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Hypometabolism and hypothermia in the rat model of endotoxic shock: independence of circulatory hypoxia.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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We tested the hypothesis that development of hypothermia instead of fever in endotoxic shock is consequential to hypoxia. Endotoxic shock was induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 500 ?g kg(-1) i.v.) in rats at an ambient temperature of 22 °C. A ?3-adrenergic agonist known to activate metabolic heat production, CL316,243, was employed to evaluate whether thermogenic capacity could be impaired by the fall in oxygen delivery (D?O2) during endotoxic shock. This possibility was rejected as CL316,243 (0.15 mg kg(-1) i.v.) evoked similar rises in oxygen consumption (V?O2) in the presence and absence of endotoxic shock. Next, to investigate whether a less severe form of circulatory hypoxia could be triggering hypothermia, the circulating volume of LPS-injected rats was expanded using 6% hetastarch with the intention of improving tissue perfusion and alleviating hypoxia. This intervention attenuated not only the fall in arterial pressure induced by LPS, but also the associated falls in V?O2 and body temperature. These effects, however, occurred independently of hypoxia, as they were not accompanied by any detectable changes in NAD(+)/NADH ratios. Further experimentation revealed that even the earliest drops in cardiac output and D?O2 during endotoxic shock did not precede the reduction in V?O2 that brings about hypothermia. In fact, D?O2 and V?O2 fell in such a synchrony that the D?O2/V?O2 ratio remained unaffected. Only when hypothermia was prevented by exposure to a warm environment (30 °C) did an imbalance in the D?O2/V?O2 ratio become evident, and such an imbalance was associated with reductions in the renal and hypothalamic NAD(+)/NADH ratios. In conclusion, hypometabolism and hypothermia in endotoxic shock are not consequential to hypoxia but serve as a pre-emptive strategy to avoid hypoxia in this model.
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The hypothermic response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide critically depends on brain CB1, but not CB2 or TRPV1, receptors.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Hypothermia occurs in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. This study evaluated whether the hypothermic response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is modulated by the endocannabinoid anandamide(AEA) and its receptors: cannabinoid-1 (CB1), cannabinoid-2 (CB2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). In rats exposed to an ambient temperature of 22?C, a moderate dose of LPS (25 - 100 ?g kg?1 I.V.) induced a fall in body temperature with a nadir at ?100 minpostinjection. This response was not affected by desensitization of intra-abdominal TRPV1 receptors with resiniferatoxin (20 ?g kg - 1 I.P.), by systemic TRPV1 antagonism with capsazepine(40mg kg?1 I.P.), or by systemic CB2 receptor antagonism with SR144528 (1.4 mg kg?1 I.P.).However, CB1 receptor antagonism by rimonabant (4.6mg kg?1 I.P.) or SLV319 (15mg kg?1 I.P.)blocked LPS hypothermia. The effect of rimonabant was further studied. Rimonabant blocked LPS hypothermia when administered I.C.V. at a dose (4.6 ?g) that was too low to produce systemic effects. The blockade of LPS hypothermia by I.C.V. rimonabant was associated with suppression of the circulating level of tumour necrosis factor-?. In contrast to rimonabant,the I.C.V. administration of AEA (50 ?g) enhanced LPS hypothermia. Importantly, I.C.V. AEAdid not evoke hypothermia in rats not treated with LPS, thus indicating that AEA modulates LPS-activated pathways in the brain rather than thermo effector pathways. In conclusion, the present study reveals a novel, critical role of brain CB1 receptors in LPS hypothermia. Brain CB1 receptors may constitute a new therapeutic target in systemic inflammation and sepsis.
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Thermoregulatory phenotype of the Trpv1 knockout mouse: thermoeffector dysbalance with hyperkinesis.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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This study aimed at determining the thermoregulatory phenotype of mice lacking transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. We used Trpv1 knockout (KO) mice and their genetically unaltered littermates to study diurnal variations in deep body temperature (T(b)) and thermoeffector activities under basal conditions, as well as thermoregulatory responses to severe heat and cold. Only subtle alterations were found in the basal T(b) of Trpv1 KO mice or in their T(b) responses to thermal challenges. The main thermoregulatory abnormality of Trpv1 KO mice was a different pattern of thermoeffectors used to regulate T(b). On the autonomic side, Trpv1 KO mice were hypometabolic (had a lower oxygen consumption) and hypervasoconstricted (had a lower tail skin temperature). In agreement with the enhanced skin vasoconstriction, Trpv1 KO mice had a higher thermoneutral zone. On the behavioral side, Trpv1 KO mice preferred a lower ambient temperature and expressed a higher locomotor activity. Experiments with pharmacological TRPV1 agonists (resiniferatoxin and anandamide) and a TRPV1 antagonist (AMG0347) confirmed that TRPV1 channels located outside the brain tonically inhibit locomotor activity. With age (observed for up to 14 months), the body mass of Trpv1 KO mice exceeded that of controls, sometimes approaching 60 g. In summary, Trpv1 KO mice possess a distinct thermoregulatory phenotype, which is coupled with a predisposition to age-associated overweight and includes hypometabolism, enhanced skin vasoconstriction, decreased thermopreferendum, and hyperkinesis. The latter may be one of the primary deficiencies in Trpv1 KO mice. We propose that TRPV1-mediated signals from the periphery tonically suppress the general locomotor activity.
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Food deprivation alters thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide by enhancing cryogenic inflammatory signaling via prostaglandin D2.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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We tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters body temperature (T(b)) responses to bacterial LPS by enhancing inflammatory signaling that decreases T(b) (cryogenic signaling) rather than by suppressing inflammatory signaling that increases T(b) (febrigenic signaling). Free-feeding or food-deprived (24 h) rats received LPS at doses (500 and 2,500 microg/kg iv) that are high enough to activate both febrigenic and cryogenic signaling. At these doses, LPS caused fever in rats at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C, but produced hypothermia at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Whereas food deprivation had little effect on LPS fever, it enhanced LPS hypothermia, an effect that was particularly pronounced in rats injected with the higher LPS dose. Enhancement of hypothermia was not due to thermogenic incapacity, since food-deprived rats were fully capable of raising T(b) in response to the thermogenic drug CL316,243 (1 mg/kg iv). Neither was enhancement of hypothermia associated with altered plasma levels of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) or with reduced levels of an anti-inflammatory hormone (corticosterone). The levels of PGD(2) and PGE(2) during LPS hypothermia were augmented by food deprivation, although the ratio between them remained unchanged. Food deprivation, however, selectively enhanced the responsiveness of rats to the cryogenic action of PGD(2) (100 ng icv) without altering the responsiveness to febrigenic PGE(2) (100 ng icv). These findings support our hypothesis and indicate that cryogenic signaling via PGD(2) underlies enhancement of LPS hypothermia by food deprivation.
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The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel in thermoregulation: a thermosensor it is not.
Pharmacol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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The development of antagonists of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as pain therapeutics has revealed that these compounds cause hyperthermia in humans. This undesirable on-target side effect has triggered a surge of interest in the role of TRPV1 in thermoregulation and revived the hypothesis that TRPV1 channels serve as thermosensors. We review literature data on the distribution of TRPV1 channels in the body and on thermoregulatory responses to TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. We propose that two principal populations of TRPV1-expressing cells have connections with efferent thermoeffector pathways: 1) first-order sensory (polymodal), glutamatergic dorsal-root (and possibly nodose) ganglia neurons that innervate the abdominal viscera and 2) higher-order sensory, glutamatergic neurons presumably located in the median preoptic hypothalamic nucleus. We further hypothesize that all thermoregulatory responses to TRPV1 agonists and antagonists and thermoregulatory manifestations of TRPV1 desensitization stem from primary actions on these two neuronal populations. Agonists act primarily centrally on population 2; antagonists act primarily peripherally on population 1. We analyze what roles TRPV1 might play in thermoregulation and conclude that this channel does not serve as a thermosensor, at least not under physiological conditions. In the hypothalamus, TRPV1 channels are inactive at common brain temperatures. In the abdomen, TRPV1 channels are tonically activated, but not by temperature. However, tonic activation of visceral TRPV1 by nonthermal factors suppresses autonomic cold-defense effectors and, consequently, body temperature. Blockade of this activation by TRPV1 antagonists disinhibits thermoeffectors and causes hyperthermia. Strategies for creating hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists are outlined. The potential physiological and pathological significance of TRPV1-mediated thermoregulatory effects is discussed.
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Cyclooxygenase-1 or -2--which one mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia?
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Systemic inflammation is associated with either fever or hypothermia. Fever, a response to mild systemic inflammation, is mediated by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and not by COX-1. However, it is still disputed whether COX-2, COX-1, neither, or both mediate(s) responses to severe systemic inflammation, and, in particular, the hypothermic response. We compared the effects of SC-236 (COX-2 inhibitor) and SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) on the deep body temperature (T(b)) of rats injected with a lower (10 microg/kg i.v.) or higher (1,000 microg/kg i.v.) dose of LPS at different ambient temperatures (T(a)s). At a neutral T(a) (30 degrees C), the rats responded to LPS with a polyphasic fever (lower dose) or a brief hypothermia followed by fever (higher dose). SC-236 (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) blocked the fever induced by either LPS dose, whereas SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.v.) altered neither the febrile response to the lower LPS dose nor the fever component of the response to the higher dose. However, SC-560 blocked the initial hypothermia caused by the higher LPS dose. At a subneutral T(a) (22 degrees C), the rats responded to LPS with early (70-90 min, nadir) dose-dependent hypothermia. The hypothermic response to either dose was enhanced by SC-236 but blocked by SC-560. The hypothermic response to the higher LPS dose was associated with a fall in arterial blood pressure. This hypotensive response was attenuated by either SC-236 or SC-560. At the onset of LPS-induced hypothermia and hypotension, the functional activity of the COX-1 pathway (COX-1-mediated PGE(2) synthesis ex vivo) increased in the spleen but not liver, lung, kidney, or brain. The expression of splenic COX-1 was unaffected by LPS. We conclude that COX-1, but not COX-2, mediates LPS hypothermia, and that both COX isoforms are required for LPS hypotension.
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A reappraisal on the ability of leptin to induce fever.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Leptin is often regarded as a mediator of fever, even though an in-depth analysis of the dose-dependent effects of leptin on body temperature (T(b)), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and circulating leptin has never been performed. In the present study, such an analysis was performed in rats that were food deprived (lower baseline levels of leptin) or free feeding (higher baseline levels of leptin). In a relatively cool environment (22 degrees C), rats deprived of food for 24 h exhibited mild (approximately 0.5 degrees C) hypothermia. Leptin infusion (250 microg/kg iv) elevated the T(b) of the food-deprived rats to a normothermic level, an effect that peaked (120 min post-infusion) when plasma leptin was at a level (approximately 8 ng/mL) often found in leptin-responsive subjects. Increasing the leptin dose to 1000 microg/kg did not produce any further (febrile) elevation in the T(b) of food-deprived rats. The anti-hypothermic effect of leptin in food-deprived rats was not associated with any rise in the plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6. In free-feeding rats kept in a cooler (22 degrees C) or warmer (28 degrees C) environment, leptin infusion failed to alter T(b) or to produce any surge in plasma TNF-alpha or IL-6, even when the dose infused (3500 microg/kg iv) resulted in excessive, non-physiological rises in plasma leptin (approximately 542 ng/mL at 30 min; approximately 75 ng/mL at 120 min post-infusion). In contrast, free-feeding rats in the same experimental set-up were able to respond to a low dose (2 microg/kg iv) of IL-1beta with a typical biphasic fever, which was associated with surges in plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6. Collectively, our data show that an acute rise in plasma leptin to a level within or fairly above the physiological range does not induce fever. These results challenge the idea that leptin may be a mediator of fever.
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Lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia and hypotension are associated with inflammatory signaling that is triggered outside the brain.
Brain Behav. Immun.
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Little is known about the neuroimmune mechanisms responsible for the switch from fever to hypothermia observed in severe forms of systemic inflammation. We evaluated whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acting directly on the brain could promote a fever-hypothermia switch as well as the hypotension that is often associated with hypothermia in models of systemic inflammation. At an ambient temperature of 22°C, freely moving rats received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of LPS at doses ranging from 0.5 to 25?g. Despite the use of such high doses, the prevailing thermal response was fever. To investigate if a hypothermic response could be hidden within the prevailing febrile response, rats were pretreated with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (SC-236, 3.5mg/kg i.v.) known to block fever, but this strategy also failed to reveal any consistent hypothermic response following i.c.v. LPS. At the doses tested, i.c.v. LPS was similarly ineffective at inducing hypotension. Additional doses of LPS did not need to be tested because the 25-?g dose was already sufficient to induce both hypothermia and hypotension when administered peripherally (intra-arterially). An empirical 3D model of the interplay among body temperature, arterial pressure and heart rate following intra-arterial LPS reinforced the strong association of hypothermia with hypotension and, at the same time, exposed a bell-shaped relationship between heart rate and body temperature. In summary, the present study demonstrates that hypothermia and hypotension are triggered exclusively by LPS acting outside the brain and provides an integrated model of the thermal and cardiovascular responses to peripheral LPS.
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Lamellar liquid crystalline phases for cutaneous delivery of Paclitaxel: impact of the monoglyceride.
Pharm. Res.
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To develop liquid crystalline phases with monoglycerides, and assess whether the monoglyceride type favors cutaneous over transdermal paclitaxel delivery.
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Naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced systemic inflammation.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
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The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 10(9) or 1 × 10(10) CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition.
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