.85). Although parity was inversely associated with risk of all subtypes, the RRs ranged from 0.28 (clear cell) to 0.83 (serous). Obesity was a significant risk factor only for endometrioid cancers (RR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.70). Our findings support a link between etiological factors and histological heterogeneity in ovarian carcinoma.
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Diabetes and thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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We hypothesized that diabetes may play a role in thyroid cancer risk due to the parallel secular rise in diabetes prevalence and morbidity in the United States, the higher prevalence of thyroid disorders among diabetics compared with the general population, and the potential roles of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes as precipitating factors in cancer development.
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A prospective investigation of coffee drinking and endometrial cancer incidence.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50-71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (hazard ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups = 0.64, 95% CI, 0.51-0.80; P(trend) = 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.86-0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.87-0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (P(interaction) = 0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.41-0.72; P(trend) = 0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content.
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Pancreatic cancer and exposure to dietary nitrate and nitrite in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of N-nitroso compounds, which induce tumors of the pancreas in animals. The authors evaluated the relation of dietary nitrate and nitrite to pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 10 years of follow-up between 1995 and 2006, 1,728 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. There was no association between total nitrate or nitrite intake and pancreatic cancer in men or women. However, men in the highest quintile of summed nitrate/nitrite intake from processed meat had a nonsignificantly elevated risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.47; P-trend = 0.11). The authors observed a stronger increase in risk among men for nitrate/nitrite intake from processed meat at ages 12-13 years (highest quintile vs. lowest: hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.76; P-trend = 0.11), though the relation did not achieve statistical significance. The authors found no associations between adult or adolescent nitrate or nitrite intake from processed meats and pancreatic cancer among women. These results provide modest evidence that processed meat sources of dietary nitrate and nitrite may be associated with pancreatic cancer among men and provide no support for the hypothesis in women.
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An exploratory study on CLU, CR1 and PICALM and Parkinson disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Recent GWAS and subsequent confirmation studies reported several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the CLU, CR1 and PICALM loci in association with late-onset Alzheimers disease (AD). Parkinson disease (PD) shares several clinical and pathologic characteristics with AD; we therefore explored whether these SNPs were also associated with PD risk.
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Apolipoprotein E genotypes and the risk of Parkinson disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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We examined apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes in relation to Parkinsons disease (PD) among 786 cases and 1537 controls, all non-Hispanic Caucasians. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for year of birth, sex, smoking status, daily caffeine intake, and family history of PD. Compared with participants with ApoE ?33, ?4 carriers (?34/?44) had significantly lower odds for having PD (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.94; p = 0.01), whereas ?2 carriers (?23/?22) did not (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24; p = 0.71). Subgroup analyses showed similar results. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis which confirmed our primary findings (?34/?44 vs. ?33: OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p = 0.024 and ?23/?22 vs. ?33: OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97-1.23; p = 0.13). In PD patients, the prevalence of dementia appeared to be higher among ?4 carriers (compared with ?33: OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.98-2.58; p = 0.06), but lower among ?2 carriers (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.40-1.42; p = 0.38), although neither test was statistically significant. Our study suggested that the ApoE ?4 allele may be associated with a lower PD risk among non-Hispanic Caucasians.
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Patterns of meat intake and risk of prostate cancer among African-Americans in a large prospective study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Given the large racial differences in prostate cancer risk, further investigation of diet and prostate cancer is warranted among high-risk groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between type of meat intake and prostate cancer risk among African-American men.
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Reproductive and hormonal factors and lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Lung cancer exhibits unique patterns among women including high adenocarcinoma rates among nonsmokers. Inconsistent findings about hormonal factors on risk may reflect incomplete control for confounding, misclassification of exposures, or insufficient attention to variation by histology.
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Socioeconomic deprivation impact on meat intake and mortality: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Previous studies have not examined potential interactions between meat intake and characteristics of the local environment on the risk of mortality. This study examined the impact of area socioeconomic deprivation on the association between meat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality after accounting for individual-level risk factors.
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Reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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There are conflicting data regarding the role of sex hormones in colorectal cancer development. Whereas clinical trials data indicate that hormone therapy use reduces the risk of colorectal cancer, data from prospective cohort studies suggest that circulating estrogen levels are positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. A surrogate measure of lifetime estrogen exposure is reproductive history. We investigated the relationship between reproductive factors and the risk of colorectal cancer.
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A prospective analysis of prolonged sitting time and risk of renal cell carcinoma among 300,000 older adults.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Accumulating evidence suggests an etiologic role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for physical activity. However, it is unknown if prolonged sitting, which is thought to be distinct from too little moderate-vigorous physical activity, is an independent risk factor for RCC. The authors prospectively examined the relationship of prolonged sitting and risk of RCC among 289,512 women and men in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.
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Dietary fiber and grain consumption in relation to head and neck cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Dietary fiber and grain consumption may reduce the risk of head and neck cancer; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited. We investigated this relationship in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study.
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Prospective study of self-reported diabetes and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Although gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) incidence rates in the United States have decreased, the rates of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) have increased. Obesity increases the risks of GCA and EADC, and the associations may be partially mediated by insulin resistance. A few case-control studies have shown an association between diabetes and an increased risk of EADC.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colorectal cancer risk in a large, prospective cohort.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer; however, the association within colorectal subsites or among higher risk individuals is understudied. We investigated NSAID use and colorectal adenocarcinoma by subsite, and among individuals with a family history of colon cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.