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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Altered innate immune development in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Early in life, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared with HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, we contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, where early life infectious disease risk is exceptionally high.
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Association between source of infection and hospital mortality in patients who have septic shock.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Mortality caused by septic shock may be determined by a systemic inflammatory response, independent of the inciting infection, but it may also be influenced by the anatomic source of infection.
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Correlates of T-cell-mediated viral control and phenotype of CD8(+) T cells in HIV-2, a naturally contained human retroviral infection.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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While a significant proportion of HIV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic and maintain undetectable viral loads (controllers), 15% to 20% progress to AIDS and are predicted by detectable viremia. Identifying immune correlates that distinguish these 2 groups should provide insights into how a potentially pathogenic retrovirus can be naturally controlled. We performed a detailed study of HIV-2-specific cellular responses in a unique community cohort in Guinea-Bissau followed for over 2 decades. T-cell responses were compared between controllers (n = 33) and viremic subjects (n = 27) using overlapping peptides, major histocompatibility complex class I tetramers, and multiparameter flow cytometry. HIV-2 viral control was significantly associated with a high-magnitude, polyfunctional Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell response but not with greater perforin upregulation. This potentially protective HIV-2-specific response is surprisingly narrow. HIV-2 Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells are at an earlier stage of differentiation than cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+) T-cells, do not contain high levels of cytolytic markers, and exhibit low levels of activation and proliferation, representing distinct properties from CD8(+) T cells associated with HIV-1 control. These data reveal the potential T-cell correlates of HIV-2 control and the detailed phenotype of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in a naturally contained retroviral infection.
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Multilayered defense in HLA-B51-associated HIV viral control.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Polymorphism in the HLA region of a chromosome is the major source of host genetic variability in HIV-1 outcome, but there is limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of protective class I alleles such as HLA-B57, -B27, and -B51. Taking advantage of a unique cohort infected with clade B HIV-1 through contaminated blood, in which many variables such as the length of infection, the infecting viral strain, and host genetic background are controlled, we performed a comprehensive study to understand HLA-B51-associated HIV-1 control. We focused on the T cell responses against three dominant HLA-B51-restricted epitopes: Gag327-345(NI9) NANPDCKTI, Pol743-751(LI9) LPPVVAKEI, and Pol283-289(TI8) TAFTIPSI. Mutations in all three dominant epitopes were significantly associated with HLA-B51 in the cohort. A clear hierarchy in selection of epitope mutations was observed through epitope sequencing. L743I in position 1 of epitope LI9 was seen in most B51(+) individuals, followed by V289X in position 8 of the TI8, and then, A328S, in position 2 of the NI9 epitope, was also seen in some B51(+) individuals. Good control of viral load and higher CD4(+) counts were significantly associated with at least one detectable T cell response to unmutated epitopes, whereas lower CD4(+) counts and higher viral loads were observed in patients who had developed escape mutations in all three epitopes or who lacked T cell responses specific to these epitope(s). We propose that patients with HLA-B51 benefit from having multiple layers of effective defense against the development of immune escape mutations.
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Influence of HLA class I and HLA-KIR compound genotypes on HIV-2 infection and markers of disease progression in a Manjako community in West Africa.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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Overall, the time to AIDS after HIV-2 infection is longer than with HIV-1, and many individuals infected with HIV-2 virus remain healthy throughout their lives. Multiple HLA and KIR gene products have been implicated in the control of HIV-1, but the effect of variation at these loci on HIV-2 disease is unknown. We show here for the first time that HLA-B*1503 is associated significantly with poor prognosis after HIV-2 infection and that HLA-B*0801 is associated with susceptibility to infection. Interestingly, previous data indicate that HLA-B*1503 is associated with low viral loads in HIV-1 clade B infection but has no significant effect on viral load in clade C infection. In general, alleles strongly associated with HIV-1 disease showed no effect in HIV-2 disease. These data emphasize the unique nature of the effects of HLA and HLA/KIR combinations on HIV-2 immune responses relative to HIV-1, which could be related to their distinct clinical course.
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HIV-2 capsids distinguish high and low virus load patients in a West African community cohort.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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HIV-2 causes AIDS similar to HIV-1, however a considerable proportion of HIV-2 infected patients show no disease and have low plasma virus load (VL). An analysis of HIV-2 capsid (p26) variation demonstrated that proline at p26 positions 119, 159 and 178 are more frequent in lower VL subjects while non-proline residues at all three sites are more frequent in subjects with high VL. In vitro replication levels of viruses bearing changes at the three sites suggested that these three residues influence virus replication by altering susceptibility to TRIM5alpha. These results provide new insights into HIV-2 pathogenesis.
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Highly avid, oligoclonal, early-differentiated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic HIV-2 infection.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in most HIV-1-infected people and play an important role in controlling viral replication, but the characteristics of an effective HIV-specific T-cell response are largely unknown. The majority of HIV-2-infected people behave as long-term non-progressors while those who progress to AIDS do so in a manner indistinguishable from HIV-1. A detailed study of HIV-2 infection may identify protective immune responses. Robust gag p26-specific T-cell responses are elicited during HIV-2 infection and correlate with control of viremia. In this study, we analyzed features of an HLA-B 3501-restricted T-cell response to HIV-2 p26 that may contribute to virus control. In contrast to HIV-1, HIV-2-specific T cells are at an early stage of differentiation (CD27(+)CD28(+)), a finding that relates directly to CD4(+) T-cell levels and inversely to immune activation. The cells demonstrate IFN-gamma secretion, oligoclonal T-cell receptor Vbeta gene segment usage, exceptional avidity and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite the potentially strong selection pressure imposed on the virus by these cells, there was no evidence of HIV-2 sequence evolution. We propose that in chronic HIV-2 infection, the maintenance of early-differentiated, highly avid CD8(+) T cells could account for the non-progressive course of disease. Such responses may be desirable from an HIV vaccine.
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Downregulation of the T-cell receptor by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Nef does not protect against disease progression.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Chronic immune activation is thought to play a major role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis, but the relative contributions of multiple factors to immune activation are not known. One proposed mechanism to protect against immune activation is the ability of Nef proteins from some HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus strains to downregulate the T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex of the infected cell, thereby reducing the potential for deleterious activation. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Nef has lost this property. In contrast to HIV-1, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a marked disparity in the disease course, with most individuals maintaining a normal life span. In this study, we examined the relationship between the ability of HIV-2 Nef proteins to downregulate the TCR and immune activation, comparing progressors and nonprogressors. Representative Nef variants were isolated from 28 HIV-2-infected individuals. We assessed their abilities to downregulate the TCR from the surfaces of CD4 T cells. In the same individuals, the activation of peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated by measurement of the expression levels of HLA-DR and CD38. We observed a striking correlation of the TCR downregulation efficiency of HIV-2 Nef variants with immune activation in individuals with a low viral load. This strongly suggests that Nef expression can influence the activation state of the immune systems of infected individuals. However, the efficiency of TCR downregulation by Nef was not reduced in progressing individuals, showing that TCR downregulation does not protect against progression in HIV-2 infection.
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Presence of a multidrug-resistance mutation in an HIV-2 variant infecting a treatment-naive individual in Caio, Guinea Bissau.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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We report the possible transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 2. A 66-year-old woman from rural Guinea Bissau who had no obvious antiretroviral exposure was found to harbor a variant with the multidrug-resistance mutation Q151M. Finding this mutation among a drug-naive population presents an important public health issue that needs to be addressed for treatment to be effective.
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Ontogeny of Toll-like receptor mediated cytokine responses of South African infants throughout the first year of life.
PLoS ONE
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The first year of life represents a time of marked susceptibility to infections; this is particularly true for regions in sub-Saharan Africa. As innate immunity directs the adaptive immune response, the observed increased risk for infection as well as a suboptimal response to vaccination in early life may be due to less effective innate immune function. In this study, we followed a longitudinal cohort of infants born and raised in South Africa over the first year of life, employing the most comprehensive analysis of innate immune response to stimulation published to date. Our findings reveal rapid changes in innate immune development over the first year of life. This is the first report depicting dramatic differences in innate immune ontogeny between different populations in the world, with important implications for global vaccination strategies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.