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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tumor Associated Macrophages in SHH Subgroup of Medulloblastomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Purpose: Medulloblastoma in children can be categorized into at least four molecular subgroups, offering the potential for targeted therapeutic approaches to reduce treatment related morbidities. Little is known about the role of tumor microenvironment in medulloblastoma or its contribution to these molecular subgroups. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be an important source for therapeutic targets in both adult and pediatric neoplasms. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that expression of genes related to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlates with the medulloblastoma molecular subgroups and contributes to a diagnostic signature. Methods: Gene expression profiling using Human Exon Array (n=168) was analyzed to identify medulloblastoma molecular subgroups and expression of inflammation-related genes. Expression of 45 tumor-related and inflammation-related genes was analyzed in 83 medulloblastoma samples to build a gene signature predictive of molecular subgroups. TAMs in medulloblastomas (n=54) comprising the four molecular subgroups were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: A 31-gene medulloblastoma subgroup classification score inclusive of TAM-related genes (CD163, CSF1R) was developed with a misclassification rate of 2%. Tumors in the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup had increased expression of inflammation-related genes and significantly higher infiltration of TAMs than tumors in the Group 3 or Group 4 subgroups (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). IHC data revealed a strong association between location of TAMs and proliferating tumor cells. Conclusions: These data show that SHH tumors have a unique tumor microenvironment among medulloblastoma subgroups. The interactions of TAMs and SHH medulloblastoma cells may contribute to tumor growth revealing TAMs as a potential therapeutic target.
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A sensitive and specific histopathologic prognostic marker for H3F3A K27M mutant pediatric glioblastomas.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Pediatric glioblastomas (GBM) are highly aggressive and lethal tumors. Recent sequencing studies have shown that ~30 % of pediatric GBM and ~80 % of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas show K27M mutations in the H3F3A gene, a variant encoding histone H3.3. H3F3A K27M mutations lead to global reduction in H3K27me3. Our goal was to develop biomarkers for the histopathologic detection of these tumors. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of measuring H3K27me3 global reduction as a histopathologic and prognostic biomarker and tested an antibody directed specifically against the H3.3 K27M mutation in 290 samples. The study cohort included 203 pediatric (including 38 pediatric high-grade astrocytomas) and 38 adult brain tumors of various subtypes and grades and 49 non-neoplastic reactive brain tissues. Detection of H3.3 K27M by immunohistochemistry showed 100 % sensitivity and specificity and was superior to global reduction in H3K27me3 as a biomarker in diagnosing H3F3A K27M mutations. Moreover, cases that stained positive for H3.3 K27M showed a significantly poor prognosis compared to corresponding negative tumors. These results suggest that immunohistochemical detection of H3.3 K27M is a sensitive and specific surrogate for the H3F3A K27M mutation and defines a prognostically poor subset of pediatric GBM.
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Akt-dependent metabolic reprogramming regulates tumor cell histone acetylation.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Histone acetylation plays important roles in gene regulation, DNA replication, and the response to DNA damage, and it is frequently deregulated in tumors. We postulated that tumor cell histone acetylation levels are determined in part by changes in acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability mediated by oncogenic metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that acetyl-CoA is dynamically regulated by glucose availability in cancer cells and that the ratio of acetyl-CoA:coenzyme A within the nucleus modulates global histone acetylation levels. In vivo, expression of oncogenic Kras or Akt stimulates histone acetylation changes that precede tumor development. Furthermore, we show that Akt's effects on histone acetylation are mediated through the metabolic enzyme ATP-citrate lyase and that pAkt(Ser473) levels correlate significantly with histone acetylation marks in human gliomas and prostate tumors. The data implicate acetyl-CoA metabolism as a key determinant of histone acetylation levels in cancer cells.
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Pathology and diagnosis of SMARCB1-deficient tumors.
Cancer Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) can occur in the kidney, central nervous system, or extracranial/extrarenal locations and is characterized by alterations in the SMARCB1 gene. The tumors occur in infants and young children and confer a poor prognosis requiring aggressive therapeutic interventions to improve the chances for survival. MRTs pose a diagnostic challenge, as they display heterogeneous histopathologic features and differentiate along multiple lineages. The identification of alterations in the SMARCB1 gene in MRT using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has lead to improved diagnosis of MRT as well as the discovery of the loss of SMARCB1 expression in some non-MRTs. Whether loss of SMARCB1 plays a pathogenic role in nonrhabdoid tumors remains to be determined; however, most of these tumors lack the clinical and other molecular features of MRT. We review the histopathologic features of MRT and the importance and significance of loss of expression of SMARCB1 in both MRT and nonrhabdoid tumors.
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Asparagine plays a critical role in regulating cellular adaptation to glutamine depletion.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Many cancer cells consume large quantities of glutamine to maintain TCA cycle anaplerosis and support cell survival. It was therefore surprising when RNAi screening revealed that suppression of citrate synthase (CS), the first TCA cycle enzyme, prevented glutamine-withdrawal-induced apoptosis. CS suppression reduced TCA cycle activity and diverted oxaloacetate, the substrate of CS, into production of the nonessential amino acids aspartate and asparagine. We found that asparagine was necessary and sufficient to suppress glutamine-withdrawal-induced apoptosis without restoring the levels of other nonessential amino acids or TCA cycle intermediates. In complete medium, tumor cells exhibiting high rates of glutamine consumption underwent rapid apoptosis when glutamine-dependent asparagine synthesis was suppressed, and expression of asparagine synthetase was statistically correlated with poor prognosis in human tumors. Coupled with the success of L-asparaginase as a therapy for childhood leukemia, the data suggest that intracellular asparagine is a critical suppressor of apoptosis in many human tumors.
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PID1 (NYGGF4), a new growth-inhibitory gene in embryonal brain tumors and gliomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was first identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells.
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Histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation is differentially associated with isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in oligodendrogliomas and high-grade astrocytomas.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) is a marker of repressed transcription. Cells transfected with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) show increased methylation of histone lysine residues, including H3K9me3, because of inhibition of histone demethylases by 2-hydroxyglutarate. Here, we evaluated H3K9me3 and its association with IDH mutations in 284 gliomas. Trimethylation of H3K9 was significantly associated with IDH mutations in oligodendrogliomas. Moreover, 72% of World Health Organization grade II and 65% of grade III oligodendrogliomas showed combined H3K9me3 positivity and 1p19q codeletion. In astrocytic tumors, H3K9me3 positivity was found in all grades of tumors; it showed a significant relationship with IDH mutational status in grade II astrocytomas but not in grade III astrocytomas or glioblastomas. Finally, H3K9me3-positive grade II oligodendrogliomas, but not other tumor subtypes, showed improved overall survival compared with H3K9me3-negative cases. These results suggest that repressive trimethylation of H3K9 in gliomas may occur in a context-dependent manner and is associated with IDH mutations in oligodendrogliomas but may be differently regulated in high-grade astrocytic tumors. Furthermore, H3K9me3 may define a subset of grade II oligodendrogliomas with better overall survival. Our results suggest variable roles for IDH mutations in the pathogenesis of oligodendrogliomas versus astrocytic tumors.
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Outcome of infants and young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma treated on the "Head Start" III prospective clinical trial.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This study investigates the outcome of children <10 years old with newly-diagnosed ependymoma treated on the prospective multinational "Head Start" III clinical trial. Between April 2004 and July 2009, 19 children with newly-diagnosed ependymoma were enrolled. All children were to receive five induction chemotherapy cycles followed by one consolidation cycle of myelo-ablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue. Children between 6 and 10 years of age or with residual tumor prior to consolidation were to receive irradiation thereafter. Median age of 19 children (8 female) was 20 months at diagnosis. Median follow up was 44 months. The primary site was infratentorial in 11 and supratentorial in 8 patients. Gross total resection was achieved in 10 patients. After induction chemotherapy, all three supratentorial ependymoma patients with residual disease achieved a complete response (CR), while only one of six infratentorial patients with residual disease achieved CR. Three infratentorial patients developed progressive disease during induction chemotherapy. All four infratentorial patients with residual disease who underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplant, failed to achieve CR. Four patients received focal irradiation following chemotherapy. The 3-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for supratentorial ependymoma were 86 ± 13 % and 100 % respectively. The 3-year EFS and OS for infratentorial ependymoma were 27 ± 13 % and 73 ± 13 % respectively. The role of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy in deferring irradiation should be investigated further in children with supratentorial ependymoma with residual disease following surgery. This approach appears ineffective in children with infratentorial ependymoma in the absence of irradiation.
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The alternative lengthening of telomere phenotype is significantly associated with loss of ATRX expression in high-grade pediatric and adult astrocytomas: a multi-institutional study of 214 astrocytomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Loss-of-function of alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) protein leads to a phenotype called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in some tumors. High-grade astrocytomas comprise a heterogeneous group of central nervous system tumors. We examined a large cohort of adult (91) and pediatric (n=88) high-grade astrocytomas as well as lower grade forms (n=35) for immunohistochemical loss of ATRX protein expression and the presence of ALT using telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization, with further correlation to other known genetic alterations. We found that in pediatric high-grade astrocytomas, 29.6% of tumors were positive for ALT and 24.5% were immunonegative for the ATRX protein, these two alterations being highly associated with one another (P<0.0001). In adult high-grade astrocytomas, 26.4% of tumors were similarly positive for ALT, including 80% of ATRX protein immunonegative cases (P<0.0001). Similar frequencies were found in 11 adult low-grade astrocytomas, whereas all 24 pilocytic astrocytomas were negative for ALT. We did not find any significant correlations between isocitrate dehydrogenase status and either ALT positivity or ATRX protein expression in our adult high-grade astrocytomas. In both cohorts, however, the ALT positive high-grade astrocytomas showed more frequent amplification of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene (PDGFRA; 45% and 50%, respectively) than the ALT negative counterparts (18% and 26%; P=0.03 for each). In summary, our data show that the ALT and ATRX protein alterations are common in both pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas, often with associated PDGFRA gene amplification.
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PDGFRA amplification is common in pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas and identifies a poor prognostic group in IDH1 mutant glioblastoma.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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High-grade astrocytomas (HGAs), corresponding to World Health Organization grades III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and IV (glioblastoma; GBM), are biologically aggressive, and their molecular classification is increasingly relevant to clinical management. PDGFRA amplification is common in HGAs, although its prognostic significance remains unclear. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most sensitive technique for detecting PDGFRA copy number gains, we determined PDGFRA amplification status in 123 pediatric and 263 adult HGAs. A range of PDGFRA FISH patterns were identified and cases were scored as non-amplified (normal and polysomy) or amplified (low-level and high-level). PDGFRA amplification was frequent in pediatric (29.3%) and adult (20.9%) tumors. Amplification was not prognostic in pediatric HGAs. In adult tumors diagnosed initially as GBM, the presence of combined PDGFRA amplification and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)(R132H) mutation was a significant independent prognostic factor (P?=?0.01). In HGAs, PDGFRA amplification is common and can manifest as high-level and focal or low-level amplifications. Our data indicate that the latter is more prevalent than previously reported with copy number averaging techniques. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of PDGFRA status in adult and pediatric HGAs and suggests PDGFRA amplification increases with grade and is associated with a less favorable prognosis in IDH1 mutant de novo GBMs.
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Evaluation of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and enhancer of Zest 2 (EZH2) in pediatric glial and glioneuronal tumors shows decreased H3K27me3 in H3F3A K27M mutant glioblastomas.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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H3F3A mutations are seen in ?30% of pediatric glioblastoma (GBMs) and involve either the lysine residue at position 27 (K27M) or glycine at position 34 (G34R/V). Sixteen genes encode histone H3, each variant differing in only a few amino acids. Therefore, how mutations in a single H3 gene contribute to carcinogenesis is unknown. H3F3A K27M mutations are predicted to alter methylation of H3K27. H3K27me3 is a repressive mark critical to stem cell maintenance and is mediated by EZH2, a member of the polycomb-group (PcG) family. We evaluated H3K27me3 and EZH2 expression using immunohistochemistry in 76 pediatric brain tumors. H3K27me3 was lowered/absent in tumor cells but preserved in endothelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in six out of 20 GBMs. H3K27me3 showed strong immunoreactivity in all other tumor subtypes. Sequencing of GBMs showed H3F3A K27M mutations in all six cases with lowered/absent H3K27me3. EZH2 expression was high in GBMs, but absent/focal in other tumors. However, no significant differences in EZH2 expression were observed between H3F3A K27M mutant and wild type GBMs, suggesting that EZH2 mediated trimethylation of H3K27 is inhibited in GBM harboring K27M mutations. Our results indicate that H3F3A K27M mutant GBMs show decreased H3K27me3 that may be of both diagnostic and biological relevance.
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MiRNA-9 and MiRNA-200a distinguish hemangioblastomas from metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas in the CNS.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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Central nervous system (CNS) tumors in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) include hemangioblastomas and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (Met CCRCC). While these tumors often show similar histologic features, differentiating them is of significant importance as Met CCRCC are higher-grade tumors with worse prognosis. No single current immunohistochemical marker unequivocally differentiates between these two entities. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding cellular small RNA molecules that play an important role in cancer. We hypothesized that hemangioblastomas and Met CCRCC display distinct miRNA signatures enabling their histologic differentiation. MiRNAs were profiled in 10 cases each of hemangioblastomas, Met CCRCC and primary CCRCC. Ten miRNAs had greater abundance (including miR-9 (?10-fold) and miR-135a (?7-fold)) and 39 miRNAs were lower [including miR-200a (?22-fold) and miR-200b (?12-fold)] in hemangioblastomas compared with Met CCRCC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR in 20 hemangioblastomas and 13 Met CCRCC showed a 12-fold increase in miR-9 and a 15-fold decrease of miR-200a in hemangioblastomas compared with Met CCRCC. Finally, in situ hybridization for miR-9 in 15 hemangioblastomas and 10 Met CCRCC confirmed these results. Our data suggest that miR-9 and miR-200a can distinguish between hemangioblastomas and Met CCRCC. Further, these results may also provide insight in understanding the biology of hemangioblastomas.
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Malignant rhabdoid tumors express stem cell factors, which relate to the expression of EZH2 and Id proteins.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are highly aggressive pediatric tumors associated with loss of expression of SMARCB1, commonly occurring in the central nervous system [referred to as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs)] and in the kidney and soft tissues. Histologically, MRTs are characterized by immunohistochemical evidence of primitive neuroectodermal, mesenchymal, and epithelial differentiation. The ability of MRTs to differentiate along multiple lines, as evidenced by both histologic features and polyphenotypic immunohistochemical staining, and the proliferative nature of MRT cells are characteristics shared with the self-renewal and plasticity of embryonic stem cells (ES). To test the hypothesis that MRTs share similarities with ES, we used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of various stem cell markers in a tissue microarray containing 26 AT/RTs and 16 non-central nervous system MRTs (NCMRTs). Staining intensity was scored as negative (0), low (1+), moderate (2+), and strong (3+) and was multiplied by the percentage of positive tumor cells to establish a semiquantitative measure for each marker. In AT/RT, strong-to-low expression was noted with glypican-3 (20 of 26, 77%), Sall4 (23 of 26, 88%), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (25 of 26, 96%), and undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (19 of 26, 73%). Markers that showed low expression in AT/RT were Sox2 (8 of 26, 31%), Nanog (7 of 26, 27%), Klf4 (10 of 26, 38%), Zfp206 (5 of 26, 19%), and musashi-1 (21 of 26, 81%). Similarly, in NCMRT, expression was noted with glypican-3 (12 of 16, 75%), Sall4 (13 of 16, 81%), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (16 of 16, 100%), undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (12 of 16, 75%), Sox2 (5 of 16, 31%), Nanog (8 of 16, 50%), Klf4 (8 of 16, 50%), Zfp206 (13 of 16, 81%), and musashi-1 (11 of 16, 75%). Placental alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, c-KIT, CD30, ?-fetoprotein, and ?- -human chorionic gonadotrophin were not expressed in all cases. Markers that regulate the expression of stem cell transcription factors were also expressed in MRT. AT/RT cases showed expression of Id proteins: Id1 (17 of 26, 65%), Id2 (24 of 26, 92%), Id3 (22 of 26, 85%), and Id4 (22 of 26, 85%). Low expression was observed with EZH2 (15 of 26, 58%). Similarly, NCMRT cases showed expression of Id1 (15 of 16, 94%), Id2 (16 of 16, 100%), Id3 (16 of 16, 100%), Id4 (13 of 16, 81%), and EZH2 (13 of 16, 81%). Finally, regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between the expression of stem cell markers and EZH2 (P<0.0001), Id1 (P=0.0087), Id2 (P=0.0002), Id3 (P=0.0033), and Id4 (P<0.0001). These data suggest that MRTs express many stem cell-associated transcription factors, which may be regulated by the expression of EZH2 and the Id family of proteins. This study underscores similarities between MRTs and stem cells and may help elucidate common biologic pathways that could serve in advancing more effective therapeutic strategies to treat MRTs.
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An integrated texton and bag of words classifier for identifying anaplastic medulloblastomas.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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In this paper we present a combined Bag of Words and texton based classifier for differentiating anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastoma on digitized histopathology. The hypothesis behind this work is that histological image signatures may reflect different levels of aggressiveness of the disease and that texture based approaches can help discriminate between more aggressive and less aggressive phenotypes of medulloblastoma. The bag of words approach attempts to model the occurrence of differently expressed image features. In this work we choose to model the image features via textons which can quantitatively capture and model texture appearance in the images. The texton-based features, obtained via two methods, the Haar Wavelet responses and MR8 filter bank, provide spatial orientation and rotation invariant attributes. Applying these features to the bag of words framework yields textural representations that can be used in conjunction with a classifier (?-nearest neighbor) or a content based image retrieval system. Over multiple runs of randomized cross validation, a ?-NN classifier in conjunction with Haar wavelets and the texton, bag of words approach yielded a mean classification accuracy of 80, an area under the precision recall curve of 87 and an area under the ROC curve of 83 in distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas on a cohort of 36 patient studies.
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Spectrum of SMARCB1/INI1 mutations in familial and sporadic rhabdoid tumors.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Germline mutations and deletions of SMARCB1/INI1 in chromosome band 22q11.2 predispose patients to rhabdoid tumor and schwannomatosis. Previous estimates suggested that 15-20% of rhabdoid tumors were caused by an underlying germline abnormality of SMARCB1. However, these studies were limited by case selection and an inability to detect intragenic deletions and duplications.
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p16INK4A and p14ARF tumor suppressor pathways are deregulated in malignant rhabdoid tumors.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive tumors associated with mutations in the SMARCB1 gene. In experimental systems, the loss of SMARCB1 is hypothesized to alter p16(INK4A) pathways resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors. To determine whether these pathways are deregulated in human MRT, we used immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to evaluate p16(INK4A)/E2F1/RB and p14(ARF)/MDM2/p53 pathways in 25 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) and 11 non-CNS MRT. p16(INK4A) was negative or showed focal weak expression. p16(INK4A) downstream targets CDK4/cyclin D1/ppRB were variably expressed at moderate to low levels; E2F1 was negative. Unexpectedly, p14(ARF) expression was seen in many cases, which correlated positively with p53 and inversely with MDM2 immunostaining in AT/RT. TP53 mutational analysis in 19 of 25 AT/RT and in 8 of 11 non-CNS MRT cases showed point mutations in only 3 AT/RT cases, suggesting that p53 expression was driven mainly by p14(ARF). Finally, nucleophosmin, a protein that stabilizes p53, was positive in most cases and colocalized with p53. Together, these data suggest that, in MRT, there is deregulation not only of p16(INK4A) but also of the p14(ARF) pathway. These results provide insights into cell cycle deregulation in the pathogenesis of human MRT and may aid in the design and evaluation of potential therapies for these tumors.
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Polymicrogyria includes fusion of the molecular layer and decreased neuronal populations but normal cortical laminar organization.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Malformations of cortical development are frequently identified in surgical resections for intractable epilepsy. Among the more frequently identified are cortical dysplasia, pachygyria, and polymicrogyria. The pathogenesis of these common developmental anomalies remains uncertain. Polymicrogyria is particularly vexing because there are multiple described forms (2, 4, and 6 layers) that have been attributed to multiple etiologies (e.g. ischemic, genetic, infectious, and toxic). We reviewed the pathology in 19 cases and performed cortical laminar analysis in 10 of these cases. Our data indicate that a defining feature of polymicrogyriais fusion of the molecular layer and that most often there is a well-defined gray matter-white matter junction. Unexpectedly, the cortical laminae were normally positioned, but there were reduced neuronal populations within these laminae, particularly in the subgranular layers. On the basis of these data, we propose that the categorization of polymicrogyria according to the number of lamina is artificial and should be abandoned, and polymicrogyria should be defined according to the presence or absence of coexisting neuropathological features. Furthermore, our data indicate that polymicrogyria is not a cell migration disorder, rather it should be considered a postmigration malformation of cortical development.
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Nonsense mutation and inactivation of SMARCA4 (BRG1) in an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor showing retained SMARCB1 (INI1) expression.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are highly aggressive brain tumors of early childhood poorly responding to therapy. The majority of cases show inactivation of SMARCB1 (INI1, hSNF5, BAF47), a core member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. We here report the case of a supratentorial AT/RT in a 9-month-old boy, which showed retained SMARCB1 staining on immunohistochemistry and lacked genetic alterations of SMARCB1. Instead, the tumor showed loss of protein expression of another SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex member, the ATPase subunit SMARCA4 (BRG1) due to a homozygous SMARCA4 mutation [c.2032C>T (p.Q678X)]. Our findings highlight the role of SMARCA4 in the pathogenesis of SMARCB1-positive AT/RT and the usefulness of antibodies directed against SMARCA4 in this diagnostic setting.
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The genetic landscape of the childhood cancer medulloblastoma.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and microRNA genes using Sanger sequencing in a set of 22 MBs. We found that, on average, each tumor had 11 gene alterations, fewer by a factor of 5 to 10 than in the adult solid tumors that have been sequenced to date. In addition to alterations in the Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, our analysis led to the discovery of genes not previously known to be altered in MBs. Most notably, inactivating mutations of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase genes MLL2 or MLL3 were identified in 16% of MB patients. These results demonstrate key differences between the genetic landscapes of adult and childhood cancers, highlight dysregulation of developmental pathways as an important mechanism underlying MBs, and identify a role for a specific type of histone methylation in human tumorigenesis.
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The Relationship among Hypoxia, Proliferation, and Outcome in Patients with De Novo Glioblastoma: A Pilot Study.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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The hypoxia and proliferation index increase with grade in human glial tumors, but there is no agreement whether either has prognostic importance in glioblastomas. We evaluated these end points individually and together in 16 de novo human glioblastomas using antibodies against the 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia detection agent EF5 and the proliferation detection agent Ki-67. Frozen tumor tissue sections were fluorescence-stained for nuclei (Hoechst 33342), hypoxia (anti-EF5 antibodies), and proliferation (anti-Ki-67 antibodies). EF5 binding adjacent to Ki-67+ cells, overall EF5 binding, the ratio of these values, and the proliferation index were evaluated. Patients were classified using recursive partitioning analysis and followed up until recurrence and/or death. Recursive partitioning analysis was statistically significant for survival (P = .0026). Overall EF5 binding, EF5 binding near Ki-67+ cells, and proliferation index did not predict recurrence. Two additional survival analyses based on ratios of the overall EF5 binding to EF5 binding near Ki-67+ cells were performed. High and low ratio values were determined by two cutoff points: (a) the 50% value for the ratio [EF5/Ki-67(Binding)]/[Tumor(binding)] = Ratio(EF5 50%) and (b) the median EF5 value (75.6%) of the ratio [EF5/Ki-67(Binding)]/[Tumor(binding)] = Ratio(patients median). On the basis of the Ratio(EF5 50%), recurrence (P = .0074) and survival (P = .0196) could be predicted. Using the Ratio(patients median), only survival could be predicted (P = .0291). In summary, patients had a worse prognosis if the [EF5/Ki-67(Binding)]/[Tumor(binding)] ratio was high. A hypothesis for the mechanisms and translational significance of these findings is discussed.
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Coexisting follicular and mantle cell lymphoma with each having an in situ component: A novel, curious, and complex consultation case of coincidental, composite, colonizing lymphoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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A diagnosis of composite lymphoma is typically prompted by the observation of morphologic discordance. We present a case of a spleen revealing histologic features of follicular lymphoma, without any indication of a second lymphoma. Immunohistochemical stains supported this diagnosis and showed the follicular lymphoma to be BCL2-. However, these studies revealed 2 additional unexpected findings: cyclin D1+ mantle zone cells surrounding neoplastic and reactive follicles (indicative of in situ mantle cell lymphoma) and BCL2-bright, histologically nonneoplastic follicles (indicative of in situ follicular lymphoma). ImmunoFISH and microdissection and polymerase chain reaction analysis documented the clonal nature of the cyclin D1+ mantle zones and illustrated clonal independence from the follicular lymphoma. This case illustrates an uncommon and unusual composite follicular and mantle cell lymphoma, with the follicular lymphoma accompanied by an in situ component, whereas the only manifestation of the mantle cell lymphoma was in situ.
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Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays. A novel duplication in chromosome band 7q34 was identified in 17 of 22 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and three of six fibrillary astrocytomas. The 7q34 duplication spans 2.6 Mb of genomic sequence and contains approximately 20 genes, including two candidate tumor genes, HIPK2 and BRAF. There were no abnormalities in HIPK2, and analysis of two mutation hot-spots in BRAF revealed a V600E mutation in only one tumor without the duplication. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the 7q34 copy number change and was suggestive of a tandem duplication. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing revealed a fusion product between KIAA1549 and BRAF. The predicted fusion product includes the BRAF kinase domain and lacks the auto-inhibitory N-terminus. Western blot analysis revealed phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in tumors with the duplication, consistent with BRAF-induced activation of the pathway. Further studies are required to determine the role of this fusion gene in downstream MAPK signaling and its role in development of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.
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Immunoprofile of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: aberrant desmin and EMA expression, retention of INI1, and negative estrogen receptor in 22 female-predominant central nervous system and musculoskeletal cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor in the differential diagnosis of other small, round blue cell tumors, including atypical teratoid tumor in the central nervous system (CNS) and rhabdomyosarcoma in the musculoskeletal (MSK) locations. We reviewed the morphology of CNS and MSK cases and applied a panel of immunostains. Archival cases were pulled from our files. Immunohistochemistry and follow-up were obtained. Twenty-two cases included 5 CNS (all female; mean age, 30.2) and 17 MSK (11 female and 6 male; mean age, 31.1). Both CNS and MSK examples had similar round cells, staghorn vascular pattern, increased mitotic activity, and centrally located hyaline cartilage islands. The CNS examples demonstrated more spindling and the MSK cases more necrosis. INI1 was retained in all tumors studied. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and desmin were expressed focally in 35% and 50% of cases, respectively. The round cells of all cases were negative for MyoD1, myogenin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), keratins, and estrogen receptor, as well as a panel of other antiobodies. Eighty percent of patients with follow-up had pulmonary metastases and/or died within a mean of 5 years. The CNS and MSK mesenchymal chondrosarcoma predominantly affects adult females with poor prognosis. There are only subtle morphologic differences between the CNS and MSK groups. By immunohistochemistry, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma occasionally expresses aberrant desmin and EMA but is negative for SMA, myogenin MyoD1, GFAP, and keratins, refuting true smooth or skeletal muscle, epithelial, or meningothelial phenotype. Retained INI1 separates these tumors from atypical teratoid tumor. Despite marked female predominance in our series, estrogen receptor is negative in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
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Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Digital pathology represents an electronic environment for performing pathologic analysis and managing the information associated with this activity. The technology to create and support digital pathology has largely developed over the last decade. The use of digital pathology tools is essential to adapt and lead in the rapidly changing environment of 21st century neuropathology. The utility of digital pathology has already been demonstrated by pathologists in several areas including consensus reviews, quality assurance (Q/A), tissue microarrays (TMAs), education and proficiency testing. These utilities notwithstanding, interface issues, storage and image formatting all present challenges to the integration of digital pathology into the neuropathology work environment. With continued technologic improvements, as well as the introduction of fluorescent side scanning and multispectral detection, future developments in digital pathology offer the promise of adding powerful analytic tools to the pathology work environment. The integration of digital pathology with biorepositories offers particular promise for neuropathologists engaged in tissue banking. The utilization of these tools will be essential for neuropathologists to continue as leaders in diagnostics, translational research and basic science in the 21st century.
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Genomic analysis using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based oligonucleotide arrays and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification provides a comprehensive analysis of INI1/SMARCB1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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A high-resolution genomic profiling and comprehensive targeted analysis of INI1/SMARCB1 of a large series of pediatric rhabdoid tumors was done. The aim was to identify regions of copy number change and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) that might pinpoint additional loci involved in the development or progression of rhabdoid tumors and define the spectrum of genomic alterations of INI1 in this malignancy.
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Loss of INI1 expression defines a unique subset of pediatric undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Malignant rhabdoid tumor has traditionally been defined by its histologic phenotype. However, genetic investigations of malignant rhabdoid tumor have revealed a characteristic loss of or mutation in the INI1 gene on chromosome 22q. The occurrence and significance of soft tissue tumors meeting genetic criteria for malignant rhabdoid tumor but with an undifferentiated non-rhabdoid histology is poorly characterized. Seventeen undifferentiated sarcomas, lacking rhabdoid histology were identified either through the surgical pathology files of The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia (1980-2005) or in consultation. Immunohistochemistry for the INI1 protein showed a loss of nuclear expression within tumor cells in five of these cases. On histologic review, these five tumors had a featureless sheet-like architecture; four were small round blue cell tumors, and one showed focal spindling. Although they had variably prominent nucleoli, classic rhabdoid morphologic features were not identified in any of these cases at primary presentation. Additional immunohistochemistry showed a polyphenotypic profile. Four of the five tumors showed genetic abnormalities involving the INI1 gene by a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and/or mutational analysis. Patient ages ranged from 1 week to 5 years. Four patients were male, and one was female. Sites included two neck tumors, two extremity tumors, and one paraspinal tumor. Two patients are alive and well over 15 years from the time of diagnosis; the remaining four are alive and well but with less than 2 years follow-up. Thus, alterations of the INI1 gene with consequent loss of expression identified a population of undifferentiated sarcomas lacking classic rhabdoid morphology in young patients, with evidence of favorable survival. Whether these undifferentiated sarcomas represent a clinicopathologic entity distinct from classic malignant rhabdoid tumor requires further investigation.
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Epithelioid sarcoma is associated with a high percentage of SMARCB1 deletions.
Mod. Pathol.
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SMARCB1 gene alterations were first described in highly malignant rhabdoid tumors of the kidney, brain (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor) and soft tissue. An increasing number of tumors have now shown loss of SMARCB1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry, including the majority of epithelioid sarcomas. However, investigations of SMARCB1 gene alterations in epithelioid sarcoma have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate SMARCB1 status using Sanger sequencing of the coding region and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, a rapid and sensitive method for detecting intragenic deletions and duplications, which has not been used in previous studies. Twenty-one epithelioid sarcomas of both classical and proximal type were selected for SMARCB1 gene testing and SMARCB1 immunohistochemistry. Nineteen of 21 (90%) epithelioid sarcomas were SMARCB1 negative by immunohistochemistry. Twelve of the 19 (63%) had adequate DNA recovery for evaluation. Ten of 12 (83%) tumors showed homozygous deletions of the gene. Two cases showed heterozygous deletions and polymorphisms, but no sequence mutations. These results confirm the high frequency of SMARCB1 deletions in epithelioid sarcoma and show that multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is a reliable method for detection of deletions in these cases, which can be performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Given the high percentage of SMARCB1 alterations in epithelioid sarcoma, these findings argue against using SMARCB1 gene deletion as a tool in distinguishing them from malignant rhabdoid tumors.
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Definition of genetic events directing the development of distinct types of brain tumors from postnatal neural stem/progenitor cells.
Cancer Res.
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Although brain tumors are classified and treated based upon their histology, the molecular factors involved in the development of various tumor types remain unknown. In this study, we show that the type and order of genetic events directs the development of gliomas, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid-like tumors from postnatal mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC). We found that the overexpression of specific genes led to the development of these three different brain tumors from NSC/NPCs, and manipulation of the order of genetic events was able to convert one established tumor type into another. In addition, loss of the nuclear chromatin-remodeling factor SMARCB1 in rhabdoid tumors led to increased phosphorylation of eIF2?, a central cytoplasmic unfolded protein response (UPR) component, suggesting a role for the UPR in these tumors. Consistent with this, application of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib led to an increase in apoptosis of human cells with reduced SMARCB1 levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that the order of genetic events determines the phenotypes of brain tumors derived from a common precursor cell pool, and suggest that the UPR may represent a therapeutic target in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
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Spinal cord ependymomas and myxopapillary ependymomas in the first 2 decades of life: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of 19 cases.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
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Primary spinal cord ependymomas (EPNs) are rare in children, comprising classical WHO Grade II and III tumors and Grade I myxopapillary ependymomas (MEPNs). Despite their benign histology, recurrences and neural-axis dissemination have been reported in up to 33% MEPNs in the pediatric population. Treatment options beyond resection are limited, and little is known about their tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to explore the tumor biology and outcomes in a consecutive series of pediatric patients treated at a single institution.
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