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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Aciculin interacts with filamin C and Xin and is essential for myofibril assembly, remodeling and maintenance.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Filamin C (FLNc) and Xin actin-binding repeat-containing proteins (XIRPs) are multi-adaptor proteins that are mainly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles and which play important roles in the assembly and repair of myofibrils and their attachment to the membrane. We identified the dystrophin-binding protein aciculin (also known as phosphoglucomutase-like protein 5, PGM5) as a new interaction partner of FLNc and Xin. All three proteins colocalized at intercalated discs of cardiac muscle and myotendinous junctions of skeletal muscle, whereas FLNc and aciculin also colocalized in mature Z-discs. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments in developing cultured mammalian skeletal muscle cells demonstrated that Xin and aciculin also interact in FLNc-containing immature myofibrils and areas of myofibrillar remodeling and repair induced by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that aciculin is a highly dynamic and mobile protein. Aciculin knockdown in myotubes led to failure in myofibril assembly, alignment and membrane attachment, and a massive reduction in myofibril number. A highly similar phenotype was found upon depletion of aciculin in zebrafish embryos. Our results point to a thus far unappreciated, but essential, function of aciculin in myofibril formation, maintenance and remodeling.
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Dual functions of NME1 in suppression of cell motility and enhancement of genomic stability in melanoma.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The NME1 gene represents the prototypical metastasis suppressor, whose expression inhibits cell motility and metastasis without impact on primary tumor growth in a number of different human cancers. This report outlines our recent efforts to define the molecular mechanisms through which NME1 both suppresses cell motility and promotes genomic integrity in the setting of human melanoma. Forced NME1 expression in a variety of melanoma-derived cell lines was shown to induce dynamic changes in cell morphology and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, with formation of a network of thick stress fibers and assembly of fibronectin fibrils at large focal adhesions. Moreover, NME1 expression results in adhesion reprogramming through an impact on integrin repertoire and focal adhesion dynamics. Having previously demonstrated that NME1 expression promotes repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in both yeast and mammalian cells, probably via the nucleotide excision repair pathway, we have more recently demonstrated that NME1 is rapidly recruited to double-strand breaks. This preliminary result represents the first evidence of direct interactions between NME1 and DNA in the context of DNA repair and has set the stage for current efforts to probe its functional interactions with double-strand break repair pathways. Discussed herein are molecular models to explain the interactions of NME1 with such diverse cellular functions as cell motility and DNA repair, potentially through its nucleoside diphosphate kinase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities.
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Exercise, vascular stiffness, and tissue transglutaminase.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Vascular aging is closely associated with increased vascular stiffness. It has recently been demonstrated that decreased nitric oxide (NO)-induced S-nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to age-related vascular stiffness. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise restores NO signaling and attenuates vascular stiffness by decreasing TG2 activity and cross-linking in an aging rat model.
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Transglutaminase regulation of cell function.
Physiol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Transglutaminases (TGs) are multifunctional proteins having enzymatic and scaffolding functions that participate in regulation of cell fate in a wide range of cellular systems and are implicated to have roles in development of disease. This review highlights the mechanism of action of these proteins with respect to their structure, impact on cell differentiation and survival, role in cancer development and progression, and function in signal transduction. We also discuss the mechanisms whereby TG level is controlled and how TGs control downstream targets. The studies described herein begin to clarify the physiological roles of TGs in both normal biology and disease states.
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Small molecule inhibitors target the tissue transglutaminase and fibronectin interaction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) mediates protein crosslinking through generation of ?-(?-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bonds and promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin (FN) and integrins. Cell adhesion to the peritoneal matrix regulated by TG2 facilitates ovarian cancer dissemination. Therefore, disruption of the TG2-FN complex by small molecules may inhibit cell adhesion and metastasis. A novel high throughput screening (HTS) assay based on AlphaLISA™ technology was developed to measure the formation of a complex between His-TG2 and the biotinylated FN fragment that binds TG2 and to discover small molecules that inhibit this protein-protein interaction. Several hits were identified from 10,000 compounds screened. The top candidates selected based on >70% inhibition of the TG2/FN complex formation were confirmed by using ELISA and bioassays measuring cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation. In conclusion, the AlphaLISA bead format assay measuring the TG2-FN interaction is robust and suitable for HTS of small molecules. One compound identified from the screen (TG53) potently inhibited ovarian cancer cell adhesion to FN, cell migration, and invasion and could be further developed as a potential inhibitor for ovarian cancer dissemination.
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Increased tissue transglutaminase activity contributes to central vascular stiffness in eNOS knockout mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Nitric oxide (NO) can modulate arterial stiffness by regulating both functional and structural changes in the arterial wall. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) has been shown to contribute to increased central aortic stiffness by catalyzing the cross-linking of matrix proteins. NO S-nitrosylates and constrains TG2 to the cytosolic compartment and thereby holds its cross-linking function latent. In the present study, the role of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-derived NO in regulating TG2 function was studied using eNOS knockout mice. Matrix-associated TG2 and TG2 cross-linking function were higher, whereas TG2 S-nitrosylation was lower in the eNOS(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure measured noninvasively were elevated in the eNOS(-/-) compared with WT mice. Intact aortas and decellularized aortic tissue scaffolds of eNOS(-/-) mice were significantly stiffer, as determined by tensile testing. The carotid arteries of the eNOS(-/-) mice were also stiffer, as determined by pressure-dimension analysis. Invasive methods to determine the PWV-mean arterial pressure relationship showed that PWV in eNOS(-/-) and WT diverge at higher mean arterial pressure. Thus eNOS-derived NO regulates TG2 localization and function and contributes to vascular stiffness.
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Activation of extracellular transglutaminase 2 by mechanical force in the arterial wall.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Inward remodeling of small arteries occurs after prolonged vasoconstriction, low blood flow, and in several models of hypertension. The cross-linking enzyme, transglutaminases 2 (TG2), is able to induce inward remodeling and stiffening of arteries. The activity of TG2 is dependent on its conformation, which can be open or closed, and on its redox state. Several factors have been shown to be involved in modulating TG2 activity, including Ca(2+) and GTP/GDP concentrations, as well as the redox state of the environment. This review introduces the hypothesis that mechanical force could be involved in regulating the activity of TG2 during inward remodeling by promoting its open and reduced active state. Several aspects of TG2, such as its structure and localization, are assessed in order to provide arguments that support the hypothesis. We conclude that a direct activation of TG2 by mechanical force exerted by smooth muscle cells may explain the link between smooth muscle activation and inward remodeling, as observed in several physiological and pathological conditions.
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Chiral-selective growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on lattice-mismatched epitaxial cobalt nanoparticles.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Controlling chirality in growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is important for exploiting their practical applications. For long it has been conceptually conceived that the structural control of SWNTs is potentially achievable by fabricating nanoparticle catalysts with proper structures on crystalline substrates via epitaxial growth techniques. Here, we have accomplished epitaxial formation of monometallic Co nanoparticles with well-defined crystal structure, and its use as a catalyst in the selective growth of SWNTs. Dynamics of Co nanoparticles formation and SWNT growth inside an atomic-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope at a low CO pressure was recorded. We achieved highly preferential growth of semiconducting SWNTs (~90%) with an exceptionally large population of (6, 5) tubes (53%) in an ambient CO atmosphere. Particularly, we also demonstrated high enrichment in (7, 6) and (9, 4) at a low growth temperature. These findings open new perspectives both for structural control of SWNTs and for elucidating the growth mechanisms.
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Extracellular TG2: emerging functions and regulation.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family of Ca(2+)-dependent crosslinking enzymes. Unlike other family members, TG2 is a multifunctional protein, which has several other well documented enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions. A significant body of evidence accumulated over the last decade reveals multiple and complex activities of this protein on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM), including its role in the regulation of cell-ECM interactions and outside-in signaling by several types of transmembrane receptors. Moreover, recent findings indicate a dynamic regulation of the levels and functions of extracellular TG2 by several complementary mechanisms. This review summarizes and assesses recent research into the emerging functions and regulation of extracellular TG2.
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Nitric oxide regulates non-classical secretion of tissue transglutaminase.
Commun Integr Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous second messenger which acts as a potent vasodilator, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and pro-angiogenic agent in the vasculature. Recent studies revealed that the effects of NO on blood vessels are mediated in part by its ability to regulate protein trafficking machinery and vesicle-based exocytosis in vascular cells. Specifically, NO-dependent S-nitrosylation of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), an ATPase that enables membrane fusion, was shown to inhibit exocytosis of vesicular secretory compartments such as endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies, platelet alpha granules and cytolytic granules from activated lymphocytes. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG or TG2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized and secreted by various cell types in the vasculature, which is involved in multiple vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and age-dependent aortic stiffening. Our recent findings indicate that tTG is delivered to the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (ECM) via a non-classical ER/Golgi-independent secretion pathway, which depends on the recycling endosomes and the NSF function. Here we report that NO attenuates the unconventional secretion of tTG in human aortic endothelial cells. NO-dependent downregulation of extracellular tTG levels via inhibition of its secretion might be a part of general physiological mechanism which limits externalization of adhesive, pro-inflammatory and thrombogenic proteins in the vasculature.
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Nitric oxide regulates tissue transglutaminase localization and function in the vasculature.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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The multifunctional enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to the development and progression of several cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular rather than intracellular TG2 is enzymatically active, however, the mechanism by which it is exported out of the cell remains unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) is shown to constrain TG2 externalization in endothelial and fibroblast cells. Here, we examined the role of both exogenous and endogenous (endothelial cell-derived) NO in regulating TG2 localization in vascular cells and tissue. NO synthase inhibition in endothelial cells (ECs) using N-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) led to a time-dependent decrease in S-nitrosation and increase in externalization of TG2. Laminar shear stress led to decreased extracellular TG2 in ECs. S-nitrosoglutathione treatment led to decreased activity and externalization of TG2 in human aortic smooth muscle and fibroblast (IMR90) cells. Co-culture of these cells with ECs resulted in increased S-nitrosation and decreased externalization and activity of TG2, which was reversed by L-NAME. Aged Fischer 344 rats had higher tissue scaffold-associated TG2 compared to young. NO regulates intracellular versus extracellular TG2 localization in vascular cells and tissue, likely via S-nitrosation. This in part, explains increased TG2 externalization and activity in aging aorta.
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Unconventional secretion of tissue transglutaminase involves phospholipid-dependent delivery into recycling endosomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Although endosomal compartments have been suggested to play a role in unconventional protein secretion, there is scarce experimental evidence for such involvement. Here we report that recycling endosomes are essential for externalization of cytoplasmic secretory protein tissue transglutaminase (tTG). The de novo synthesized cytoplasmic tTG does not follow the classical ER/Golgi-dependent secretion pathway, but is targeted to perinuclear recycling endosomes, and is delivered inside these vesicles prior to externalization. On its route to the cell surface tTG interacts with internalized ?1 integrins inside the recycling endosomes and is secreted as a complex with recycled ?1 integrins. Inactivation of recycling endosomes, blocking endosome fusion with the plasma membrane, or downregulation of Rab11 GTPase that controls outbound trafficking of perinuclear recycling endosomes, all abrogate tTG secretion. The initial recruitment of cytoplasmic tTG to recycling endosomes and subsequent externalization depend on its binding to phosphoinositides on endosomal membranes. These findings begin to unravel the unconventional mechanism of tTG secretion which utilizes the long loop of endosomal recycling pathway and indicate involvement of endosomal trafficking in non-classical protein secretion.
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Decreased S-nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase contributes to age-related increases in vascular stiffness.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Although an age-related decrease in NO bioavailability contributes to vascular stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that NO constrains the activity of the matrix crosslinking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) via S-nitrosylation in young vessels, a process that is reversed in aging.
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Regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor function by integrin-associated cell surface transglutaminase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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A functional collaboration between growth factor receptors such as platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and integrins is required for effective signal transduction in response to soluble growth factors. However, the mechanisms of synergistic PDGFR/integrin signaling remain poorly understood. Our previous work showed that cell surface tissue transglutaminase (tTG) induces clustering of integrins and amplifies integrin signaling by acting as an integrin binding adhesion co-receptor for fibronectin. Here we report that in fibroblasts tTG enhances PDGFR-integrin association by interacting with PDGFR and bridging the two receptors on the cell surface. The interaction between tTG and PDGFR reduces cellular levels of the receptor by accelerating its turnover. Moreover, the association of PDGFR with tTG causes receptor clustering, increases PDGF binding, promotes adhesion-mediated and growth factor-induced PDGFR activation, and up-regulates downstream signaling. Importantly, tTG is required for efficient PDGF-dependent proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role for cell surface tTG in the regulation of the joint PDGFR/integrin signaling and PDGFR-dependent cell responses.
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Cellular functions of tissue transglutaminase.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol
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Transglutaminase 2 (TG2 or tissue transglutaminase) is a highly complex multifunctional protein that acts as transglutaminase, GTPase/ATPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase. Moreover, TG2 has many well-documented nonenzymatic functions that are based on its noncovalent interactions with multiple cellular proteins. A vast array of biochemical activities of TG2 accounts for its involvement in a variety of cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, growth, survival, apoptosis, differentiation, and extracellular matrix organization. In turn, the impact of TG2 on these processes implicates this protein in various physiological responses and pathological states, contributing to wound healing, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, vascular remodeling, tumor growth and metastasis, and tissue fibrosis. TG2 is ubiquitously expressed and is particularly abundant in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, monocytes/macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The protein is localized in multiple cellular compartments, including the nucleus, cytosol, mitochondria, endolysosomes, plasma membrane, and cell surface and extracellular matrix, where Ca(2+), nucleotides, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, membrane lipids, and distinct protein-protein interactions in the local microenvironment jointly regulate its activities. In this review, we discuss the complex biochemical activities and molecular interactions of TG2 in the context of diverse subcellular compartments and evaluate its wide ranging and cell type-specific biological functions and their regulation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.