Objectives. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a pathological condition characterized by bone exposure or latent infection in patients treated with the drug. The aim of the study is to monitor the BRONJ level of risk health in patients with cancer, according to a preventive clinical protocol, which is firstly aimed at reducing risk factors such as the periodontal infections. Materials and Methods. 10 patients participated in the protocol and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 18 months of treatment with bisphosphonates, through full mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS), clinical attachment level (CAL) measurement, and the occurrence of osteonecrosis. Results. The mean plaque and bleeding were reduced and the CAL has not shown significant changes and in no cases was there manifestation of BRONJ. Conclusion. The protocol proved crucial for the maintenance of good oral health conditions by eliminating the risk of BRONJ during the observation period.
The histologic features of aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to atrophy, that immobility accelerates the process, and that routine exercise may protect against loss of motor units and muscle tissue. Here, we compared muscle biopsies from sedentary and physically active seniors and found that seniors with a long history of high-level recreational activity up to the time of muscle biopsy had 1) lower loss of muscle strength versus young men (32% loss in physically active vs 51% loss in sedentary seniors); 2) fewer small angulated (denervated) myofibers; 3) a higher percentage of fiber-type groups (reinnervated muscle fibers) that were almost exclusive of the slow type; and 4) sparse normal-size muscle fibers coexpressing fast and slow myosin heavy chains, which is not compatible with exercise-driven muscle-type transformation. The biopsies from the old physically active seniors varied from sparse fiber-type groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, suggesting that coexpressing fibers appear to fill gaps. Altogether, the data show that long-term physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers and suggest that decades of high-level exercise allow the body to adapt to age-related denervation by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through selective recruitment to slow motor units. These effects on size and structure of myofibers may delay functional decline in late aging.
? Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is linked to mutations in the type 1 ryanodine receptor, RyR1, the Ca2+ channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle. The Y522S MH mutation was studied for its complex presentation, which includes structurally and functionally altered cell cores. Imaging cytosolic and intra-SR [Ca2+] in muscle cells of heterozygous YS mice we determined Ca2+ release flux activated by clamp depolarization, permeability (P) of the SR membrane (ratio of flux and [Ca2+] gradient) and SR Ca2+ buffering power (B). In YS cells resting [Ca2+]SR was 45% of the value in normal littermates (WT). P was more than doubled, so that initial flux was normal. Measuring [Ca2+]SR(t) revealed dynamic changes in B(t). The alterations were similar to those caused by cytosolic BAPTA, which promotes release by hampering Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI). The [Ca2+] transients showed abnormal breaks, decaying phases after an initial rise, traced to a collapse in flux and P. Similar breaks occurred in WT myofibres with calsequestrin reduced by siRNA; calsequestrin content, however, was normal in YS muscle. Thus, the Y522S mutation causes greater openness of the RyR1, lowers resting [Ca2+]SR and alters SR Ca2+ buffering in a way that copies the functional instability observed upon reduction of calsequestrin content. The similarities with the effects of BAPTA suggest that the mutation, occurring near the cytosolic vestibule of the channel, reduces CDI as one of its primary effects. The unstable SR buffering, mimicked by silencing of calsequestrin, may help precipitate the loss of Ca2+ control that defines a fulminant MH event.
Amplitude of Ca(2+) transients, ultrastructure of Ca(2+) release units, and molecular composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are altered in fast-twitch skeletal muscles of calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1)-null mice. To determine whether such changes are directly caused by CASQ1 ablation or are instead the result of adaptive mechanisms, here we assessed ability of CASQ1 in rescuing the null phenotype. In vivo reintroduction of CASQ1 was carried out by cDNA electro transfer in flexor digitorum brevis muscle of the mouse. Exogenous CASQ1 was found to be correctly targeted to the junctional SR (jSR), as judged by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy; terminal cisternae (TC) lumen was filled with electron dense material and its width was significantly increased, as judged by electron microscopy; peak amplitude of Ca(2+) transients was significantly increased compared with null muscle fibers transfected only with green fluorescent protein (control); and finally, transfected fibers were able to sustain cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration during prolonged tetanic stimulation. Only the expression of TC proteins, such as calsequestrin 2, sarcalumenin, and triadin, was not rescued as judged by Western blot. Thus our results support the view that CASQ1 plays a key role in both Ca(2+) homeostasis and TC structure.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in striated muscle is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) channel and the intra-SR Ca(2+) buffering protein calsequestrin (CSQ). Besides its buffering role, CSQ is thought to regulate RyR channel function. Here, CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac (RyR2) channels is explored. Skeletal (CSQ1) or cardiac (CSQ2) calsequestrin were systematically added to the luminal side of single RyR1 or RyR2 channels. The luminal Ca(2+) dependence of open probability (Po) over the physiologically relevant range (0.05-1 mM Ca(2+)) was defined for each of the four RyR/CSQ isoform pairings. We found that the luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR2 channels was substantial when either CSQ isoform was present. In contrast, no significant luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR1 channels was detected in the presence of either CSQ isoform. We conclude that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of single RyR2 channels lacks CSQ isoform specificity, and that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle likely plays a relatively minor (if any) role in regulating the RyR1 channel activity, indicating that the chief role of CSQ1 in this tissue is as an intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer.
The Gene Ontology Project provides structured controlled vocabularies for molecular biology that can be used for the functional annotation of genes and gene products. In a collaboration between the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium and the muscle biology community, we have made large-scale additions to the GO biological process and cellular component ontologies. The main focus of this ontology development work concerns skeletal muscle, with specific consideration given to the processes of muscle contraction, plasticity, development, and regeneration, and to the sarcomere and membrane-delimited compartments. Our aims were to update the existing structure to reflect current knowledge, and to resolve, in an accommodating manner, the ambiguity in the language used by the community.
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