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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (PInteraction = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (PInteraction = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (PInteraction = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability.
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Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD) or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI.
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Integrative genomics reveals novel molecular pathways and gene networks for coronary artery disease.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The majority of the heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unexplained, despite recent successes of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in identifying novel susceptibility loci. Integrating functional genomic data from a variety of sources with a large-scale meta-analysis of CAD GWAS may facilitate the identification of novel biological processes and genes involved in CAD, as well as clarify the causal relationships of established processes. Towards this end, we integrated 14 GWAS from the CARDIoGRAM Consortium and two additional GWAS from the Ottawa Heart Institute (25,491 cases and 66,819 controls) with 1) genetics of gene expression studies of CAD-relevant tissues in humans, 2) metabolic and signaling pathways from public databases, and 3) data-driven, tissue-specific gene networks from a multitude of human and mouse experiments. We not only detected CAD-associated gene networks of lipid metabolism, coagulation, immunity, and additional networks with no clear functional annotation, but also revealed key driver genes for each CAD network based on the topology of the gene regulatory networks. In particular, we found a gene network involved in antigen processing to be strongly associated with CAD. The key driver genes of this network included glyoxalase I (GLO1) and peptidylprolyl isomerase I (PPIL1), which we verified as regulatory by siRNA experiments in human aortic endothelial cells. Our results suggest genetic influences on a diverse set of both known and novel biological processes that contribute to CAD risk. The key driver genes for these networks highlight potential novel targets for further mechanistic studies and therapeutic interventions.
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Functional genomics of the 9p21.3 locus for atherosclerosis: clarity or confusion?
Curr Cardiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The 9p21.3 locus was the first to yield to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) seeking common genetic variants predisposing to increased risk of coronary artery atherosclerotic disease (CAD). The 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms that show highest association with CAD are clustered in a region 100,000 to 150,000 base pairs 5' to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2B (coding for p15(ink4b)) and CDKN2A (coding for p16(ink4a) and p14(ARF)). This region also covers the 3' end of a long noncoding RNA transcribed antisense to CDKN2B (CDKN2BAS, aka ANRIL for antisense noncoding RNA at the ink4 locus) whose expression has been linked to chromatin remodeling at the locus. Despite intensive investigation over the past 7 years, the functional significance of the 9p21.3 locus remains elusive. Other variants at this locus have been associated with glaucoma, glioma, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, diseases that implicate tissue-resident macrophages. Here, we review the evidence that genetic variants at 9p21.3 disrupt tissue-specific enhancers and propose new insights to guide future studies.
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LMO4 is required to maintain hypothalamic insulin signaling.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Insulin action at the hypothalamus controls glucose homeostasis by suppressing hepatic glucose production and promoting glucose uptake by muscle. However, the mechanisms that control central insulin signaling have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that LMO4 is highly expressed in hypothalamic nuclei that regulate glucose homeostasis. Here, we determined how loss of LMO4 in the hypothalamus would affect central insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. In transgenic mice that have LMO4 in ablated in glutamatergic neurons, we found that insulin signaling is impaired in the hypothalamus as well as in peripheral tissues (liver and skeletal muscle). Impaired glucose homeostasis was associated with a markedly elevation in hypothalamic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity. PTP1B is a key phosphatase that terminates insulin signaling by dephosphorylating its receptor and downstream signaling molecules. Importantly, we found that administration of a selective PTP1B inhibitor Trodusquemine to the hypothalamus restored central insulin signaling and improved the response of peripheral tissues to insulin in these LMO4-deficient mice. Thus, our study reveals an essential requirement for LMO4 to modulate central insulin signaling.
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Comparative genome-wide association studies in mice and humans for trimethylamine N-oxide, a proatherogenic metabolite of choline and L-carnitine.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Elevated levels of plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), the product of gut microbiome and hepatic-mediated metabolism of dietary choline and L-carnitine, have recently been identified as a novel risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis in mice and humans. The goal of this study was to identify the genetic factors associated with plasma TMAO levels.
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Is atherosclerosis fundamental to human aging? Lessons from ancient mummies.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Case reports from Johan Czermak, Marc Ruffer, and others a century or more ago demonstrated ancient Egyptians had atherosclerosis three millennia ago. The Horus study team extended their findings, demonstrating that atherosclerosis was prevalent among 76 ancient Egyptian mummies and among 61 mummies from each of the ancient cultures of Peru, the American Southwest, and the Aleutian Islands. These findings challenge the assumption that atherosclerosis is a modern disease caused by present day risk factors. An extensive autopsy of an ancient Egyptian teenage male weaver named Nakht found that he was infected with four parasites: Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia species, Trichinella spiralis, and Plasmodium falciparum. Modern day patients with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus experience premature atherosclerosis. Could the burden of chronic inflammatory disease have been a risk factor for atherosclerosis in these ancient cultures? The prevalence of atherosclerosis in four diverse ancient cultures is consistent with atherosclerosis being fundamental to aging. The impact of risk factors in modern times, and potentially in ancient times, suggests a strong gene-environmental interplay: human genes provide a vulnerability to atherosclerosis, the environment determines when and if atherosclerosis becomes manifest clinically.
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SPG7 variant escapes phosphorylation-regulated processing by AFG3L2, elevates mitochondrial ROS, and is associated with multiple clinical phenotypes.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects many processes in health and disease. SPG7 assembles with AFG3L2 into the mAAA protease at the inner membrane of mitochondria, degrades damaged proteins, and regulates the synthesis of mitochondrial ribosomes. SPG7 is cleaved and activated by AFG3L2 upon assembly. A variant in SPG7 that replaces arginine 688 with glutamine (Q688) is associated with several phenotypes, including toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and (as reported here) coronary artery disease. We demonstrate that SPG7 processing is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of AFG3L2. Carriers of Q688 bypass this regulation and constitutively process and activate SPG7 mAAA protease. Cells expressing Q688 produce higher ATP levels and ROS, promoting cell proliferation. Our results thus reveal an unexpected link between the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the mitochondria mAAA protease affecting ROS production and several clinical phenotypes.
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LMO4 is essential for paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal activity and calcium channel expression to prevent hyperphagia.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity reflects a lack of progress in combating one of the most serious health problems of this century. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the appetitive network by focusing on the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH), a key region responsible for the homeostatic balance of food intake. Here we show that mice with PVH-specific ablation of LIM domain only 4 (Lmo4) become rapidly obese when fed regular chow due to hyperphagia rather than to reduced energy expenditure. Brain slice recording of LMO4-deficient PVH neurons showed reduced basal cellular excitability together with reduced voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents. Real-time PCR quantification revealed that LMO4 regulates the expression of Ca(2+) channels (Cacna1h, Cacna1e) that underlie neuronal excitability. By increasing neuronal activity using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs technology, we could suppress food intake of PVH-specific LMO4-deficient mice. Together, these results demonstrate that reduced neural activity in LMO4-deficient PVH neurons accounts for hyperphagia. Thus, maintaining PVH activity is important to prevent hyperphagia-induced obesity.
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The LIM domain only 4 protein is a metabolic responsive inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B that controls hypothalamic leptin signaling.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) counteracts leptin signaling and is a therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Here we found that LIM domain only 4 (LMO4) inhibits PTP1B activity by increasing the oxidized inactive form of PTP1B. Mice with neuronal ablation of LMO4 have elevated PTP1B activity and impaired hypothalamic leptin signaling, and a PTP1B inhibitor normalized PTP1B activity and restored leptin control of circulating insulin levels. LMO4 is palmitoylated at its C-terminal cysteine, and deletion of this residue prevented palmitoylation and retention of LMO4 at the endoplasmic reticulum and abolished its inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Importantly, LMO4 palmitoylation is sensitive to metabolic stress; mice challenged with a brief high-fat diet or acute intracerebroventricular infusion of saturated fatty acid had less palmitoylated LMO4, less oxidized PTP1B, and increased PTP1B activity in the hypothalamus. Thus, unleashed PTP1B activity attributable to loss of LMO4 palmitoylation may account for rapid loss of central leptin signaling after acute exposure to saturated fat.
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Two chromosome 9p21 haplotype blocks distinguish between coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction risk.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Variants at the 9p21 locus associate with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI). However, atherosclerotic plaque deposition is distinct from MI (plaque rupture and thrombosis), and recent studies showed no association between these variants and MI in patients with preexisting CAD. We performed haplotype analysis at the 9p21 locus to test whether haplotypes at distinct linkage disequilibrium blocks predict these phenotypes.
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Genomics in cardiovascular disease.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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A paradigm shift toward biology occurred in the 1990s and was subsequently catalyzed by the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. The cost of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing has gone from millions to thousands of dollars with sequencing of ones entire genome costing only $1,000. Rapid DNA sequencing is being embraced for single gene disorders, particularly for sporadic cases and those from small families. Transmission of lethal genes such as associated with Huntingtons disease can, through in vitro fertilization, avoid passing it on to ones offspring. DNA sequencing will meet the challenge of elucidating the genetic predisposition for common polygenic diseases, especially in determining the function of the novel common genetic risk variants and identifying the rare variants, which may also partially ascertain the source of the missing heritability. The challenge for DNA sequencing remains great, despite human genome sequences being 99.5% identical, the 3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for most of the unique features add up to 40 to 60 new mutations per person which, for 7 billion people, is 300 to 400 billion mutations. It is claimed that DNA sequencing has increased 10,000-fold while information storage and retrieval only 16-fold. The physician and health user will be challenged by the convergence of 2 major trends, whole genome sequencing, and the storage/retrieval and integration of the data.
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Assessment of the 9p21.3 locus in severity of coronary artery disease in the presence and absence of type 2 diabetes.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The 9p21.3 locus is strongly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association of 9p21.3 variants with severity of CAD (defined by the number of vessel diseased [VD]) in the presence and absence of T2D.
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Tail-anchored membrane protein SLMAP is a novel regulator of cardiac function at the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Sarcolemmal membrane-associated proteins (SLMAPs) are components of cardiac membranes involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Here, we assessed the role of SLMAP in cardiac structure and function. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of SLMAP1 bearing the transmembrane domain 2 (TM2) to potentially interfere with endogenous SLMAP through homodimerization and subcellular targeting. Histological examination revealed vacuolated myocardium; the severity of which correlated with the expression level of SLMAP1-TM2. High resolution microscopy showed dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) and confocal imaging combined with biochemical analysis indicated targeting of SLMAP1-TM2 to the SR/ER membranes and inappropriate homodimerization. Older (28 wk of age) Tg mice exhibited reduced contractility with impaired relaxation as assessed by left ventricle pressure monitoring. The ventricular dysfunction was associated with electrophysiological abnormalities (elongated QT interval). Younger (5 wk of age) Tg mice also exhibited an elongated QT interval with minimal functional disturbances associated with the activation of the fetal gene program. They were less responsive to isoproterenol challenge (?dP/dt(max)) and developed electrical and left ventricular pressure alternans. The altered electrophysiological and functional disturbances in Tg mice were associated with diminished expression level of calcium cycling proteins of the sarcoplasmic reticulum such as the ryanodine receptor, Ca(2+)-ATPase, calsequestrin, and triadin (but not phospholamban), as well as significantly reduced calcium uptake in microsomal fractions. These data demonstrate that SLMAP is a regulator of E-C coupling at the level of the SR and its perturbation results in progressive deterioration of cardiac electrophysiology and function.
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Clinical and genetic association of serum ceruloplasmin with cardiovascular risk.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is an acute-phase reactant that is increased in inflammatory diseases and in acute coronary syndromes. Cp has recently been shown to possess nitric oxide (NO) oxidase catalytic activity, but its impact on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in stable cardiac patients has not been explored.
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9p21 and the genetic revolution for coronary artery disease.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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It has long been recognized that 50% of the susceptibility for coronary artery disease (CAD) is due to predisposing genetic factors. Comprehensive prevention is likely to require knowledge of these genetic factors.
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Eight genetic loci associated with variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from five community-based studies.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) generates proinflammatory and proatherogenic compounds in the arterial vascular wall and is a potential therapeutic target in coronary heart disease (CHD). We searched for genetic loci related to Lp-PLA2 mass or activity by a genome-wide association study as part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium.
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Rare copy number variation discovery and cross-disorder comparisons identify risk genes for ADHD.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and persistent condition characterized by developmentally atypical and impairing inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. We identified de novo and rare copy number variations (CNVs) in 248 unrelated ADHD patients using million-feature genotyping arrays. We found de novo CNVs in 3 of 173 (1.7%) ADHD patients for whom we had DNA from both parents. These CNVs affected brain-expressed genes: DCLK2, SORCS1, SORCS3, and MACROD2. We also detected rare inherited CNVs in 19 of 248 (7.7%) ADHD probands, which were absent in 2357 controls and which either overlapped previously implicated ADHD loci (for example, DRD5 and 15q13 microduplication) or identified new candidate susceptibility genes (ASTN2, CPLX2, ZBBX, and PTPRN2). Among these de novo and rare inherited CNVs, there were also examples of genes (ASTN2, GABRG1, and CNTN5) previously implicated by rare CNVs in other neurodevelopmental conditions including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further explore the overlap of risks in ADHD and ASD, we used the same microarrays to test for rare CNVs in an independent, newly collected cohort of 349 unrelated individuals with a primary diagnosis of ASD. Deletions of the neuronal ASTN2 and the ASTN2-intronic TRIM32 genes yielded the strongest association with ADHD and ASD, but numerous other shared candidate genes (such as CHCHD3, MACROD2, and the 16p11.2 region) were also revealed. Our results provide support for a role for rare CNVs in ADHD risk and reinforce evidence for the existence of common underlying susceptibility genes for ADHD, ASD, and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
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Recent success in the discovery of coronary artery disease genes.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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For more than 50 years, epidemiological studies have indicated that genetic predisposition accounts for approximately 50% of the susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) and its sequelae, including myocardial infarction. Since common diseases such as CAD are caused by multiple genes, the age-old method of linkage analysis used to map monogenic Mendelian disorders in families unfortunately lacks the required sensitivity. The technology to identify genes predisposing individuals to CAD and other common diseases did not become available until 2005. This technology provided computerized arrays containing hundreds of thousands of DNA markers in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This made it possible to pursue an unbiased approach referred to as genome-wide association studies. The first gene for CAD was simultaneously identified by 2 independent groups in 2007. In a very short interval, a total of 23 loci were mapped that were linked to increased risk for CAD. The results of these studies confirm that CAD is caused by multiple genes, each contributing minimal risk. The most exciting and novel findings are that these loci do not act through known risk factors for CAD and that the loci are more likely to be in DNA regions that regulate transcription rather than being in coding regions for protein.
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Blood pressure loci identified with a gene-centric array.
Toby Johnson, Tom R Gaunt, Stephen J Newhouse, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Maciej Tomaszewski, Meena Kumari, Richard W Morris, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Eoin T O'Brien, Neil R Poulter, Peter Sever, Denis C Shields, Simon Thom, Sasiwarang G Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Morris J Brown, John M Connell, Richard J Dobson, Philip J Howard, Charles A Mein, Abiodun Onipinla, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Yun Zhang, George Davey Smith, Ian N M Day, Debbie A Lawlor, Alison H Goodall, , F Gerald Fowkes, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Paul Elliott, Vesela Gateva, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Christopher P Nelson, Martin D Tobin, Pim van der Harst, Nicola Glorioso, Hani Neuvrith, Erika Salvi, Jan A Staessen, Andrea Stucchi, Nabila Devos, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Pierre-Francois Plouin, Jean Tichet, Peeter Juhanson, Elin Org, Margus Putku, Siim Sõber, Gudrun Veldre, Margus Viigimaa, Anna Levinsson, Annika Rosengren, Dag S Thelle, Claire E Hastie, Thomas Hedner, Wai K Lee, Olle Melander, Björn Wahlstrand, Rebecca Hardy, Andrew Wong, Jackie A Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Li Chen, Alexandre F R Stewart, George A Wells, Harm-Jan Westra, Marcel G M Wolfs, Robert Clarke, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Mark Lathrop, John F Peden, Udo Seedorf, Hugh Watkins, Willem H Ouwehand, Jennifer Sambrook, Jonathan Stephens, Juan-Pablo Casas, Fotios Drenos, Michael V Holmes, Mika Kivimäki, Sonia Shah, Tina Shah, Philippa J Talmud, John Whittaker, Chris Wallace, Christian Delles, Maris Laan, Diana Kuh, Steve E Humphries, Fredrik Nyberg, Daniele Cusi, Robert Roberts, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Lude Franke, Alice V Stanton, Anna F Dominiczak, Martin Farrall, Aroon D Hingorani, Nilesh J Samani, Mark J Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies.
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RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events.
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Identification of a novel muscle A-type lamin-interacting protein (MLIP).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Mutations in the A-type lamin (LMNA) gene are associated with age-associated degenerative disorders of mesenchymal tissues, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. The molecular mechanisms that connect mutations in LMNA with different human diseases are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of a Muscle-enriched A-type Lamin-interacting Protein, MLIP (C6orf142 and 2310046A06rik), a unique single copy gene that is an innovation of amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals). MLIP encodes alternatively spliced variants (23-57 kDa) and possesses several novel structural motifs not found in other proteins. MLIP is expressed ubiquitously and most abundantly in heart, skeletal, and smooth muscle. MLIP interacts directly and co-localizes with lamin A and C in the nuclear envelope. MLIP also co-localizes with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies within the nucleus. PML, like MLIP, is only found in amniotes, suggesting that a functional link between the nuclear envelope and PML bodies may exist through MLIP. Down-regulation of lamin A/C expression by shRNA results in the up-regulation and mislocalization of MLIP. Given that MLIP is expressed most highly in striated and smooth muscle, it is likely to contribute to the mesenchymal phenotypes of laminopathies.
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Identification of a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear localization motif in interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) is a muscle-enriched transcription factor required to activate vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) expression in muscle. IRF2BP2 is found in the nucleus of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. During the process of skeletal muscle differentiation, some IRF2BP2 becomes relocated to the cytoplasm, although the functional significance of this relocation and the mechanisms that control nucleocytoplasmic localization of IRF2BP2 are not yet known.
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Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
Heribert Schunkert, Inke R König, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Themistocles L Assimes, Hilma Holm, Michael Preuss, Alexandre F R Stewart, Maja Barbalic, Christian Gieger, Devin Absher, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Hooman Allayee, David Altshuler, Sonia S Anand, Karl Andersen, Jeffrey L Anderson, Diego Ardissino, Stephen G Ball, Anthony J Balmforth, Timothy A Barnes, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Klaus Berger, Joshua C Bis, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Eric Boerwinkle, Peter S Braund, Morris J Brown, Mary Susan Burnett, Ian Buysschaert, , John F Carlquist, Li Chen, Sven Cichon, Veryan Codd, Robert W Davies, George Dedoussis, Abbas Dehghan, Serkalem Demissie, Joseph M Devaney, Patrick Diemert, Ron Do, Angela Doering, Sandra Eifert, Nour Eddine El Mokhtari, Stephen G Ellis, Roberto Elosua, James C Engert, Stephen E Epstein, Ulf de Faire, Marcus Fischer, Aaron R Folsom, Jennifer Freyer, Bruna Gigante, Domenico Girelli, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jeffrey R Gulcher, Eran Halperin, Naomi Hammond, Stanley L Hazen, Albert Hofman, Benjamin D Horne, Thomas Illig, Carlos Iribarren, Gregory T Jones, J Wouter Jukema, Michael A Kaiser, Lee M Kaplan, John J P Kastelein, Kay-Tee Khaw, Joshua W Knowles, Genovefa Kolovou, Augustine Kong, Reijo Laaksonen, Diether Lambrechts, Karin Leander, Guillaume Lettre, Mingyao Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Christina Loley, Andrew J Lotery, Pier M Mannucci, Seraya Maouche, Nicola Martinelli, Pascal P McKeown, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Olle Melander, Pier Angelica Merlini, Vincent Mooser, Thomas Morgan, Thomas W Mühleisen, Joseph B Muhlestein, Thomas Münzel, Kiran Musunuru, Janja Nahrstaedt, Christopher P Nelson, Markus M Nöthen, Oliviero Olivieri, Riyaz S Patel, Chris C Patterson, Annette Peters, Flora Peyvandi, Liming Qu, Arshed A Quyyumi, Daniel J Rader, Loukianos S Rallidis, Catherine Rice, Frits R Rosendaal, Diana Rubin, Veikko Salomaa, M Lourdes Sampietro, Manj S Sandhu, Eric Schadt, Arne Schäfer, Arne Schillert, Stefan Schreiber, Jürgen Schrezenmeir, Stephen M Schwartz, David S Siscovick, Mohan Sivananthan, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Albert Smith, Tamara B Smith, Jaapjan D Snoep, Nicole Soranzo, John A Spertus, Klaus Stark, Kathy Stirrups, Monika Stoll, W H Wilson Tang, Stephanie Tennstedt, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Maciej Tomaszewski, André G Uitterlinden, Andre M van Rij, Benjamin F Voight, Nick J Wareham, George A Wells, H-Erich Wichmann, Philipp S Wild, Christina Willenborg, Jaqueline C M Witteman, Benjamin J Wright, Shu Ye, Tanja Zeller, Andreas Ziegler, Francois Cambien, Alison H Goodall, L Adrienne Cupples, Thomas Quertermous, Winfried März, Christian Hengstenberg, Stefan Blankenberg, Willem H Ouwehand, Alistair S Hall, Panos Deloukas, John R Thompson, Kari Stefansson, Robert Roberts, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ruth McPherson, Jeanette Erdmann, Nilesh J Samani.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 individuals with CAD (cases) and 64,762 controls of European descent followed by genotyping of top association signals in 56,682 additional individuals. This analysis identified 13 loci newly associated with CAD at P < 5 × 10?? and confirmed the association of 10 of 12 previously reported CAD loci. The 13 new loci showed risk allele frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.91 and were associated with a 6% to 17% increase in the risk of CAD per allele. Notably, only three of the new loci showed significant association with traditional CAD risk factors and the majority lie in gene regions not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Finally, five of the new CAD risk loci appear to have pleiotropic effects, showing strong association with various other human diseases or traits.
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Design of the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-Wide Replication And Meta-Analysis (CARDIoGRAM) Study: A Genome-wide association meta-analysis involving more than 22 000 cases and 60 000 controls.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of myocardial infarction (MI) and other forms of coronary artery disease (CAD) have led to the discovery of at least 13 genetic loci. In addition to the effect size, power to detect associations is largely driven by sample size. Therefore, to maximize the chance of finding novel susceptibility loci for CAD and MI, the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication And Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) consortium was formed.
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Genetic variants influencing circulating lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Genetic studies might provide new insights into the biological mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and risk of CAD. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel genetic determinants of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides.
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Common variants at 10 genomic loci influence hemoglobin A?(C) levels via glycemic and nonglycemic pathways.
Nicole Soranzo, Serena Sanna, Eleanor Wheeler, Christian Gieger, Dörte Radke, Josée Dupuis, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Claudia Langenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Elliot Stolerman, Manjinder S Sandhu, Matthew M Heeney, Joseph M Devaney, Muredach P Reilly, Sally L Ricketts, Alexandre F R Stewart, Benjamin F Voight, Christina Willenborg, Benjamin Wright, David Altshuler, Dan Arking, Beverley Balkau, Daniel Barnes, Eric Boerwinkle, Bernhard Böhm, Amélie Bonnefond, Lori L Bonnycastle, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefan R Bornstein, Yvonne Böttcher, Suzannah Bumpstead, Mary Susan Burnett-Miller, Harry Campbell, Antonio Cao, John Chambers, Robert Clark, Francis S Collins, Josef Coresh, Eco J C de Geus, Mariano Dei, Panos Deloukas, Angela Döring, Josephine M Egan, Roberto Elosua, Luigi Ferrucci, Nita Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Christopher Franklin, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Sophie Gallina, Anuj Goel, Jurgen Graessler, Harald Grallert, Andreas Greinacher, David Hadley, Alistair Hall, Anders Hamsten, Caroline Hayward, Simon Heath, Christian Herder, Georg Homuth, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Rachel Hunter-Merrill, Thomas Illig, Anne U Jackson, Antti Jula, Marcus Kleber, Christopher W Knouff, Augustine Kong, Jaspal Kooner, Anna Köttgen, Peter Kovacs, Knut Krohn, Brigitte Kühnel, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Mark Lathrop, Cécile Lecoeur, Man Li, Mingyao Li, Ruth J F Loos, Jian'an Luan, Valeriya Lyssenko, Reedik Mägi, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anders Malarstig, Massimo Mangino, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Winfried März, Wendy L McArdle, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Olle Melander, Karen L Mohlke, Vincent E Mooser, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, David M Nathan, Matthias Nauck, Chris O'Donnell, Konrad Oexle, Nazario Olla, James S Pankow, Felicity Payne, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Leena Peltonen, Markus Perola, Ozren Polašek, Eleonora Porcu, Daniel J Rader, Wolfgang Rathmann, Samuli Ripatti, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Richa Saxena, David Schlessinger, Heribert Schunkert, Peter Schwarz, Udo Seedorf, Elizabeth Selvin, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Peter Shrader, Angela Silveira, David Siscovick, Kjioung Song, Timothy D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, David P Strachan, Rona Strawbridge, Michael Stumvoll, Ida Surakka, Amy J Swift, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Anke Tönjes, Gianluca Usala, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, Dawn M Waterworth, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Gordon H Williams, James F Wilson, Juliane Winkelmann, Alan F Wright, , Carina Zabena, Jing Hua Zhao, Stephen E Epstein, Jeanette Erdmann, Hakon H Hakonarson, Sekar Kathiresan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Robert Roberts, Nilesh J Samani, Mark D Fleming, Robert Sladek, Goncalo Abecasis, Michael Boehnke, Philippe Froguel, Leif Groop, Mark I McCarthy, W H Linda Kao, Jose C Florez, Manuela Uda, Nicholas J Wareham, Inês Barroso, James B Meigs.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Glycated hemoglobin (HbA?(c)), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA?(c). We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA?(c) levels.
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Disruption at the PTCHD1 Locus on Xp22.11 in Autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. It is one of the most highly heritable of the complex disorders, although the underlying genetic factors remain largely unknown. Here, we report mutations in the X-chromosome PTCHD1 (patched-related) gene in seven families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in three families with intellectual disability. A 167-kilobase microdeletion spanning exon 1 was found in two brothers, one with ASD and the other with a learning disability and ASD features; a 90-kilobase microdeletion spanning the entire gene was found in three males with intellectual disability in a second family. In 900 probands with ASD and 208 male probands with intellectual disability, we identified seven different missense changes (in eight male probands) that were inherited from unaffected mothers and not found in controls. Two of the ASD individuals with missense changes also carried a de novo deletion at another ASD susceptibility locus (DPYD and DPP6), suggesting complex genetic contributions. In additional males with ASD, we identified deletions in the 5 flanking region of PTCHD1 that disrupted a complex noncoding RNA and potential regulatory elements; equivalent changes were not found in male control individuals. Thus, our systematic screen of PTCHD1 and its 5 flanking regions suggests that this locus is involved in ~1% of individuals with ASD and intellectual disability.
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Improved prediction of cardiovascular disease based on a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genome-wide association studies.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2010
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at multiple loci that are significantly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In this study, we sought to determine and compare the predictive capabilities of 9p21.3 alone and a panel of SNPs identified and replicated through GWAS for CAD.
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IRF2BP2 is a skeletal and cardiac muscle-enriched ischemia-inducible activator of VEGFA expression.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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We sought to identify an essential component of the TEAD4/VGLL4 transcription factor complex that controls vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression in muscle. A yeast 2-hybrid screen was used to clone a novel component of the TEAD4 complex from a human heart cDNA library. We identified interferon response factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) and confirmed its presence in the TEAD4/VGLL4 complex in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation and mammalian 2-hybrid assays. Coexpression of IRF2BP2 with TEAD4/VGLL4 or TEAD1 alone potently activated, whereas knockdown of IRF2BP2 reduced, VEGFA expression in C(2)C(12) muscle cells. Thus, IRF2BP2 is required to activate VEGFA expression. In mouse embryos, IRF2BP2 was ubiquitously expressed but became progressively enriched in the fetal heart, skeletal muscles, and lung. Northern blot analysis revealed high levels of IRF2BP2 mRNA in adult human heart and skeletal muscles, but immunoblot analysis showed low levels of IRF2BP2 protein in skeletal muscle, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of IRF2BP2 expression. IRF2BP2 protein levels are markedly increased by ischemia in skeletal and cardiac muscle compared to normoxic controls. IRF2BP2 is a novel ischemia-induced coactivator of VEGFA expression that may contribute to revascularization of ischemic cardiac and skeletal muscles.
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Gene dosage of the common variant 9p21 predicts severity of coronary artery disease.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 9p21 gene dosage determines the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Genomics in coronary artery disease: past, present and future.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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The past three years has seen the completion of a series of genome-wide association studies designed to identify genetic variants associated with risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) or its related phenotype, myocardial infarction (MI). The first and most robust genetic risk variant is located on chromosome 9p21.3. A series of other loci, with less prevalence and smaller population-attributable risks, were described to associate with CAD/MI. However, these loci explain only a fraction of the heritable component of CAD/MI. A small fraction of these loci alter the function of genes known to be involved in atherogenesis and/or thrombosis. The rest do not appear to impart their risk via any known risk factors, implying yet unknown pathogenetic pathways. Moreover, many loci, including 9p21, are located in intergenic segments and elicit the phenotype by novel mechanisms whose elucidation will most likely unravel novel therapeutic targets. Future investigation will be focused on defining the underlying mechanism by which the phenotype is affected, the role of these genetic markers in standard risk prediction models and identification of further loci to explain the missing heritability.
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The genome-wide association study--a new era for common polygenic disorders.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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This review covers the advances made in the last decade utilizing the high-density single-nucleotide microarrays to screen the entire human genome for genetic risk variants and outlines future strategies to draw deeper into the human genetic front. The sequence of the human genome provides the blueprint for life, while its variation provides the spice of life. Approximately 99.5% of the human genome DNA sequence is identical among humans with 0.5% of the genome sequence (15 million bps) accounting for all individual differences including susceptibility for disease. The new technology of the computerized chip array containing up to millions of SNPs as DNA markers makes possible genome-wide association studies to detect genetic predisposition to common polygenic disorders such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The sample sizes required for these studies are massive and large; worldwide consortiums such as CARDIoGRAM have been formed to accommodate this requirement. The progress has been remarkable with the identification of 9p21 followed by several others within the past 2 years. It is expected that most of the common variants (minor allele frequency, MAF >5%) will be identified for CAD within the next 2 to 3 years. Rare variants (MAF <5%) will require direct sequencing which will be delayed somewhat. The ultimate objective for the future is the sequencing and functional analysis of the causative polymorphisms. This will require a new approach involving several disciplines, namely, bioinformatics, high-throughput cell expression, and animal models.
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Left ventricular and myocardial function in mice expressing constitutively pseudophosphorylated cardiac troponin I.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Protein kinase (PK)C-induced phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn)I has been shown to regulate cardiac contraction. Objective: Characterize functional effects of increased PKC-induced cTnI phosphorylation and identify underlying mechanisms using a transgenic mouse model (cTnI(PKC-P)) expressing mutant cTnI (S43E, S45E, T144E).
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The transcription factor GATA-2 does not associate with angiographic coronary artery disease in the Ottawa Heart Genomics and Cleveland Clinic GeneBank Studies.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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The transcription factor GATA2 was reported to associate with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the family-based Genecard sample (Connelly et al. in PLoS Genet 2:e139, 2006). We asked whether GATA2 associates with sporadic cases of CAD in the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study (OHGS) and Cleveland Clinic (CC) populations. We genotyped the lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) from Genecard, rs2713604 which is located in intron 5-6 of GATA2 in 600 CAD cases and 625 controls, as well as a tag SNP rs1573949 (r (2) = 0.87 in Caucasians of European ancestry in Utah from HapMap) in 1,136 cases and 1,162 controls in the OHGS1 population. A further 1,838 CAD cases and 913 controls derived from an independent sample combining genotypes from CC and OHGS2 populations were genotyped for rs1573949. Neither of the genotyped SNPs associates with CAD in the OHGS1 or CC/OHGS2 populations. Our data suggest that GATA2 does not contribute to the development of angiographic CAD among sporadic cases.
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Functional analysis of the chromosome 9p21.3 coronary artery disease risk locus.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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We have investigated the functional significance of conserved sequences within the 9p21.3 risk locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) and determined the relationship of 9p21.3 to expression of ANRIL and to whole genome gene expression.
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A genome-wide association study reveals variants in ARL15 that influence adiponectin levels.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
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The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202). Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8)). We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19) for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733). A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15) gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8), n = 14,733). This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6), n = 22,421) more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3), n = 10,128), and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk.
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A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 22 loci associated with eight hematological parameters in the HaemGen consortium.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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The number and volume of cells in the blood affect a wide range of disorders including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, infectious and immune conditions. We consider here the genetic variation in eight clinically relevant hematological parameters, including hemoglobin levels, red and white blood cell counts and platelet counts and volume. We describe common variants within 22 genetic loci reproducibly associated with these hematological parameters in 13,943 samples from six European population-based studies, including 6 associated with red blood cell parameters, 15 associated with platelet parameters and 1 associated with total white blood cell count. We further identified a long-range haplotype at 12q24 associated with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in 9,479 cases and 10,527 controls. We show that this haplotype demonstrates extensive disease pleiotropy, as it contains known risk loci for type 1 diabetes, hypertension and celiac disease and has been spread by a selective sweep specific to European and geographically nearby populations.
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Functional characterization of a promoter polymorphism that drives ACSL5 gene expression in skeletal muscle and associates with diet-induced weight loss.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Diet-induced weight loss is affected by a wide range of factors, including genetic variation. Identifying functional polymorphisms will help to elucidate mechanisms that account for variation in dietary metabolism. Previously, we reported a strong association between a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2419621 (C>T) in the promoter of acyl-CoA synthetase long chain 5 (ACSL5), rapid weight loss in obese Caucasian females, and elevated ACSL5 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle biopsies. Here, we showed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) that the T allele creates a functional cis-regulatory E-box element (CANNTG) that is recognized by the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD. The T allele promoted MyoD-dependent activation of a 1089-base pair ACSL5 promoter fragment in nonmuscle CV1 cells. Differentiation of skeletal myoblasts significantly elevated expression of the ACSL5 promoter. The T allele sustained promoter activity 48 h after differentiation, whereas the C allele showed a significant decline. These results reveal a mechanism for elevated transcription of ACSL5 in skeletal muscle of carriers of the rs2419621(T) allele, associated with more rapid diet-induced weight loss. Natural selection favoring promoter polymorphisms that reduced expression of catabolic genes in skeletal muscle likely accounts for the resistance of obese individuals to dietary intervention.
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Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease.
, Panos Deloukas, Stavroula Kanoni, Christina Willenborg, Martin Farrall, Themistocles L Assimes, John R Thompson, Erik Ingelsson, Danish Saleheen, Jeanette Erdmann, Benjamin A Goldstein, Kathleen Stirrups, Inke R König, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Asa Johansson, Alistair S Hall, Jong-Young Lee, Cristen J Willer, John C Chambers, Tonu Esko, Lasse Folkersen, Anuj Goel, Elin Grundberg, Aki S Havulinna, Weang K Ho, Jemma C Hopewell, Niclas Eriksson, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Per Lundmark, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Suzanne Rafelt, Dmitry Shungin, Rona J Strawbridge, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Emmi Tikkanen, Natalie Van Zuydam, Benjamin F Voight, Lindsay L Waite, Weihua Zhang, Andreas Ziegler, Devin Absher, David Altshuler, Anthony J Balmforth, Inês Barroso, Peter S Braund, Christof Burgdorf, Simone Claudi-Boehm, David Cox, Maria Dimitriou, Ron Do, Alex S F Doney, NourEddine El Mokhtari, Per Eriksson, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Bruna Gigante, Leif Groop, Stefan Gustafsson, Jörg Hager, Göran Hallmans, Bok-Ghee Han, Sarah E Hunt, Hyun M Kang, Thomas Illig, Thorsten Kessler, Joshua W Knowles, Genovefa Kolovou, Johanna Kuusisto, Claudia Langenberg, Cordelia Langford, Karin Leander, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Anders Lundmark, Mark I McCarthy, Christa Meisinger, Olle Melander, Evelin Mihailov, Seraya Maouche, Andrew D Morris, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Kjell Nikus, John F Peden, N William Rayner, Asif Rasheed, Silke Rosinger, Diana Rubin, Moritz P Rumpf, Arne Schäfer, Mohan Sivananthan, Ci Song, Alexandre F R Stewart, Sian-Tsung Tan, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, C Ellen van der Schoot, Peter J Wagner, George A Wells, Philipp S Wild, Tsun-Po Yang, Philippe Amouyel, Dominique Arveiler, Hanneke Basart, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, Paolo Brambilla, Francois Cambien, Adrienne L Cupples, Ulf de Faire, Abbas Dehghan, Patrick Diemert, Stephen E Epstein, Alun Evans, Marco M Ferrario, Jean Ferrières, Dominique Gauguier, Alan S Go, Alison H Goodall, Villi Gudnason, Stanley L Hazen, Hilma Holm, Carlos Iribarren, Yangsoo Jang, Mika Kähönen, Frank Kee, Hyo-Soo Kim, Norman Klopp, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Kratzer, Kari Kuulasmaa, Markku Laakso, Reijo Laaksonen, Ji-Young Lee, Lars Lind, Willem H Ouwehand, Sarah Parish, Jeong E Park, Nancy L Pedersen, Annette Peters, Thomas Quertermous, Daniel J Rader, Veikko Salomaa, Eric Schadt, Svati H Shah, Juha Sinisalo, Klaus Stark, Kari Stefansson, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Wallentin, Nicholas Wareham, Martina E Zimmermann, Markku S Nieminen, Christian Hengstenberg, Manjinder S Sandhu, Tomi Pastinen, Ann-Christine Syvänen, G Kees Hovingh, George Dedoussis, Paul W Franks, Terho Lehtimäki, Andres Metspalu, Pierre A Zalloua, Agneta Siegbahn, Stefan Schreiber, Samuli Ripatti, Stefan S Blankenberg, Markus Perola, Robert Clarke, Bernhard O Boehm, Christopher O'Donnell, Muredach P Reilly, Winfried März, Rory Collins, Sekar Kathiresan, Anders Hamsten, Jaspal S Kooner, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, John Danesh, Colin N A Palmer, Robert Roberts, Hugh Watkins, Heribert Schunkert, Nilesh J Samani.
Nat. Genet.
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
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Interferon-? activates expression of p15 and p16 regardless of 9p21.3 coronary artery disease risk genotype.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
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Because post-transcriptional mechanisms modulate levels of p16 (encoded by CDKN2A) and p15 (encoded by CDKN2B), we tested whether interferon-? regulates the expression of these proteins and the effect of the 9p21 genotype.
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Genes and coronary artery disease: where are we?
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
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Susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) is claimed to be 40% to 60% inherited, but until recently genetic risk factors predisposing to CAD have been elusive. Comprehensive prevention of CAD requires manipulation of genetic risk. The availability of microarrays of single-nucleotide polymorphisms enabling genome-wide association studies (GWAS) led to the discovery of 33 genetic risk variants for CAD. Surprisingly, 23 risk variants mediate their risk through unknown mechanisms, with only 10 associating with hypertension or lipids. Thus, there are several mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of CAD yet to be elucidated. The first risk variant discovered by GWAS was 9p21.3, which occurs in 75% of all populations except African, with a mean increased risk of 25% per copy. Of the 33 variants for CAD, the increased risk varies from 6% to 92% with a mean increased risk of 18%, occurring on average in 47% of the population. The maximum number of risk alleles per individual would be 66. In the CARDIoGRAM (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta Analysis) study of 23 variants, the average per individual was 17, the minimum 7, and the maximum 37. The top 10th percentile has an odds ratio of 1.88 and the lowest percentile an odds ratio of 0.55. Routine genetic screening is unlikely until management is improved by genetic testing. Risk variants should provide pathophysiological insights and targets for novel therapy. While risk variants are less potent predictors of CAD, compared with biomarkers, they have the advantage of not changing in ones lifetime and are unaffected by diet, sex, age, or medication.
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Clinical and genetic association of serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities with cardiovascular risk.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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Diminished serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (measures of paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] function) in humans have been linked to heightened systemic oxidative stress and atherosclerosis risk. The clinical prognostic use of measuring distinct PON-1 activities has not been established, and the genetic determinants of PON-1 activities are not known.
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Rare copy number variants contribute to congenital left-sided heart disease.
PLoS Genet.
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Left-sided congenital heart disease (CHD) encompasses a spectrum of malformations that range from bicuspid aortic valve to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It contributes significantly to infant mortality and has serious implications in adult cardiology. Although left-sided CHD is known to be highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unidentified. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of structural genomic variation on left-sided CHD and compared multiplex families (464 individuals with 174 affecteds (37.5%) in 59 multiplex families and 8 trios) to 1,582 well-phenotyped controls. 73 unique inherited or de novo CNVs in 54 individuals were identified in the left-sided CHD cohort. After stringent filtering, our gene inventory reveals 25 new candidates for LS-CHD pathogenesis, such as SMC1A, MFAP4, and CTHRC1, and overlaps with several known syndromic loci. Conservative estimation examining the overlap of the prioritized gene content with CNVs present only in affected individuals in our cohort implies a strong effect for unique CNVs in at least 10% of left-sided CHD cases. Enrichment testing of gene content in all identified CNVs showed a significant association with angiogenesis. In this first family-based CNV study of left-sided CHD, we found that both co-segregating and de novo events associate with disease in a complex fashion at structural genomic level. Often viewed as an anatomically circumscript disease, a subset of left-sided CHD may in fact reflect more general genetic perturbations of angiogenesis and/or vascular biology.
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Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study.
Benjamin F Voight, Gina M Peloso, Marju Orho-Melander, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Maja Barbalic, Majken K Jensen, George Hindy, Hilma Holm, Eric L Ding, Toby Johnson, Heribert Schunkert, Nilesh J Samani, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, John F Thompson, Mingyao Li, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Kiran Musunuru, James P Pirruccello, Danish Saleheen, Li Chen, Alexandre F R Stewart, Arne Schillert, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, Sonia Anand, James C Engert, Thomas Morgan, John Spertus, Monika Stoll, Klaus Berger, Nicola Martinelli, Domenico Girelli, Pascal P McKeown, Christopher C Patterson, Stephen E Epstein, Joseph Devaney, Mary-Susan Burnett, Vincent Mooser, Samuli Ripatti, Ida Surakka, Markku S Nieminen, Juha Sinisalo, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Markus Perola, Aki Havulinna, Ulf de Faire, Bruna Gigante, Erik Ingelsson, Tanja Zeller, Philipp Wild, Paul I W de Bakker, Olaf H Klungel, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Bas J M Peters, Anthonius de Boer, Diederick E Grobbee, Pieter W Kamphuisen, Vera H M Deneer, Clara C Elbers, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, Cisca Wijmenga, W M Monique Verschuren, Jolanda M A Boer, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Asif Rasheed, Philippe Frossard, Serkalem Demissie, Cristen Willer, Ron Do, José M Ordovás, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Michael Boehnke, Karen L Mohlke, Mark J Daly, Candace Guiducci, Noel P Burtt, Aarti Surti, Elena González, Shaun Purcell, Stacey Gabriel, Jaume Marrugat, John Peden, Jeanette Erdmann, Patrick Diemert, Christina Willenborg, Inke R König, Marcus Fischer, Christian Hengstenberg, Andreas Ziegler, Ian Buysschaert, Diether Lambrechts, Frans Van de Werf, Keith A Fox, Nour Eddine El Mokhtari, Diana Rubin, Jürgen Schrezenmeir, Stefan Schreiber, Arne Schäfer, John Danesh, Stefan Blankenberg, Robert Roberts, Ruth McPherson, Hugh Watkins, Alistair S Hall, Kim Overvad, Eric Rimm, Eric Boerwinkle, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, L Adrienne Cupples, Muredach P Reilly, Olle Melander, Pier M Mannucci, Diego Ardissino, David Siscovick, Roberto Elosua, Kari Stefansson, Christopher J O'Donnell, Veikko Salomaa, Daniel J Rader, Leena Peltonen, Stephen M Schwartz, David Altshuler, Sekar Kathiresan.
Lancet
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High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal.
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Genetics of coronary artery disease in the 21st century.
Clin Cardiol
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is still the number-one killer in the world, and clinical trials indicate that it is preventable. Mortality and morbidity can be reduced by at least 30% to 40% by treating known risk factors. Genetic susceptibility is claimed to account for 50% of predisposition. The challenge of preventing CAD in this century, as claimed by some investigators, will require a more comprehensive prevention and treatment of environmental and genetic risk factors. Part of that challenge has been met by genome-wide association studies, which have identified 36 genetic variants with increased risk for CAD. All of these genetic variants have reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10(-8) ) and replicate in independent populations with large sample sizes. More than 50% of these variants occur in >50% of the population, with 10 occurring in >75% of the population. The challenge and the opportunity lie in the observation that >66% of these risk variants do not mediate their risk through known conventional risk factors. These results suggest that genetic predisposition for CAD is conferred by common DNA variants and many factors contributing to the pathogenesis of CAD are yet to be determined. Comprehensive prevention of CAD will most likely require combating genetic and environmental risk factors. We are on the cusp of genetic screening, and new therapeutic targets are becoming available to manage both genetic and environmental risk factors for CAD.
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Point-of-care genetic testing for personalisation of antiplatelet treatment (RAPID GENE): a prospective, randomised, proof-of-concept trial.
Lancet
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Prospective assessment of pharmacogenetic strategies has been limited by an inability to undertake bedside genetic testing. The CYP2C19*2 allele is a common genetic variant associated with increased rates of major adverse events in individuals given clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We used a novel point-of-care genetic test to identify carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele and aimed to assess a pharmacogenetic approach to dual antiplatelet treatment after PCI.
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Genomics: is it ready for primetime?
Med. Clin. North Am.
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The next decade will focus on identifying the missing heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD). This process will involve a more comprehensive interrogation of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that impart modest biologic effect and an interrogation of rare SNPs that impart profound biologic effect. In parallel, an investigation of the underlying biology of the described association will likely yield novel pathways that provide therapeutic targets. Once we obtain a more complete inventory of sequence variation that predisposes to CAD, a more realistic assessment of the role of genetic risk scoring allied with standard risk algorithms will be possible.
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The genetics of coronary artery disease.
Curr. Opin. Cardiol.
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Prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an appropriate goal for the 21st century. Randomized clinical studies consistently show a 30-40% reduction in mortality and morbidity by modifying known risk factors. However, genetic risk, estimated to account for 40-60% of susceptibility to CAD, has until recently been unknown. Comprehensive prevention will require knowledge of both.
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Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of MTHFR case-control studies, avoiding publication bias.
PLoS Med.
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Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreciably increases homocysteine levels, so "Mendelian randomization" studies using this variant as an instrumental variable could help test causality.
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A genome-wide association study for coronary artery disease identifies a novel susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several novel loci that reproducibly associate with coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or myocardial infarction risk. However, known common CAD risk variants explain only 10% of the predicted genetic heritability of the disease, suggesting that important genetic signals remain to be discovered.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.