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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of selected oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria: potential applications in the prevention and treatment of hyperoxaluria.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Oxalate (Ox) is a very common component of the human diet, capable to collect in the renal tissue and bind calcium to form calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. A supersaturation of CaOx crystal may cause nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The inflammation derived from the CaOx crystal accumulation, together with innate or secondary renal alterations, could strongly affect the renal function. In this case a consumption of probiotics with either oxalate-degrading activity at intestinal level and systemic anti-inflammatory activity could be an alternative approach to treat the subjects with excess of urinary oxalate excretion. 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria), already included in the list of bacteria safe for the human use, were investigated for their capability to degrade oxalate by mean of RP-HPLC-UV method and modulate inflammation in an in vitro model system based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Four promising bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14, Bifidobacterium breve PBS077, Bifidobacterium longum PBS078) were identified as innovative biological tools for the prevention and the therapeutic treatment of hyperoxaluria and the inflammatory events associated to the Ox accumulation.
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Mechanism of interaction of novel indolylarylsulfone derivatives with K103N and Y181I mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complex with its substrates.
Antivir. Chem. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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Novel indolylarylsulfones (IASs), designed through rational structure-based molecular modelling and docking approaches, have been recently characterized as effective inhibitors of the wild-type and drug-resistant mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT).
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Pyridobenzothiazole derivatives as new chemotype targeting the HCV NS5B polymerase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been recognized as the major cause of liver failure that can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. Among all the HCV proteins, NS5B polymerase represents a leading target for drug discovery strategies. Herein, we describe our initial research efforts towards the identification of new chemotypes as allosteric NS5B inhibitors. In particular, the design, synthesis, in vitro anti-NS5B and in cellulo anti-HCV evaluation of a series of 1-oxo-1H-pyrido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole-4-carboxylate derivatives are reported. Some of the newly synthesized compounds showed an IC(50) ranging from 11 to 23 ?M, and molecular modeling and biochemical studies suggested that the thumb domain could be the target site for this new class of NS5B inhibitors.
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Enantioselective binding of second generation pyrrolobenzoxazepinones to the catalytic ternary complex of HIV-1 RT wild-type and L100I and K103N drug resistant mutants.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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We investigated some pyrrolobenzoxazepinone (PBOs, 3e-i) analogues of early described effective non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Enzymological studies of 3e-i enantiomers, with wild type (wt) RT and some drug-resistant mutants, revealed a stereoselective mode of action and selectivity for RT ternary complex. Unexpectedly (+)-3g was found more potent towards the L100I mutant than towards the wt RT, whereas (+)-3h inhibited the K103N mutant and RT wt with comparable potency.
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Toward the discovery of novel anti-HIV drugs. Second-generation inhibitors of the cellular ATPase DDX3 with improved anti-HIV activity: synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, cytotoxicity studies, and target validation.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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A hit optimization protocol applied to the first nonnucleoside inhibitor of the ATPase activity of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 led to the design and synthesis of second-generation rhodanine derivatives with better inhibitory activity toward cellular DDX3 and HIV-1 replication. Additional DDX3 inhibitors were identified among triazine compounds. Biological data were rationalized in terms of structure-activity relationships and docking simulations. Antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of selected DDX3 inhibitors are reported and discussed. A thorough analysis confirmed human DDX3 as a valid anti-HIV target. The compounds described herein represent a significant advance in the pursuit of novel drugs that target HIV-1 host cofactors.
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Diarylpyrimidine-dihydrobenzyloxopyrimidine hybrids: new, wide-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents active at (sub)-nanomolar level.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Here, we describe a novel small series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) and dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidines (DABOs). These DAPY-DABO hybrids (1-4) showed a characteristic SAR profile and a nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity at both enzymatic and cellular level. In particular, the two compounds 4d and 2d, with a (sub)nanomolar activity against wild-type and clinically relevant HIV-1 mutant strains, were selected as lead compounds for next optimization studies.
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Indolylarylsulfones as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: new cyclic substituents at indole-2-carboxamide.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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New indolylarylsulfone derivatives bearing cyclic substituents at indole-2-carboxamide linked through a methylene/ethylene spacer were potent inhibitors of the WT HIV-1 replication in CEM and PBMC cells with inhibitory concentrations in the low nanomolar range. Against the mutant L100I and K103N RT HIV-1 strains in MT-4 cells, compounds 20, 24-26, 36, and 40 showed antiviral potency superior to that of NVP and EFV. Against these mutant strains, derivatives 20, 24-26, and 40 were equipotent to ETV. Molecular docking experiments on this novel series of IAS analogues have also suggested that the H-bond interaction between the nitrogen atom in the carboxamide chain of IAS and Glu138:B is important in the binding of these compounds. These results are in accordance with the experimental data obtained on the WT and on the mutant HIV-1 strains tested.
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Slow binding-tight binding interaction between benzimidazol-2-one inhibitors and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase containing the lysine 103 to asparagine mutation.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Novel benzimidazol-2-one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have been recently identified, through rational structure-based molecular modeling and docking approaches, as highly effective inhibitors of the wild type and drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). These compounds also showed potent anti-HIV activities against viral strains, superior to the clinically approved NNRTI efavirenz. However, they were still of limited efficacy towards the K103N mutant. Here we report a detailed enzymatic analysis elucidating the molecular mechanism of interaction between benzimidazol-2-one derivatives and the K103N mutant RT. The loss of potency of these molecules towards the K103N RT was specifically due to a reduction of their association rate to the enzyme. Unexpectedly, these compounds showed a strongly reduced dissociation rate from the K103N mutant, as compared to the wild type enzyme, suggesting that, once occupied by the drug, the mutated binding site could achieve a more stable interaction with these molecules. The characterization of this slow binding-tight binding mutant-specific mechanism of interaction may pave the way to the design of more effective new generation benzimidazol-2-one NNRTIs with promising drug resistant profile and minimal toxicity.
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Indolylarylsulfones bearing natural and unnatural amino acids. Discovery of potent inhibitors of HIV-1 non-nucleoside wild type and resistant mutant strains reverse transcriptase and coxsackie B4 virus.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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New potent indolylarylsulfone (IAS) HIV-1 NNRTIs were obtained by coupling natural and unnatural amino acids to the 2-carboxamide and introducing different electron-withdrawing substituents at position 4 and 5 of the indole nucleus. The new IASs inhibited the HIV-1 replication in human T-lymphocyte (CEM) cells at low/subnanomolar concentration and were weakly cytostatic. Against the mutant L100I, K103N, and Y181C RT HIV-1 strains in CEM cells, sulfones 3, 4, 19, 27, and 31 were comparable to EFV. The new IASs were inhibitors to Coxsackie B4 virus at low micromolar (2-9 microM) concentrations. Superimposition of PLANTS docked conformations of IASs 19 and 9 revealed different hydrophobic interactions of the 3,5-dimethylphenyl group, for which a staking interaction with Tyr181 aromatic side chain was observed. The binding mode of 19 was not affected by the L100I mutation and was consistent with the interactions reported for the WT strain.
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Specific targeting of highly conserved residues in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase primer grip region. 2. Stereoselective interaction to overcome the effects of drug resistant mutations.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Starting from the prototypic compound 4, we describe new, potent, and broad-spectrum pyrrolobenzo(pyrido)oxazepinones antivirals. A biochemical and enzymological investigation was performed for defining their mechanism of inhibition at either recombinant HIV-1 RT wild type and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)-resistant mutants. For the novel compounds (S)-(+)-5 and (S)-(-)-7, a clear-cut stereoselective mechanism of enzyme inhibition was found. Molecular modeling studies were performed for revealing the underpinnings of this behavior.
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Non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors di-halo-indolyl aryl sulfones achieve tight binding to drug-resistant mutants by targeting the enzyme-substrate complex.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Indolyl aryl sulfone (IAS) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) have been previously shown to effectively inhibit wild-type (wt) and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. IASs proved to act through different mechanisms of action, depending on the nature and position of their chemical substituents. Here we describe selected novel IAS derivatives (di-halo-IASs). Our results show that these compounds are selective for the enzyme-substrate complex. The molecular basis for this selectivity was a different dissociation rate of the drug to a particular enzymatic form along the reaction pathway. By comparing the activities of the different compounds against wild-type RT and the resistant enzymes carrying the single mutations Lys103Asn, Leu100Ile, and Tyr181Ile (K103N, L100I, and Y181I), we found that one compound (RS1914) dissociated from the mutated enzymes almost 10-fold slower than from the wild type RT. These results demonstrate that IASs are very flexible molecules, interacting dynamically with the viral RT, and that this property can be successfully exploited to design inhibitors endowed with an enhanced binding to common NNRTI-resistant mutants.
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Discovery of chiral cyclopropyl dihydro-alkylthio-benzyl-oxopyrimidine (S-DABO) derivatives as potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors with high activity against clinically relevant mutants.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The role played by stereochemistry in the C2-substituent (left part) on the S-DABO scaffold for anti-HIV-1 activity has been investigated for the first time. A series of S-DABO analogues, where the double bond in the C2-substituent is replaced by an enantiopure isosteric cyclopropyl moiety, has been synthesized, leading to the identification of a potent lead compound endowed with picomolar activity against RT (wt) and nanomolar activity against selected drug-resistant mutants. Molecular modeling calculation, enzymatic studies, and surface plasmon resonance experiments allowed us to rationalize the biological behavior of the synthesized compounds, which act as mixed-type inhibitors of HIV-1 RT K103N, with a preferential association to the enzyme-substrate complex. Taken together, our data show that the right combination of stereochemistry on the left and right parts (C6-substituent) of the S-DABO scaffold plays a key role in the inhibition of both wild-type and drug-resistant enzymes, especially the K103N mutant.
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New nitrogen containing substituents at the indole-2-carboxamide yield high potent and broad spectrum indolylarylsulfone HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
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New indolylarylsulfone (IAS) derivatives bearing nitrogen containing substituents at the indole-2-carboxamide inhibited the HIV-1 WT in MT-4 cells at low nanomolar concentrations. In particular, compound 9 was uniformly effective against the mutant Y181C, Y188L, and K103N HIV-1 strains; it was highly active against the multidrug resistant mutant IRLL98 HIV-1 strain bearing the K101Q, Y181C, and G190A mutations conferring resistance to NVP, DLV, and EFV and several HIV-1 clades A in PBMC.
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The power of enzyme kinetics in the drug development process.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
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Drug development is a long and expensive process. It starts from the identification of a small molecule (hit compound) endowed with the ability to suppress a cellular or viral enzyme essential for the development of a given disease and proceeds through subsequent rounds of structural changes and optimization until the desired pharmacological properties are reached (lead compound). At any point of the hit-to-lead optimization process, it is of essence to monitor the behavior of the intermediate molecules with respect to their molecular targets. This involves precise mechanism of action studies as well as quantitative measurement of the performance of the compound against its target. Enzyme kinetic studies are thus an essential component of the drug development process. Relevant examples of the power of enzyme kinetics in the antiviral drug development process will be discussed in the context of anti-HIV chemotherapy.
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2-(Alkyl/aryl)amino-6-benzylpyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as inhibitors of wild-type and mutant HIV-1: enantioselectivity studies.
J. Med. Chem.
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The single enantiomers of two pyrimidine-based HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 1 (MC1501) and 2 (MC2082), were tested in both cellular and enzyme assays. In general, the R forms were more potent than their S counterparts and racemates and (R)-2 was more efficient than (R)-1 and the reference compounds, with some exceptions. Interestingly, (R)-2 displayed a faster binding to K103N RT with respect to WT RT, while (R)-1 showed the opposite behavior.
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Synthesis, biological activity, and ADME properties of novel S-DABOs/N-DABOs as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
ChemMedChem
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Previous studies aimed at exploring the SAR of C2-functionalized S-DABOs demonstrated that the substituent at this position plays a key role in the inhibition of both wild-type RT and drug-resistant enzymes, particularly the K103N mutant form. The introduction of a cyclopropyl group led us to the discovery of a potent inhibitor with picomolar activity against wild-type RT and nanomolar activity against many key mutant forms such as K103N. Despite its excellent antiviral profile, this compound suffers from a suboptimal ADME profile typical of many S-DABO analogues, but it could, however, represent a promising candidate as an anti-HIV microbicide. In the present work, a new series of S-DABO/N-DABO derivatives were synthesized to obtain additional SAR information on the C2-position and in particular to improve ADME properties while maintaining a good activity profile against HIV-1 RT. In vitro ADME properties (PAMPA permeation, water solubility, and metabolic stability) were also experimentally evaluated for the most interesting compounds to obtain a reliable indication of their plasma levels after oral administration.
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Discovery of the first small molecule inhibitor of human DDX3 specifically designed to target the RNA binding site: towards the next generation HIV-1 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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Efficacy of currently approved anti-HIV drugs is hampered by mutations of the viral enzymes, leading invariably to drug resistance and chemotherapy failure. Recent data suggest that cellular co-factors also represent useful targets for anti-HIV therapy. Here we describe the identification of the first small molecules specifically designed to inhibit the HIV-1 replication by targeting the RNA binding site of the human DEAD-Box RNA helicase DDX3. Optimization of a easily synthetically accessible hit (1) identified by application of a high-throughput docking approach afforded the promising compounds 6 and 8 which proved to inhibit both the helicase and ATPase activity of DDX3 and to reduce the viral load of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with HIV-1.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.