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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Physical health indicators in major mental illness: analysis of QOF data across UK general practice.
Br J Gen Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) has specific targets for body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure recording in major mental illness (MMI), diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although aspects of MMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related psychoses) are incentivised, barriers to care may occur.
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Association between parent-infant interactions in infancy and disruptive behaviour disorders at age seven: a nested, case-control ALSPAC study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Effective early intervention to prevent oppositional/conduct disorders requires early identification of children at risk. Patterns of parent-child interaction may predict oppositional/conduct disorders but large community-based prospective studies are needed to evaluate this possibility.
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Fractional flow reserve vs. angiography in guiding management to optimize outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the British Heart Foundation FAMOUS-NSTEMI randomized trial.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We assessed the management and outcomes of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients randomly assigned to fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided management or angiography-guided standard care.
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Predictors of positive and negative parenting behaviours: evidence from the ALSPAC cohort.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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This study aimed to establish the predictors of positive and negative parenting behaviours in a United Kingdom population. The majority of previous research has focused on specific risk factors and has used a variety of outcome measures. This study used a single assessment of parenting behaviours and started with a wide range of potential pre- and post-natal variables; such an approach might be used to identify families who might benefit from parenting interventions.
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Effect of vitamin D supplementation on orthostatic hypotension: data from the vitamin D in isolated systolic hypertension randomized controlled trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Orthostatic hypotension commonly accompanies supine hypertension, and is associated with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. We tested whether high-dose intermittent oral vitamin D therapy could ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension.
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Toward onset prevention of cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome (the TOP-COG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Early-onset dementia is common in Down syndrome adults, who have trisomy 21. The amyloid precursor protein gene is on chromosome 21, and so is over-expressed in Down syndrome, leading to amyloid ? (A?) over-production, a major upstream pathway leading to Alzheimer disease (AD). Statins (microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors), have pleiotropic effects including potentially increasing brain amyloid clearance, making them plausible agents to reduce AD risk. Animal models, human observational studies, and small scale trials support this rationale, however, there are no AD primary prevention trials in Down syndrome adults. In this study we study aim to inform the design of a full-scale primary prevention trial.
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Digital asthma self-management interventions: a systematic review.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Many people with asthma tolerate symptoms and lifestyle limitations unnecessarily by not utilizing proven therapies. Better support for self-management is known to improve asthma control, and increasingly the Internet and other digital media are being used to deliver that support.
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A Randomized trial of an Asthma Internet Self-management Intervention (RAISIN): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The financial costs associated with asthma care continue to increase while care remains suboptimal. Promoting optimal self-management, including the use of asthma action plans, along with regular health professional review has been shown to be an effective strategy and is recommended in asthma guidelines internationally. Despite evidence of benefit, guided self-management remains underused, however the potential for online resources to promote self-management behaviors is gaining increasing recognition. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pilot evaluation of a website 'Living well with asthma' which has been developed with the aim of promoting self-management behaviors shown to improve outcomes.
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Maintained physical activity and physiotherapy in the management of distal upper limb pain - a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (the arm pain trial).
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Distal upper limb pain (pain affecting the elbow, forearm, wrist, or hand) can be non-specific, or can arise from specific musculoskeletal disorders. It is clinically important and costly, the best approach to clinical management is unclear. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment and, while awaiting treatment, advice is often given to rest and avoid strenuous activities, but there is no evidence base to support these strategies. This paper describes the protocol of a randomised controlled trial to determine, among patients awaiting physiotherapy for distal arm pain, (a) whether advice to remain active and maintain usual activities results in a long-term reduction in arm pain and disability, compared with advice to rest; and (b) whether immediate physiotherapy results in a long-term reduction in arm pain and disability, compared with physiotherapy delivered after a seven week waiting list period.
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Motor activity at age one year does not predict ADHD at seven years.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We have examined the predictive utility of motor activity in infancy towards diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in later childhood. We conducted a nested case-control study using videos of infants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Sixty videos of children who received any Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA) psychiatric diagnosis at age 91 months (including 16 with ADHD) plus two controls per case were selected for data analysis. Body movements were measured at age one year: associations between motor activity-derived variables using factor analysis, and later ADHD diagnoses were sought. No significant association was found between infant motor activity and later ADHD. A positive association between motor activity and inattentive ADHD was found in males. Motor activity at age one year did not predict ADHD at age seven years. The positive association with inattentive ADHD in males requires further investigation.
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Variation in thromboxane B2 concentrations in serum and plasma in patients taking regular aspirin before and after clopidogrel therapy.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Abstract Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is widely prescribed for the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is recognised that there is inter-individual variation in the antiplatelet effects of both drugs. Recent data also suggest that P2Y12 antagonists can affect the response to aspirin. A direct indicator of the effect of aspirin on platelets is their ability to generate thromboxane, which if measured as the difference between the level of thromboxane B2 in serum and plasma ([TxB2]S-P) avoids the confounding effect of endogenous TxB2 production from other cells. We therefore analysed [TxB2]S-P as a measure of aspirin response in a group of 123 patients undergoing elective PCI before and after the introduction of clopidogrel. In a subgroup of 40 patients taking aspirin alone, we compared [TxB2]S-P and VerifyNow Aspirin for the assessment of aspirin response. There was a wide variation in plasma and serum TxB2 concentrations both before and after clopidogrel therapy but only 3.5% of patients had residual serum concentration of TxB2 > 10?ng/ml. There was a strong correlation between the pre and post clopidogrel levels of TxB2 (r???0.78; p?=?0.001) and no significant difference in [TxB2]S-P. There was no correlation between the magnitude of response to clopidogrel response and the generation of thromboxane B2. Correlation between [TxB2]S-P and VerifyNow Aspirin was poor. We conclude that the use of a P2Y12 antagonist does not influence the effect of aspirin on the ability of platelets to generate thromboxane. Therefore, measurement of TxB2 levels in serum, after subtracting the contribution from plasma, provides a measure of the response to aspirin in patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy.
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A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of a Pharmacist-Led Collaborative Intervention to Improve Statin Prescribing and Attainment of Cholesterol Targets in Primary Care.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Small trials with short term follow up suggest pharmacists' interventions targeted at healthcare professionals can improve prescribing. In comparison with clinical guidance, contemporary statin prescribing is sub-optimal and achievement of cholesterol targets falls short of accepted standards, for patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who are at highest absolute risk and who stand to obtain greatest benefit. We hypothesised that a pharmacist-led complex intervention delivered to doctors and nurses in primary care, would improve statin prescribing and achievement of cholesterol targets for incident and prevalent patients with vascular disease, beyond one year.
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Counselling versus Low-Intensity Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for persistent sub-threshold and mild Depression (CLICD): study protocol for a pilot/feasibility randomised controlled trial.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Persistent sub-threshold depressive symptoms are important because almost all patients who experience symptoms for more than 2 years go on to develop major depressive episodes. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the United Kingdom recommends research into the efficacy of person centred counselling and low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy for persistent sub-threshold and mild depression.
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Tightening up? Impact of musculoskeletal ultrasound disease activity assessment on early rheumatoid arthritis patients treated using a treat to target strategy.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the level of agreement and potential impact on disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) escalation decisions and of adding musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) assessment of disease activity to the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Do ACE Inhibitors Improve the Response to Exercise Training in Functionally Impaired Older Adults? A Randomized Controlled Trial.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Loss of muscle mass and strength with ageing is a major cause for falls, disability, and morbidity in older people. Previous studies have found that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may improve physical function in older people. It is unclear whether ACEi provide additional benefit when added to a standard exercise training program. We examined the effects of ACEi therapy on physical function in older people undergoing exercise training.
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FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: Neural correlates and prognostic indicators.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy.
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Socioeconomic deprivation and cortical morphology: psychological, social, and biological determinants of ill health study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with poor cognitive function pertaining to language and the executive control. Few studies have explored the cortical morphology of regions most commonly associated with these functions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood-level deprivation and the morphology of cortical regions associated with language and executive control in adults.
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Reference range for the antimüllerian hormone Generation II assay: a population study of 10,984 women, with comparison to the established Diagnostics Systems Laboratory nomogram.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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To develop an optimal model and age-specific centiles for the decline in antimüllerian hormone (AMH) as measured by the new Beckman Coulter AMH Generation II (Gen II) assay and compare this to the previous nomogram derived for the Diagnostics Systems Laboratory (DSL) assay.
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Long-term impact on healthcare resource utilization of statin treatment, and its cost effectiveness in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a record linkage study.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To assess the impact on healthcare resource utilization, costs, and quality of life over 15 years from 5 years of statin use in men without a history of myocardial infarction in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS).
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Socioeconomic status and the cerebellar grey matter volume. Data from a well-characterised population sample.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The cerebellum is highly sensitive to adverse environmental factors throughout the life span. Socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with greater inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk, and poor neurocognitive function. Given the increasing awareness of the association between early-life adversities on cerebellar structure, we aimed to explore the relationship between early life (ESES) and current socioeconomic status (CSES) and cerebellar volume. T1-weighted MRI was used to create models of cerebellar grey matter volumes in 42 adult neurologically healthy males selected from the Psychological, Social and Biological Determinants of Ill Health study. The relationship between potential risk factors, including ESES, CSES and cerebellar grey matter volumes were examined using multiple regression techniques. We also examined if greater multisystem physiological risk index-derived from inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk markers-mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cerebellar grey matter volume. Both ESES and CSES explained the greatest variance in cerebellar grey matter volume, with age and alcohol use as a covariate in the model. Low CSES explained additional significant variance to low ESES on grey matter decrease. The multisystem physiological risk index mediated the relationship between both early life and current SES and grey matter volume in cerebellum. In a randomly selected sample of neurologically healthy males, poorer socioeconomic status was associated with a smaller cerebellar volume. Early and current socioeconomic status and the multisystem physiological risk index also apparently influence cerebellar volume. These findings provide data on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and a brain region highly sensitive to environmental factors.
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Walk well: a randomised controlled trial of a walking intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities: study protocol.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Walking interventions have been shown to have a positive impact on physical activity (PA) levels, health and wellbeing for adult and older adult populations. There has been very little work carried out to explore the effectiveness of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper will provide details of the Walk Well intervention, designed for adults with intellectual disabilities, and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness.Methods/design: This study will adopt a RCT design, with participants allocated to the walking intervention group or a waiting list control group. The intervention consists of three PA consultations (baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks) and an individualised 12 week walking programme.A range of measures will be completed by participants at baseline, post intervention (three months from baseline) and at follow up (three months post intervention and six months from baseline). All outcome measures will be collected by a researcher who will be blinded to the study groups. The primary outcome will be steps walked per day, measured using accelerometers. Secondary outcome measures will include time spent in PA per day (across various intensity levels), time spent in sedentary behaviour per day, quality of life, self-efficacy and anthropometric measures to monitor weight change.
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Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case-control study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months.
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Language delay is not predictable from available risk factors.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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To investigate factors associated with language delay in a cohort of 30-month-old children and determine if identification of language delay requires active contact with families.
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A community-based group-guided self-help intervention for low mood and stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Depression is a mental health condition which affects millions of people each year, with worldwide rates increasing. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the treatment of depression. However, waiting lists can cause delays for face-to-face therapy. Also a proportion of people decline to present for help through the health service - the so-called treatment gap. Self-referral to CBT using community-based group interventions delivered by a voluntary sector organization may serve to resolve this problem. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the efficacy of such a guided CBT self-help course, the Living Life to the Full (LLTTF) classes delivered by the charity Action on Depression (AOD). The primary outcome is level of depression at 6 months assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) depression scale. Secondary measures include levels of anxiety and social functioning.
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Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects.
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Guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care: a randomised controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Access to Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression is limited. One solution is CBT self-help books. Trial Objectives: To assess the impact of a guided self-help CBT book (GSH-CBT) on mood, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Hypotheses:GSH-CBT will have improved mood and knowledge of the causes and treatment of depression compared to the control receiving TAUGuided self-help will be acceptable to patients and staff.
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Cardio-metabolic risk factors and cortical thickness in a neurologically healthy male population: Results from the psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid) study.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cardio-metabolic risk factors have been associated with poor physical and mental health. Epidemiological studies have shown peripheral risk markers to be associated with poor cognitive functioning in normal healthy population and in disease. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between cardio-metabolic risk factors and cortical thickness in a neurologically healthy middle aged population-based sample.
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Impact of Scotlands comprehensive, smoke-free legislation on stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Previous studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events following smoke-free legislation. Evidence is lacking on whether stroke is also reduced. The aim was to determine whether the incidence of stroke, overall and by sub-type, fell following introduction of smoke-free legislation across Scotland on 26 March 2006.
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Pharmacist intervention in primary care to improve outcomes in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Meta-analysis of small trials suggests that pharmacist-led collaborative review and revision of medical treatment may improve outcomes in heart failure.
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Patient reported outcome data following influenza A (H1N1p) vaccination in the 2009-2010 season: web-based and telephone evaluation.
Ther Clin Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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There has been worldwide interest in the safety of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1p) vaccines, although limited data are available from the vaccine recipients perspective. This evaluation was designed to collect data from people who had received an influenza vaccination during the 2009-2010 season using a web-based data collection tool supplemented by telephone reporting (PROBE).
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Intergenerational change and familial aggregation of body mass index.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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The relationship between parental BMI and that of their adult offspring, when increased adiposity can become a clinical issue, is unknown. We investigated the intergenerational change in body mass index (BMI) distribution, and examined the sex-specific relationship between parental and adult offspring BMI. Intergenerational change in the distribution of adjusted BMI in 1,443 complete families (both parents and at least one offspring) with 2,286 offspring (1,263 daughters and 1,023 sons) from the west of Scotland, UK, was investigated using quantile regression. Familial correlations were estimated from linear mixed effects regression models. The distribution of BMI showed little intergenerational change in the normal range (<25 kg/m(2)), decreasing overweightness (25-<30 kg/m(2)) and increasing obesity (?30 kg/m(2)). Median BMI was static across generations in males and decreased in females by 0.4 (95% CI: 0.0, 0.7) kg/m(2); the 95th percentile increased by 2.2 (1.1, 3.2) kg/m(2) in males and 2.7 (1.4, 3.9) kg/m(2) in females. Mothers BMI was more strongly associated with daughters BMI than was fathers (correlation coefficient (95% CI): mothers 0.31 (0.27, 0.36), fathers 0.19 (0.14, 0.25); P = 0.001). Mothers and fathers BMI were equally correlated with sons BMI (correlation coefficient: mothers 0.28 (0.22, 0.33), fathers 0.27 (0.22, 0.33). The increase in BMI between generations was concentrated at the upper end of the distribution. This, alongside the strong parent-offspring correlation, suggests that the increase in BMI is disproportionally greater among offspring of heavier parents. Familial influences on BMI among middle-aged women appear significantly stronger from mothers than fathers.
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The Heart failure and Optimal Outcomes from Pharmacy Study (HOOPS): rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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The effect on mortality and morbidity of pharmacist-led intervention to optimize pharmacological therapy in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) has not been tested in a large-scale, long-term, clinical trial.
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Baseline characteristics and patient reported outcome data of patients prescribed etanercept: web-based and telephone evaluation.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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The anti-TNF inhibitor, etanercept is administered as a once or twice weekly subcutaneous injection for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Limited data from the patients perspective are available on the use of biologics in the treatment of these chronic conditions and this evaluation was designed to collect data from patients who had been prescribed etanercept for the first time. This manuscript describes the self-reported baseline characteristics and health-related quality of life of patients prior to treatment. Follow-up data will be reported separately.
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Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with relative household income, diet and inflammation in the pSoBid cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences.
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West End Walkers 65+: a randomised controlled trial of a primary care-based walking intervention for older adults: study rationale and design.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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In Scotland, older adults are a key target group for physical activity intervention due to the large proportion who are inactive. The health benefits of an active lifestyle are well established but more research is required on the most effective interventions to increase activity in older adults. The West End Walkers 65+ randomised controlled trial aims to examine the feasibility of delivering a pedometer-based walking intervention to adults aged 65 years through a primary care setting and to determine the efficacy of this pilot. The study rationale, protocol and recruitment process are discussed in this paper.
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Comparative population structure of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum under different transmission settings in Malawi.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Described here is the first population genetic study of Plasmodium malariae, the causative agent of quartan malaria. Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae is more common than previously thought, and is frequently in sympatry and co-infection with P. falciparum, making its study increasingly important. This study compares the population parameters of the two species in two districts of Malawi with different malaria transmission patterns--one seasonal, one perennial--to explore the effects of transmission on population structures.
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External validation of nomogram for the decline in serum anti-Müllerian hormone in women: a population study of 15,834 infertility patients.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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The value of anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) as a marker of the ovarian reserve is becoming clear in a range of clinical contexts.This study reports the external validation of a quadratic model-based AMH–age nomogram using a cohort of 15,834 US women. All models previously investigated for the decline in ovarian reserve (i.e. linear, bi-linear, decay curve, power and quadratic models) tended to overestimate AMH by approximately 11% versus the published nomogram, indicating some between-population heterogeneity. Bootstrapping of 1000 datasets indicated that the quadratic model provided the best fit, confirming the choice of this model in the AMH–age nomogram. This nomogram can therefore be used with confidence for the interpretation of AMH in clinical populations.
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Prolonged release melatonin in the treatment of primary insomnia: evaluation of the age cut-off for short- and long-term response.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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The authors recently reported on efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin formulation (PRM; Circadin 2? mg) in elderly insomnia patients. The age cut-off for response to PRM and the long-term maintenance of efficacy and safety were further evaluated by looking at the total cohort (age 18-80 years) from that study and subsets of patients aged 18-54 and 55-80 years (for whom the drug is currently indicated).
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Measuring perceptions of safety climate in primary care: a cross-sectional study.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Building a strong and positive safety culture in health care teams and organizations is essential for patient safety. Measuring individual perceptions of safety climate is an integral part of this process. Evidence of the successful application and potential usefulness of this approach is increasingly available for secondary care settings but little is known about the safety climate in UK primary care. We therefore aimed to measure perceptions of safety climate in primary care. Further aims were to determine whether perceptions varied significantly between practice teams and according to specific participant and practice characteristics.
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Socioeconomic status and diabetes-related hospital admissions: a cross-sectional study of people with diagnosed diabetes.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk factor patterns and poorer outcomes for people with diabetes.
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Inexpensive video cameras used by parents to record social communication in epidemiological investigations in early childhood-A feasibility study.
Infant Behav Dev
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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We tested the feasibility of parents recording social interactions with their infants using inexpensive camcorders, as a potential method of effective, convenient, and economical large scale data gathering on social communication. Participants were asked to record two short video clips during either play or a mealtime, and return the data. Sixty-five video clips (32 pairs) were returned by 33 families, comprising 8.5% of families contacted, 44.6% of respondents and 51.6% of those sent a camcorder, and the general visual and sound quality of the data was assessed. Audio and video quality were adequate for analysis in 85% of clips and several social behaviours, including social engagement and contingent responsiveness, could be assessed in 97% of clips. We examined two quantifiable social behaviours quantitatively in both adults and infants: gaze direction and duration, and vocalization occurrence and duration. It proved difficult for most observers to obtain a simultaneous clear view of the parents and infants face. Video clips obtained by parents are informative and usable for analysis. Further work is required to establish the acceptability of this technique in longitudinal studies of child development and to maximize the return of usable data.
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Genetic variation at the SLC23A1 locus is associated with circulating concentrations of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C): evidence from 5 independent studies with >15,000 participants.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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L-ascorbic acid is an essential part of the human diet and has been associated with a wide range of chronic complex diseases, including cardiovascular outcomes. To date, there are no confirmed genetic correlates of circulating concentrations of L-ascorbic acid.
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Which circulating antioxidant vitamins are confounded by socioeconomic deprivation? The MIDSPAN family study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2010
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Antioxidant vitamins are often described as having "independent" associations with risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We aimed to compare to what extent a range of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids are associated with adulthood and childhood markers of socioeconomic deprivation and to adverse lifestyle factors.
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HLA-A alleles and infectious mononucleosis suggest a critical role for cytotoxic T-cell response in EBV-related Hodgkin lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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A proportion of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is believed to be causally related to infection with the ubiquitous lymphotropic EBV. The determining factors for development of EBV-related HL remain poorly understood, but likely involve immunological control of the viral infection. Accordingly, markers of the HLA class I region have been associated with risk of EBV-related HL. To study the host genetic component of EBV-related HL further, we investigated the lymphomas association with HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 simultaneously in the setting of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a risk factor for EBV-related HL, in a case-series analysis including 278 EBV-related and 656 EBV-unrelated cases of HL. By logistic regression, HLA-A*01 alleles [odds ratio (OR) per allele, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.88] were associated with increased and HLA-A*02 alleles (OR per allele, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) with decreased risk of EBV-related HL. These allele-specific associations corresponded to nearly 10-fold variation in risk of EBV-related HL between HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 homozygotes. History of IM was also associated with risk of EBV-related HL (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.74-6.66). The association between history of IM and EBV-related HL was not seen in the presence of HLA-A*02 because this allele appeared to neutralize the effect of IM on EBV-related HL risk. Our findings suggest that HLA class I-restricted EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses and events in the early immune response to EBV infection in IM play critical roles in the pathogenesis of EBV-related HL.
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Nomogram for the decline in serum antimüllerian hormone: a population study of 9,601 infertility patients.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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To define an optimal model for the decline in circulating antimüllerian hormone (AMH) with age and develop a validated age-related nomogram.
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A cluster randomised controlled trial of pharmacist led statin outreach support (SOS) in primary care: design and baseline characteristics.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Statins reduce the risk of vascular events, however statin prescribing is often sub optimal and better evidence is needed to inform quality improvements. The Statin Outreach Support (SOS) trial was designed to test the efficacy of pharmacist led educational outreach directed at General Practices, aiming to improve statin prescribing for community dwelling patients with vascular disease. This paper describes the study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics of participants.
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Nightly treatment of primary insomnia with prolonged release melatonin for 6 months: a randomized placebo controlled trial on age and endogenous melatonin as predictors of efficacy and safety.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Melatonin is extensively used in the USA in a non-regulated manner for sleep disorders. Prolonged release melatonin (PRM) is licensed in Europe and other countries for the short term treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged 55 years and over. However, a clear definition of the target patient population and well-controlled studies of long-term efficacy and safety are lacking. It is known that melatonin production declines with age. Some young insomnia patients also may have low melatonin levels. The study investigated whether older age or low melatonin excretion is a better predictor of response to PRM, whether the efficacy observed in short-term studies is sustained during continued treatment and the long term safety of such treatment.
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Antidepressant treatment and cultural differences--a survey of the attitudes of physicians and patients in Sweden and Turkey.
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The presenting symptoms of depression can be influenced by cultural differences. This study was conducted to compare the presenting symptoms and response to antidepressant medication of patients in Sweden and Turkey, two culturally different European countries.
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Selection matters-a regional survey of UK consultant opinion on selection into postgraduate surgical and medical training.
J Surg Educ
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Recent changes to postgraduate training in the United Kingdom have led to considerable debate regarding selection processes for specialist training (ST) positions. A survey of the opinion of a group of consultants on the relative importance of selection criteria for entry into the first year of specialist training (ST 1) was conducted.
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Drug-eluting stents: a study of international practice.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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We aimed to analyze trends in drug-eluting stents (DES) use in four international health care and regulatory settings.
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How evidence-based is an evidence-based parenting program? A PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis of Triple P.
BMC Med
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Interventions to promote positive parenting are often reported to offer good outcomes for children but they can consume substantial resources and they require rigorous appraisal.
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Soluble ST2 associates with diabetes but not established cardiovascular risk factors: a new inflammatory pathway of relevance to diabetes?
PLoS ONE
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Preliminary data mostly from animal models suggest the sST2/IL-33 pathway may have causal relevance for vascular disease and diabetes and thus point to a potential novel inflammatory link to cardiometabolic disease. However, the characterisation of sST2 levels in terms of metabolic or vascular risk in man is completely lacking. We sought to address this gap via a comprehensive analysis of risk factor and vascular correlates of sST2 in a cross-sectional study (pSoBid). We measured sST2 in plasma in 639 subjects and comprehensively related it to cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors and imaged atherosclerosis measures. Circulating sST2 levels increased with age, were lower in women and in highest earners. After adjusting for age and gender, sST2 levels associated strongly with markers of diabetes, including triglycerides [effect estimate (EE) per 1 standard deviation increase in sST2:1.05 [95%CI 1.01,1.10]), liver function (alanine aminotransaminase [ALT] and ?-glutamyl transferase [GGT]: EE 1.05 [1.01,1.09] and 1.13 [1.07,1.19] respectively), glucose (1.02 [1.00,1.03]) and sICAM-1 (1.05 [1.02,1.07]). However, sST2 levels were not related to smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, or atheroma (carotid intima media thickness, plaque presence). These results suggest that sST2 levels, in individuals largely without vascular disease, are related principally to markers associated with diabetes and ectopic fat and add support for a role of sST2 in diabetes. Further mechanistic studies determining how sST2 is linked to diabetes pathways may offer new insights into the inflammatory paradigm for type 2 diabetes.
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Parental height in relation to offspring coronary heart disease: examining transgenerational influences on health using the west of Scotland Midspan Family Study.
Int J Epidemiol
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Adult height is known to be inversely related to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. We sought to investigate transgenerational influence of parental height on offsprings CHD risk.
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Circulating 25OHD, dietary vitamin D, PTH, and calcium associations with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality: the MIDSPAN Family Study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Observational studies relating circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and dietary vitamin D intake to cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reported conflicting results.
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Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight. Common variation at rs1051730 is robustly associated with smoking quantity and was recently shown to influence smoking cessation during pregnancy, but its influence on birth weight is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. There was evidence of interaction between genotype and smoking (P = 0.007). In women who smoked during pregnancy, each additional smoking-related T-allele was associated with a 20 g [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4-36 g] lower birth weight (P = 0.014). However, in women who did not smoke during pregnancy, the effect size estimate was 5 g per T-allele (95% CI: -4 to 14 g; P = 0.268). To conclude, smoking status during pregnancy modifies the association between maternal rs1051730 genotype and offspring birth weight. This strengthens the evidence that smoking during pregnancy is causally related to lower offspring birth weight and suggests that population interventions that effectively reduce smoking in pregnant women would result in a reduced prevalence of low birth weight.
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Early life socioeconomic status, chronic physiological stress and hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate concentrations.
Behav. Brain Res.
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Early life socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with cognitive and behavioural changes that persist through towards adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether early life socioeconomic status is associated with changes in the hippocampus N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), using the non-invasive technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
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Five-year follow-up of participants in a randomised controlled trial showing benefits from exercise for breast cancer survivors during adjuvant treatment. Are there lasting effects?
J Cancer Surviv
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In an earlier randomised controlled trial, we showed that early stage breast cancer patients who received a supervised exercise programme, with discussion of behaviour change techniques, had psychological and functional benefits 6 months after the intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine if benefits observed at 6 months persisted 18 and 60 months later.
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The cessation in pregnancy incentives trial (CPIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
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Seventy percent of women in Scotland have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help most young women quit smoking before their own health is irreparably compromised. By quitting during pregnancy their infants will be protected from miscarriage and still birth as well as low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. In the UK, the NICE guidelines: How to stop smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth (June 2010) highlighted that little evidence exists in the literature to confirm the efficacy of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers to quit. Its first research recommendation was to determine: Within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit?
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Interaction of personality traits with social deprivation in determining mental wellbeing and health behaviours.
J Public Health (Oxf)
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Associations between personality traits, mental wellbeing and good health behaviours were examined to understand further the social and psychological context of the health divide.
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Socio-economic status is associated with epigenetic differences in the pSoBid cohort.
Int J Epidemiol
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Epigenetic programming and epigenetic mechanisms driven by environmental factors are thought to play an important role in human health and ageing. Global DNA methylation has been postulated as an epigenetic marker for epidemiological studies as it is reflective of changes in gene expression linked to disease. How epigenetic mechanisms are affected by psychological, sociological and biological determinants of health still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic and lifestyle factors and epigenetic status, as measured by global DNA methylation content, in the pSoBid cohort, which is characterized by an extreme socio-economic and health gradient.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.