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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Nectandra leucantha leaves.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Abstract Context: Nectandra (Lauraceae) species have been used in folk medicine as an antidiarrheal, analgesic, antifungal, etc., and have many pharmacological proprieties. Objective: Investigation of the chemical composition and cytotoxicity of essential oil from Nectandra leucantha Nees & Mart. leaves. This is the first study involving N. leucantha reported in the literature. Material and methods: The essential oil of N. leucantha leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation. Its chemical composition was determined using a combination of GC/FID, GC/MS, and determination of Kovats index (KI). In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against six cancer cell lines - murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U-87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), and human cervical tumor (Siha) as well as against one non-tumorigenic cell line - human foreskin fibroblast (HFF). Results: Thirty-three compounds were identified primarily sesquiterpenes (81.41%), the main compounds being bicyclogermacrene (28.44%), germacrene A (7.34%), spathulenol (5.82%), and globulol (5.25%). Furthermore, monoterpenes were also found in the analyzed oil (12.84%), predominantly ?- and ?-pinenes (6.59 and 4.57%, respectively). The crude essential oil displayed significant cytotoxic activity against B16F10-Nex2 (IC50 33?±?1??g/mL) and U87 (IC50 75.95?±?0.03??g/mL) and HeLa (IC50 60?±?12??g/mL) cell lines. The main identified compound, bicyclogermacrene, displayed IC50 ranging from 3.1?±?0.2 to 21?±?6??g/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that the crude oils from leaves of N. leucantha displayed cytotoxic activity being bicyclogermacrene, the main compound identified in the crude oil responsible, at least in part, for this potential.
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Mastoparan induces apoptosis in B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and displays antitumor activity in vivo.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Mastoparan is an ?-helical and amphipathic tetradecapeptide obtained from the venom of the wasp Vespula lewissi. This peptide exhibits a wide variety of biological effects, including antimicrobial activity, increased histamine release from mast cells, induction of a potent mitochondrial permeability transition and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Here, the effects of mastoparan in malignant melanoma were studied using the murine model of B16F10-Nex2 cells. In vitro, mastoparan caused melanoma cell death by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, as evidenced by the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA degradation and cell death signaling. Most importantly, mastoparan reduced the growth of subcutaneous melanoma in syngeneic mice and increased their survival. The present results show that mastoparan induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway protecting the mice against tumor development.
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A subtraction tolerization method of immunization allowed for Wilms' tumor protein-1 (WT1) identification in melanoma and discovery of an antitumor peptide sequence.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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On searching for melanoma transcription factors in a project focusing on internal antitumor peptide sequences from transcription factors, we found that a highly immunogenic component emerged upon using a subtraction tolerization method of immunization. While several conventional immunization procedures using whole melanoma cells induced a plethora of low affinity antibodies of various specificities, the subtraction tolerization method efficiently elicited mono-specific antibodies that recognized Wilms' tumor protein 1 (WT1), which is known as an important marker in melanoma prognosis and treatment. For the tolerization step, pre-immunization of Balb/c mice with a membrane-rich preparation of glioblastoma U87 cells was used. The subsequent immunizations with SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells elicited antibodies strongly reacting with 50 and 55kDa proteins, identified as WT1. Remarkably, this was the only component strongly reactive with these antibodies in a melanoma cell lysate. WT1 was then chosen as a target for selecting internally bioactive peptides. A hydrophilic Trojan peptide containing most of the zinc finger-2 domain of WT1 was synthesized and shown to inhibit SK-MEL-28 melanoma growth in vitro. The peptide WT1-pTj was also protective in vivo in a metastatic melanoma model and peptide-stimulated syngeneic dendritic cells reproduced the anti-melanoma effect of the unprotected peptide. Identification of antitumor peptides derived from major transcription factors represents a new tool to be explored in cancer research aiming at new therapeutic drugs.
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Anti-tumor activities of peptides corresponding to conserved complementary determining regions from different immunoglobulins.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Short synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences of complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from different immunoglobulin families have been shown to induce antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities regardless of the specificity of the original monoclonal antibody (mAb). Presently, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of synthetic peptides derived from conserved CDR sequences of different immunoglobulins against human tumor cell lines and murine B16F10-Nex2 melanoma aiming at the discovery of candidate molecules for cancer therapy. Four light- and heavy-chain CDR peptide sequences from different antibodies (C36-L1, HA9-H2, 1-H2 and Mg16-H2) showed cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma and a panel of human tumor cell lineages in vitro. Importantly, they also exerted anti-metastatic activity using a syngeneic melanoma model in mice. Other peptides (D07-H3, MN20v1, MS2-H3) were also protective against metastatic melanoma, without showing significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro. In this case, we suggest that these peptides may act as immune adjuvants in vivo. As observed, peptides induced nitric oxide production in bone-marrow macrophages showing that innate immune cells can also be modulated by these CDR peptides. The present screening supports the search in immunoglobulins of rather frequent CDR sequences that are endowed with specific antitumor properties and may be candidates to be developed as anti-cancer drugs.
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Palladacycle (BPC) antitumour activity against resistant and metastatic cell lines: the relationship with cytosolic calcium mobilisation and cathepsin B activity.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The search for new compounds that induce p53-independent apoptosis is the focus of many studies in cancer biology because these compounds could be more specific and would overcome chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antitumour activity of a Biphosphinic Palladacycle Complex (BPC) and extended preclinical studies to an in vivo model. Saos-2 cells, a p53-null human osteosarcoma drug-resistant cell line, were treated with BPC in the presence or absence of a cathepsin B inhibitor and a calcium chelator (CA074 and BAPTA-AM, respectively), and several parameters related to apoptosis were evaluated. Preclinical studies were performed with mice that were intravenously inoculated with murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells and treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BPC (8 mg/kg/day) for ten consecutive days, when lung metastatic nodules were counted. In vitro data show that BPC induces cell death in Saos-2 cells mainly by apoptosis, which was accompanied by the effector caspase-3 activation. These events are most likely related to Bax translocation and increased cytosolic calcium mobilisation, mainly from intracellular compartments. Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilisation (LMP) was also observed after 12 h of BPC exposure. Interestingly, BAPTA-AM and CA074 significantly decreased BPC cytotoxicity, suggesting that both calcium and cathepsin B are required for BPC antitumour activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that BPC protects mice against murine metastatic melanoma. In conclusion, BPC complex is an effective anticancer compound against metastatic murine melanoma. This complex is cytotoxic to the drug-resistant osteosarcoma Saos-2 human tumour cells by inducing apoptosis triggered by calcium signalling and a lysosomal-dependent pathway.
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A natural bacterial-derived product, the metalloprotease arazyme, inhibits metastatic murine melanoma by inducing MMP-8 cross-reactive antibodies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The increased incidence, high rates of mortality and few effective means of treatment of malignant melanoma, stimulate the search for new anti-tumor agents and therapeutic targets to control this deadly metastatic disease. In the present work the antitumor effect of arazyme, a natural bacterial-derived metalloprotease secreted by Serratia proteomaculans, was investigated. Arazyme significantly reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic nodules after intravenous inoculation of B16F10 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. In vitro, the enzyme showed a dose-dependent cytostatic effect in human and murine tumor cells, and this effect was associated to the proteolytic activity of arazyme, reducing the CD44 expression at the cell surface, and also reducing in vitro adhesion and in vitro/in vivo invasion of these cells. Arazyme treatment or immunization induced the production of protease-specific IgG that cross-reacted with melanoma MMP-8. In vitro, this antibody was cytotoxic to tumor cells, an effect increased by complement. In vivo, arazyme-specific IgG inhibited melanoma lung metastasis. We suggest that the antitumor activity of arazyme in a preclinical model may be due to a direct cytostatic activity of the protease in combination with the elicited anti-protease antibody, which cross-reacts with MMP-8 produced by tumor cells. Our results show that the bacterial metalloprotease arazyme is a promising novel antitumor chemotherapeutic agent.
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A novel cell-penetrating peptide derived from WT1 enhances p53 activity, induces cell senescence and displays antimelanoma activity in xeno- and syngeneic systems.
FEBS Open Bio
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Wilms tumor protein 1 (WT1) transcription factor has been associated in malignant melanoma with cell survival and metastasis, thus emerging as a candidate for targeted therapy. A lysine-arginine rich peptide, WT1-pTj, derived from the ZF domain of WT1 was evaluated as an antitumor agent against A2058 human melanoma cells and B16F10-Nex2 syngeneic murine melanoma. Peptide WT1-pTj quickly penetrated human melanoma cells and induced senescence, recognized by increased SA-?-galactosidase activity, enhanced transcriptional activity of p53, and induction of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. Moreover, the peptide bound to p53 and competed with WT1 protein for binding to p53. WT1-pTj treatment led to sustained cell growth suppression, abrogation of clonogenicity and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Notably, in vivo studies showed that WT1-pTj inhibited both the metastases and subcutaneous growth of murine melanoma in syngeneic mice, and prolonged the survival of nude mice challenged with human melanoma cells. The 27-amino acid cell-penetrating WT1-derived peptide, depends on C(3) and H(16) for effective antimelanoma activity, inhibits proliferation of WT1-expressing human tumor cell lines, and may have an effective role in the treatment of WT1-expressing malignancies.
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Cytotoxic effects of dillapiole on MDA-MB-231 cells involve the induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by inducing an oxidative stress while altering the cytoskeleton network.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Breast cancer is the worlds leading cause of death among women. This situation imposes an urgent development of more selective and less toxic agents. The use of natural molecular fingerprints as sources for new bioactive chemical entities has proven to be a quite promising and efficient method. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time that dillapiole has broad cytotoxic effects against a variety tumor cells. For instance, we found that it can act as a pro-oxidant compound through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in MDA-MB-231 cells. We also demonstrated that dillapiole exhibits anti-proliferative properties, arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase and its antimigration effects can be associated with the disruption of actin filaments, which in turn can prevent tumor cell proliferation. Molecular modeling studies corroborated the biological findings and suggested that dillapiole may present a good pharmacokinetic profile, mainly because its hydrophobic character, which can facilitate its diffusion through tumor cell membranes. All these findings support the fact that dillapiole is a promising anticancer agent.
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Chemical composition and cytotoxicity evaluation of essential oil from leaves of Casearia sylvestris, its main compound ?-zingiberene and derivatives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae), popularly known as "guaçatonga", is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. The present work deals with the chemical composition as well as the cytotoxic evaluation of its essential oil, its main constituent and derivatives. Thus, the crude essential oil from leaves of C. sylvestris was obtained using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. This analysis afforded the identification of 23 substances, 13 of which corresponded to 98.73% of the total oil composition, with sesquiterpene a-zingiberene accounting for 50% of the oil. The essential oil was evaluated for cytotoxic activity against several tumor cell lines, giving IC50 values ranging from 12 to 153 mg/mL. Pure a-zingiberene, isolated from essential oil, was also evaluated against the tumor cell lines showing activity for HeLa, U-87, Siha and HL60 cell lines, but with IC50 values higher than those determined for the crude essential oil. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the double bonds of a-zingiberene on the cytotoxic activity, partially hydrogenated a-zingiberene (PHZ) and fully hydrogenated a-zingiberene (THZ) derivatives were obtained. For the partially hydrogenated derivative only cytotoxic activity to the B16F10-Nex2 cell line (IC50 65 mg/mL) was detected, while totally hydrogenated derivative showed cytotoxic activity for almost all cell lines, with B16F10-Nex2 and MCF-7 as exceptions and with IC50 values ranging from 34 to 65 mg/mL. These results indicate that cytotoxic activity is related with the state of oxidation of compound.
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Chemical constituents and cytotoxic evaluation of essential oils from leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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This work reports the chemical composition and cytotoxic evaluation of the essential oils from three different samples of the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). The crude oils, obtained by hydrodistillation procedures, were chemically analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained data indicated the predominance of sesquiterpenes (89.8 +/- 0.7%), the main compounds being germacrene D (47 +/-+/- 1%) and bicyclogermacrene (37 +/- 1%). These oils also contained the monoterpene verbanyl acetate (0.5 +/- 0.06%) and the diterpene phytol (1.2 +/- 0.3%). The crude oils obtained from leaves were pooled and tested in vitro against six cancer cell lineages--murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human leukemia (HL-60), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (SKBr), and human melanoma (A2058), as well as against a non-tumorigenic human cell line (HFF). Since the essential oil reduced more than 50% of the viability of several tumor cells at 100 microg/mL, indicating the presence of active compounds, the crude material was subjected to fractionation over a SiO2/AgNO3 column. This procedure afforded different fractions composed of pure as well as different mixtures of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, which were tested against the same tumor cell lines, indicating a significant cytotoxic potential against HL-60 cells. These results suggested that the crudeoils and their components, mainly germacrene D, could be used as prototypes for the development of new anti-cancer agents for the treatment of human leukemia.
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Identification of human plasma proteins associated with the cell wall of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are thermodimorphic species that cause paracoccidioidomycosis. The cell wall is the outermost fungal organelle to form an interface with the host. A number of host effector compounds, including immunologically active molecules, circulate in the plasma. In the present work, we extracted cell-wall-associated proteins from the yeast pathogenic phase of P. brasiliensis, isolate Pb3, grown in the presence of human plasma and analyzed bound plasma proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transport, complement activation/regulation, and coagulation pathway were the most abundant functional groups identified. Proteins related to iron/copper acquisition, immunoglobulins, and protease inhibitors were also detected. Several human plasma proteins described here have not been previously reported as interacting with fungal components, specifically, clusterin, hemopexin, transthyretin, ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B-100. Additionally, we observed increased phagocytosis by J774.16 macrophages of Pb3 grown in plasma, suggesting that plasma proteins interacting with P. brasiliensis cell wall might be interfering in the fungal relationship with the host.
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FTY720 induces apoptosis in B16F10-NEX2 murine melanoma cells, limits metastatic development in vivo, and modulates the immune system.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Available chemotherapy presents poor control over the development of metastatic melanoma. FTY720 is a compound already approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. It has also been observed that FTY720 inhibits tumor growth in vivo (experimental models) and in vitro (animal and human tumor cells). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of FTY720 on a metastatic melanoma model and in tumor cell lines.
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Characterization of cell wall lipids from the pathogenic phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cultivated in the presence or absence of human plasma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The fungal cell wall is a complex and dynamic outer structure. In pathogenic fungi its components interact with the host, determining the infection fate. The present work aimed to characterize cell wall lipids from P. brasiliensis grown in the presence and absence of human plasma. We compared the results from isolates Pb3 and Pb18, which represent different phylogenetic species that evoke distinct patterns of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.
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The paracoccidioides cell wall: past and present layers toward understanding interaction with the host.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The cell wall of pathogenic fungi plays import roles in the interaction with the host, so that its composition and structure may determine the course of infection. Here we present an overview of the current and past knowledge on the cell wall constituents of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. These are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic granulomatous, and debilitating disease. Focus is given on cell wall carbohydrate and protein contents, their immune-stimulatory features, adhesion properties, drug target characteristics, and morphological phase specificity. We offer a journey toward the future understanding of the dynamic nature of the cell wall and of the changes that may occur when the fungus infects the human host.
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A new phage-display tumor-homing peptide fused to antiangiogenic peptide generates a novel bioactive molecule with antimelanoma activity.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Phage-display peptide libraries have been widely used to identify specific peptides targeting in vivo tumor cells and the tumor vasculature and playing an important role in the discovery of antitumor bioactive peptides. In the present work, we identified a new melanoma-homing peptide, (-CVNHPAFAC-), using a C7C phage-display library directed to the developing tumor in syngeneic mice. Phage were able to preferentially target melanoma in vivo, with an affinity about 50-fold greater than that with normal tissue, and the respective synthesized peptide displaced the corresponding phage from the tumor. A preferential binding to endothelial cells rather than to melanoma cells was seen in cell ELISA, suggesting that the peptide is directed to the melanoma vasculature. Furthermore, the peptide was able to bind to human sonic hedgehog, a protein involved in the development of many types of human cancers. Using a new peptide approach therapy, we coupled the cyclic peptide to another peptide, HTMYYHHYQHHL-NH(2), a known antagonist of VEGFR-2 receptor, using the GYG linker. The full peptide CVNHPAFACGYGHTMYYHHYQHHL-NH(2) was effective in delaying tumor growth (P < 0.05) and increasing animal survival when injected systemically, whereas a scramble-homing peptide containing the same antagonist did not have any effect. This is the first report on the synthesis of a tumor-homing peptide coupled to antiangiogenic peptide as a new anticancer therapeutics.
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A cyclopalladated complex interacts with mitochondrial membrane thiol-groups and induces the apoptotic intrinsic pathway in murine and cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Systemic therapy for cancer metastatic lesions is difficult and generally renders a poor clinical response. Structural analogs of cisplatin, the most widely used synthetic metal complexes, show toxic side-effects and tumor cell resistance. Recently, palladium complexes with increased stability are being investigated to circumvent these limitations, and a biphosphinic cyclopalladated complex {Pd(2) [S((-))C(2), N-dmpa](2) (?-dppe)Cl(2)} named C7a efficiently controls the subcutaneous development of B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma in syngeneic mice. Presently, we investigated the melanoma cell killing mechanism induced by C7a, and extended preclinical studies.
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?-Pinene isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) induces apoptosis and confers antimetastatic protection in a melanoma model.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Malignant melanoma is one the most aggressive types of cancer and its incidence has gradually increased in the last years, accounting for about 75% of skin cancer deaths. This poor prognosis results from the tumor resistance to conventional drugs mainly by deregulation of apoptotic pathways. The aim of this work was to investigate the cell death mechanism induced by ?-pinene and its therapeutic application. Our results demonstrated that ?-pinene was able to induce apoptosis evidenced by early disruption of the mitochondrial potential, production of reactive oxygen species, increase in caspase-3 activity, heterochromatin aggregation, DNA fragmentation and exposure of phosphatidyl serine on the cell surface. Most importantly, this molecule was very effective in the treatment of experimental metastatic melanoma reducing the number of lung tumor nodules. This is the first report on the apoptotic and antimetastatic activity of isolated ?-pinene.
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Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts.
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Role of SOCS-1 Gene on Melanoma Cell Growth and Tumor Development.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and its incidence has increased dramatically over the years. The murine B16F10 melanoma in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice has been used as a highly aggressive model to investigate tumor development. Presently, we demonstrate in the B16F10-Nex2 subclone that silencing of SOCS-1, a negative regulator of Jak/Stat pathway, leads to reversal of the tumorigenic phenotype and inhibition of melanoma cell metastasis. SOCS-1 silencing with short hairpin RNA affected tumor growth and cell cycle regulation with arrest at the S phase with large-sized nuclei, reduced cell motility, and decreased melanoma cell invasion through Matrigel. A clonogenic assay showed that SOCS-1 acted as a modulator of resistance to anoikis. In addition, downregulation of SOCS-1 decreased the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (mainly the phosphorylated-R), Ins-R?, and fibroblast growth factor receptor. In vivo, silencing of SOCS-1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth and metastatic development in the lungs. Because SOCS-1 is expressed in most melanoma cell lines and bears a relation with tumor invasion, thickness, and stage of disease, the present results on the effects of SOCS-1 silencing in melanoma suggest that this regulating protein can be a target of cancer therapy.
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The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exports extracellular vesicles containing highly immunogenic ?-Galactosyl epitopes.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic ?-linked galactopyranosyl (?-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Hams defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing ?-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-?-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal ?-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-?-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with ?-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying ?-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-?-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with ?-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after ?-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and ?-galactosyl epitopes.
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In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal effects of the cyclopalladated compound 7a, a drug candidate for treatment of Chagas disease.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Chagas disease, a neglected tropical infection, affects about 18 million people, and 100 million are at risk. The only drug available, benznidazole, is effective in the acute form and in the early chronic form, but its efficacy and tolerance are inversely related to the age of the patients. Side effects are frequent in elderly patients. The search for new drugs is thus warranted. In the present study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effect of a cyclopalladated compound (7a) against Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. The 7a compound inhibits trypomastigote cell invasion, decreases intracellular amastigote proliferation, and is very effective as a trypanocidal drug in vivo, even at very low dosages. It was 340-fold more cytotoxic to parasites than to mammalian cells and was more effective than benznidazole in all in vitro and in vivo experiments. The 7a cyclopalladate complex exerts an apoptosis-like death in T. cruzi trypomastigote forms and causes mitochondrion disruption seen by electron microscopy.
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A novel melanoma-targeting peptide screened by phage display exhibits antitumor activity.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Peptide display on the phage surface has been widely used to identify specific peptides targeting several in vivo and in vitro tumor cells and the tumor vasculature, playing a role in the discovery of bioactive antitumor agents. Bioactive peptides have been selected to target important tumor receptors or apoptosis-associated molecules such as p53. Presently, we attempted to identify potentially antitumor bioactive molecules using the whole cell surface as the recognizable static matrix. Such methodology could be advantageous in cancer therapy because it does not require previous characterization of target molecules. Using a C7C phage display library, we screened for peptides binding to the B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cell surface after pre-absorption on melan-A lineage. After a few rounds of enrichment, 50 phages were randomly selected, amplified, and tested for inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Seven were active, and the corresponding peptide of each phage was chemically synthesized in the cyclic form and tested in vitro. Three peptides were able to preferentially inhibit the melanoma lineage. A unique peptide, [-CSSRTMHHC-], exhibited in vivo antitumor inhibitory activity against a subcutaneous melanoma challenge, rendering 60% of mice without tumor growth. Further, this peptide also markedly inhibited in vitro and in vivo the tumor cell invasion and cell-to-cell adhesiveness in vitro. This is the first report on a bioactive peptide derived from a C7C library active against whole melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
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Essential oils from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves - chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation.
Pharm Biol
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In folk medicine, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), has been used as a remedy for ulcers, respiratory problems, wounds, rheumatism, gout, diarrhea, skin ailments and arthritis, as well as to treat tumors and leprosy.
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Lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from the pathogenic phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
PLoS ONE
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Fungal extracellular vesicles are able to cross the cell wall and transport molecules that help in nutrient acquisition, cell defense, and modulation of the host defense machinery.
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Jacaranone induces apoptosis in melanoma cells via ROS-mediated downregulation of Akt and p38 MAPK activation and displays antitumor activity in vivo.
PLoS ONE
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Malignant melanoma is a deadly type of metastatic skin cancer with increased incidence over the past 30 years. Despite the advanced knowledge on the biology, immunobiology and molecular genetics of melanoma, the alternatives of treatment are limited with poor prognosis. On clinical trials, natural products and among them redox-active quinones have been tested in the attempt to control the growth of cancer cells. Recently, we isolated jacaranone from Pentacalia desiderabilis, a benzoquinone derivative that showed a broad antitumor activity and protective anti-melanoma effect in a syngeneic model. The purified substance is active at micromolar concentrations, is not hemolytic, and is not toxic in naïve mice.
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?-Actin-binding complementarity-determining region 2 of variable heavy chain from monoclonal antibody C7 induces apoptosis in several human tumor cells and is protective against metastatic melanoma.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from monoclonal antibodies tested as synthetic peptides display anti-infective and antitumor activities, independent of the specificity of the native antibody. Previously, we have shown that the synthetic peptide C7H2, based on the heavy chain CDR 2 from monoclonal antibody C7, a mAb directed to a mannoprotein of Candida albicans, significantly reduced B16F10 melanoma growth and lung colony formation by triggering tumor apoptosis. The mechanism, however, by which C7H2 induced apoptosis in tumor cells remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that C7H2 interacts with components of the tumor cells cytoskeleton, being rapidly internalized after binding to the tumor cell surface. Mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro validation revealed that ?-actin is the receptor of C7H2 in the tumor cells. C7H2 induces ?-actin polymerization and F-actin stabilization, linked with abundant generation of superoxide anions and apoptosis. Major phenotypes following peptide binding were chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, annexin V binding, lamin disruption, caspase 8 and 3 activation, and organelle alterations. Finally, we evaluated the cytotoxic efficacy of C7H2 in a panel of human tumor cell lines. All tumor cell lines studied were equally susceptible to C7H2 in vitro. The C7H2 amide without further derivatization significantly reduced lung metastasis of mice endovenously challenged with B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells. No significant cytotoxicity was observed toward nontumorigenic cell lines on short incubation in vitro or in naïve mice injected with a high dose of the peptide. We believe that C7H2 is a promising peptide to be developed as an anticancer drug.
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Vesicle and vesicle-free extracellular proteome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: comparative analysis with other pathogenic fungi.
J. Proteome Res.
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Microorganisms release effector molecules that modulate the host machinery enabling survival, replication, and dissemination of a pathogen. Here we characterized the extracellular proteome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis at its pathogenic yeast phase. Cell-free culture supernatants from the Pb18 isolate, cultivated in defined medium, were separated into vesicle and vesicle-free fractions, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In vesicle and vesicle-free preparations we identified, respectively, 205 and 260 proteins with two or more peptides, including 120 overlapping identifications. Almost 70% of the sequences were predicted as secretory, mostly using nonconventional secretory pathways, and many have previously been localized to fungal cell walls. A total of 72 proteins were considered as commonly transported by extracellular vesicles, considering that orthologues have been reported in at least two other fungal species. These sequences were mostly related to translation, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, oxidation/reduction, transport, response to stress, and signaling. This unique proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles and vesicle-free released proteins in a pathogenic fungus provides full comparison with other fungal extracellular vesicle proteomes and broadens the current view on fungal secretomes.
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