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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rapidly growing mycobacteria associated with laparoscopic gastric banding, Australia, 2005-2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Laparoscopic gastric banding is a common bariatric procedure worldwide. Rapidly growing mycobacteria are environmental organisms increasingly seen as pathogens,often in infected prosthetic material. We report 18 cases of infection associated with laparoscopic gastric banding caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. abscessus in Australia during 2005–2011. We identified cases by reviewing positive cultures at the Queensland state reference laboratory or through correspondence with clinicians, and we obtained clinical and epidemiologic data. Eleven cases of M. fortuitum and 7 cases of M. abscessus infection were identified. The port was thought to be the primary site of infection in 10 of these cases. Complications included peritonitis,band erosion, and chronic ulceration at the port site.Rapidly growing mycobacteria can infect both port and band and can occur as either an early perioperative or late infection.Combination antimicrobial therapy is used on the basis of in vitro susceptibilities. Device removal seems to be vital to successful therapy.
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PTCH1 expression at diagnosis predicts imatinib failure in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, around 25% of patients fail to sustain an adequate response. We sought to identify gene-expression biomarkers that could be used to predict imatinib response. The expression of 29 genes, previously implicated in CML pathogenesis, were measured by TaqMan Low Density Array in 73 CML patient samples. Patients were divided into low and high expression for each gene and imatinib failure (IF), probability of achieving CCyR, progression free survival and CML related OS were compared by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank. Results were validated in a second cohort of 56 patients, with a further technical validation using custom gene-expression assays in a conventional RT-qPCR in a sub-cohort of 37 patients. Patients with low PTCH1 expression showed a worse clinical response for all variables in all cohorts. PTCH1 was the most significant predictor in the multivariate analysis compared with Sokal, age and EUTOS. PTCH1 expression assay showed the adequate sensitivity, specificity and predictive values to predict for IF. Given the different treatments available for CML, measuring PTCH1 expression at diagnosis may help establish who will benefit best from imatinib and who is better selected for second generation TKI. Am. J. Hematol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Severe, Steroid-responsive, Myositis Mimicking Necrotizing Fasciitis following Orthopedic Surgery: A Pyoderma Variant with Myonecrosis.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis that may be confused for necrotizing fasciitis. The inflammatory response is triggered by the trauma of surgery and thus must be managed nonsurgically. Clinical and pathological findings in the 2 diseases can be identical, leading to misdiagnosis and massive surgical defects from the ensuing surgery. This report documents a severe case of postsurgical pyoderma following an elective rotator cuff repair presenting with myositis and myonecrosis. The patient was initially treated as having an infection, which resulted in multiple aggressive surgical debridements. Despite this, the patient continued to deteriorate and was in a critical and hemodynamically unstable condition. Following administration of high-dose intravenous corticosteroids, the patient made a dramatic recovery and went on to have internal fixation of the shoulder and closure of the wound with a combination of a free flap and a rotational flap. Extensive myositis, as seen in this case, has not been previously reported in postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum variants. Clinicians should be aware that the presence of myositis and myonecrosis should not preclude this diagnosis.
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Preclinical and clinical efficacy of XPO1/CRM1 inhibition by the karyopherin inhibitor KPT-330 in Ph+ leukemias.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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As tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) fail to induce long-term response in blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BC) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), novel therapies targeting leukemia-dysregulated pathways are necessary. Exportin-1 (XPO1), also known as chromosome maintenance protein 1, regulates cell growth and differentiation by controlling the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNAs, some of which are aberrantly modulated in BCR-ABL1(+) leukemias. Using CD34(+) progenitors from CML, B-ALL, and healthy individuals, we found that XPO1 expression was markedly increased, mostly in a TKI-sensitive manner, in CML-BC and Ph(+) B-ALL. Notably, XPO1 was also elevated in Ph(-) B-ALL. Moreover, the clinically relevant XPO1 inhibitor KPT-330 strongly triggered apoptosis and impaired the clonogenic potential of leukemic, but not normal, CD34(+) progenitors, and increased survival of BCR-ABL1(+) mice, 50% of which remained alive and, mostly, became BCR-ABL1 negative. Moreover, KPT-330 compassionate use in a patient with TKI-resistant CML undergoing disease progression significantly reduced white blood cell count, blast cells, splenomegaly, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and bone pain. Mechanistically, KPT-330 altered the subcellular localization of leukemia-regulated factors including RNA-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and the oncogene SET, thereby inducing reactivation of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor and inhibition of BCR-ABL1 in CML-BC cells. Because XPO1 is important for leukemic cell survival, KPT-330 may represent an alternative therapy for TKI-refractory Ph(+) leukemias.
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Antagonistic activities of the immunomodulator and PP2A-activating drug FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) in Jak2-driven hematologic malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) is a sphingosine analog used as an immunosuppressant in multiple sclerosis patients. FTY720 is also a potent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-activating drug (PAD). PP2A is a tumor suppressor found inactivated in different types of cancer. We show here that PP2A is inactive in polycythemia vera (PV) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms characterized by the expression of the transforming Jak2(V617F) oncogene. PP2A inactivation occurs in a Jak2(V617F) dose/kinase-dependent manner through the PI-3K?-PKC-induced phosphorylation of the PP2A inhibitor SET. Genetic or PAD-mediated PP2A reactivation induces Jak2(V617F) inactivation/downregulation and impairs clonogenic potential of Jak2(V617F) cell lines and PV but not normal CD34(+) progenitors. Likewise, FTY720 decreases leukemic allelic burden, reduces splenomegaly, and significantly increases survival of Jak2(V617F) leukemic mice without adverse effects. Mechanistically, we show that in Jak2(V617F) cells, FTY720 antileukemic activity requires neither FTY720 phosphorylation (FTY720-P) nor SET dimerization or ceramide induction but depends on interaction with SET K209. Moreover, we show that Jak2(V617F) also utilizes an alternative sphingosine kinase-1-mediated pathway to inhibit PP2A and that FTY720-P, acting as a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1 agonist, elicits signals leading to the Jak2-PI-3K?-PKC-SET-mediated PP2A inhibition. Thus, PADs (eg, FTY720) represent suitable therapeutic alternatives for Jak2(V617F) MPNs.
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Predictive factors for relapse in patients on buprenorphine maintenance.
Am J Addict
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Despite the dramatic increase in the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence, clinical outcomes of this treatment approach continue to need evaluation. This study examines factors associated with relapse and retention during buprenorphine treatment in a sample of opioid dependent outpatients.
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Combining BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at 3 and 6 months in chronic myeloid leukemia: implications for early intervention strategies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Several groups have shown that that the BCR-ABL1 transcript level measured at 3 or 6 months after starting treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors strongly predicts clinical outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. In this work, we asked whether the prognostic value of the 3-month transcript level could be improved by combining the 3- and 6-month results. We classified patients treated with imatinib and patients treated with dasatinib according to their transcript levels at 3 months and 6 months. The patients who met the 3-month landmark but failed the 6-month one had outcomes identical to those of patients who met both landmarks, whereas the patients who failed the first landmark but met the second one had prognoses similar to those who failed both landmarks. In summary, early intervention strategies can be based robustly just on the transcript level at 3 months. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT01460693.
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PP2A-activating drugs selectively eradicate TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemic stem cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depends on the requirement for BCR-ABL1 kinase activity in CML progenitors. However, CML quiescent HSCs are TKI resistant and represent a BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent disease reservoir. Here we have shown that persistence of leukemic HSCs in BM requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and expression--but not activity--of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene. Examination of HSCs from CML patients and healthy individuals revealed that PP2A activity was suppressed in CML compared with normal HSCs. TKI-resistant CML quiescent HSCs showed increased levels of BCR-ABL1, but very low kinase activity. BCR-ABL1 expression, but not kinase function, was required for recruitment of JAK2, activation of a JAK2/?-catenin survival/self-renewal pathway, and inhibition of PP2A. PP2A-activating drugs (PADs) markedly reduced survival and self-renewal of CML quiescent HSCs, but not normal quiescent HSCs, through BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent and PP2A-mediated inhibition of JAK2 and ?-catenin. This led to suppression of human leukemic, but not normal, HSC/progenitor survival in BM xenografts and interference with long-term maintenance of BCR-ABL1-positive HSCs in serial transplantation assays. Targeting the JAK2/PP2A/?-catenin network in quiescent HSCs with PADs (e.g., FTY720) has the potential to treat TKI-refractory CML and relieve lifelong patient dependence on TKIs.
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Responses to second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors are durable: an intention-to-treat analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G-TKIs) are effective at inducing complete cytogenetic responses (CCyRs) in approximately half of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated while still in the chronic phase and after failing imatinib. It is less clear whether these responses are durable. In the present study, we report the clinical outcome of 119 patients who received a 2G-TKI as second-line treatment while still in the chronic phase. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the 4-year probabilities of overall and event-free survival were 81.9% and 35.3%, respectively. Sixty-two patients discontinued the initial 2G-TKI because of resistance or intolerance. To further explore the durability of cytogenetic responses, irrespective of the need for a third-line TKI, we used the concept of "current CCyR-survival" (c-CCyRS). The c-CCyRS at 4 years was 54.4%. After introduction of a 2G-TKI, 77 patients had a 3-month BCR-ABL1/ABL1 transcript ratio of ? 10% and had significantly superior overall survival (91.3% vs 72.1%, P = .02), event-free survival (49.3% vs 13.0%, P < .001), and c-CCyRS (67.2% vs 11.2%, P = .0001) compared with the 33 patients with ratios > 10%. The 3-month molecular response was the only independent predictor for overall survival. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, we have shown that the responses to second-line therapies are durable. Patients destined to fare poorly can be identified early during therapy.
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Assessment of BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at 3 months is the only requirement for predicting outcome for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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We studied BCR-ABL1 transcript levels in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) at 3, 6, and 12 months after starting imatinib to identify molecular milestones that would predict for overall survival (OS) and other outcomes more reliably than serial marrow cytogenetics.
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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected patients: new risks and diagnostic tools.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Non-HIV-infected populations are increasingly identified as being at risk for developing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). These patients typically present with severe disease and poorly tolerate invasive diagnostic procedures. This review examines recently reported risks for PJP in non-HIV populations and summarizes new diagnostic techniques.
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History of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Cannabis use in adolescence is emerging as a risk factor for the development of psychosis. In animal studies, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Alterations in human striatal dopaminergic function have also been reported both in psychosis and in stimulant use. We sought to examine whether striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability was altered in volunteers with a history of cannabis use using a database of previously acquired [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Ten [(11)C]-raclopride scans from volunteers with a history of cannabis use were compared to ten control scans using a functional striatal subdivision region of interest (ROI) analysis. No significant differences in either overall striatal BP(ND) values or BP(ND) values in any functional striatal subdivision were found between the two groups. There was also no correlation between lifetime frequency of cannabis use and BP(ND) values. Limbic striatal BP(ND) values were ten percent lower in current nicotine cigarette smokers. These findings suggest that, unlike other drugs of abuse, a history of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability.
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BCL3 rearrangement, amplification and expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Aim of the study is to investigate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) for the presence of BCL3 gene rearrangement and protein expression and to correlate these with immunophenotypic subsets of DLBCL. We aimed to investigate the pathogenetic implication of BCL3 in DLBCL.
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An outbreak of human rhinovirus species C infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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We describe an outbreak of human rhinovirus type C infection in 7 infants in our neonatal/pediatric intensive care unit. Five infants had clinically significant apneic episodes and 5 required increased oxygen or ventilatory support. Infants shed virus detectable by polymerase chain reaction for a median of 4 weeks.
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Diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma using an algorithmic approach - applicable in both resource-poor and resource-rich countries.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Distinguishing Burkitt lymphoma (BL) from B cell lymphoma, unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and BL (DLBCL/BL), and DLBCL is challenging. We propose an immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) based scoring system that is employed in three phases - Phase 1 (morphology with CD10 and BCL2 immunostains), Phase 2 (CD38, CD44 and Ki-67 immunostains) and Phase 3 (FISH on paraffin sections for MYC, BCL2, BCL6 and immunoglobulin family genes). The system was evaluated on 252 aggressive B-cell lymphomas from Europe and from sub-Saharan Africa. Using the algorithm, we determined a specific diagnosis of BL or not-BL in 82%, 92% and 95% cases at Phases 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In 3·4% cases, the algorithm was not completely applicable due to technical reasons. Overall, this approach led to a specific diagnosis of?BL in 122 cases and to a specific diagnosis of either DLBCL?or DLBCL/BL in 94% of cases that were not diagnosed as BL. We also evaluated the scoring system on 27 cases of BL confirmed on gene expression/microRNA expression profiling. Phase 1 of our scoring system led to a diagnosis of BL in 100% of these cases.
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Poor adherence is the main reason for loss of CCyR and imatinib failure for chronic myeloid leukemia patients on long-term therapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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We studied the relation between adherence to imatinib measured with microelectronic monitoring systems and the probabilities of losing a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and of imatinib failure in 87 CCyR chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving long-term therapy. We included in our analysis the most relevant prognostic factors described to date. On multivariate analysis, the adherence rate and having failed to achieve a major molecular response were the only independent predictors for loss of CCyR and discontinuation of imatinib therapy. The 23 patients with an adherence rate less than or equal to 85% had a higher probability of losing their CCyR at 2 years (26.8% vs 1.5%, P = .0002) and a lower probability of remaining on imatinib (64.5% vs 90.6%, P = .006) than the 64 patients with an adherence rate more than 85%. In summary, we have shown that poor adherence is the principal factor contributing to the loss of cytogenetic responses and treatment failure in patients on long-term therapy.
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T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma associated with a microenvironment of thymic asteroid B cells in the bone marrow.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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? Asteroid B cells are a component of normal thymus. It is currently unclear whether these cells are identifiable in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-ALL/LBL) of the thymus. The aim of this study was to identify asteroid B cells both in thymic and extrathymic tissue involved by T-ALL/LBL.
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EVI-1 oncogene expression predicts survival in chronic-phase CML patients resistant to imatinib treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Activation of the EVI-1 oncogene has been reported in acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis, and less commonly, in chronic-phase CML patients. We screened an unselected cohort of 75 chronic-phase CML patients who had failed imatinib for expression of EVI-1 and sought a correlation with subsequent outcome on the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors dasatinib (n = 61) or nilotinib (n = 14). The 8 patients (10.7%) who expressed EVI-1 transcripts detectable by real-time polymerase chain reaction had significantly lower event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival than patients with undetectable transcript. The predictive value of EVI-1 expression was validated in an independent cohort. In a multivariate analysis, EVI-1 expression status and the best cytogenetic response obtained on imatinib were the only independent predictors for overall survival, progression-free survival, and event-free survival. Our data suggest that screening for EVI-1 expression at the time of imatinib failure may predict for response to second-line TKI therapy and consequently aid clinical management.
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Efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as third-line therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase who have failed 2 prior lines of TKI therapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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We analyzed a cohort of 26 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who had failed imatinib and a second tyrosine kinase inhibitor but were still in first chronic phase and identified prognostic factors for response and outcomes. The achievement of a prior cytogenetic response on imatinib or on second-line therapy were the only independent predictors for the achievement of complete cytogenetic responses on third-line therapy. Younger age and the achievement of a cytogenetic response on second line were the only independent predictors for overall survival (OS). At 3 months, the 9 patients who had achieved a cytogenetic response had better 30-month probabilities of complete cytogenetic responses and OS than the patients who had failed to do so. Factors measurable before starting treatment with third line therapy and cytogenetic responses at 3 months can accurately predict subsequent outcome and thus guide clinical decisions.
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Oseltamivir resistance in adult oncology and hematology patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, Australia.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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We describe laboratory-confirmed influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in 17 hospitalized recipients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) (8 allogeneic) and in 15 patients with malignancy treated at 6 Australian tertiary centers during winter 2009. Ten (31.3%) patients were admitted to intensive care, and 9 of them were HSCT recipients. All recipients of allogeneic HSCT with infection <100 days posttransplantation or severe graft-versus-host disease were admitted to an intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (7/32). The H275Y neuraminidase mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance developed in 4 of 7 patients with PCR positive for influenza after > or = 4 days of oseltamivir therapy. Three of these 4 patients were critically ill. Oseltamivir resistance in 4 (13.3%) of 30 patients who were administered oseltamivir highlights the need for ongoing surveillance of such resistance and further research on optimal antiviral therapy in the immunocompromised.
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Adherence is the critical factor for achieving molecular responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who achieve complete cytogenetic responses on imatinib.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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There is a considerable variability in the level of molecular responses achieved with imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). These differences could result from variable therapy adherence.
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Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed.
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Early prediction of success or failure of treatment with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce cytogenetic responses in approximately 50% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase in whom imatinib treatment has failed. However, it has not yet been established which of the patients in whom imatinib treatment fails are likely to benefit from therapy with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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Technical aspects and clinical applications of measuring BCR-ABL1 transcripts number in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a triphasic clinical course, the morphologic expansion of a terminally differentiated myeloid cell and the presence of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, the hallmark of CML. The fusion gene is usually, but not always, associated with a Philadelphia chromosome, the result of a reciprocal exchange of genetic material between chromosome 22 and chromosome 9, which leads to the production of the activated BCR-ABL1 gene and oncoprotein. The breakpoint in the BCR gene occurs commonly downstream of exons e13 or e14 (M-BCR) and less frequently downstream of exons e1 and e2 (m-BCR). Less than 1% of cases carry a breakpoint downstream of exon 6 or 8 ("variant fusion genes") or exon 19 (mu-BCR). Breakpoints in the ABL1 gene cluster upstream of exon a2 (or of exon a3 in less than 5% of patients with CML). Conventional cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and molecular testing for the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene are key investigations for the diagnosis and monitoring of CML. Treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized the management of CML with hematologic and cytogenetic response within 12-18 months observed in >85% of patients. Nevertheless, between 15 and 20% of patients may evolve to blastic phase. Measurement of low level or "minimal" residual disease using molecular tests is becoming the gold-standard approach to measure response to therapy due to its higher sensitivity compared to other routine techniques. The technical aspects and clinical applications of molecular monitoring will be the main focus of this article.
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The level of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity before treatment does not identify chronic myeloid leukemia patients who fail to achieve a complete cytogenetic response on imatinib.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Imatinib is currently the first line therapy for newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. However, 20-25% of patients do not achieve durable complete cytogenetic responses. The mechanism underlying this primary resistance is unknown, but variations in BCR-ABL1 kinase activity may play a role and can be investigated by measuring the autophosphorylation levels of BCR-ABL1 or of a surrogate target such as Crkl. In this study we used flow cytometry to investigate the in vitro inhibition of Crkl phosphorylation by imatinib in CD34(+) cells in diagnostic samples from two groups of patients distinguished by their cytogenetic response. No difference in inhibition of Crkl phosphorylation was observed in the two groups. The observation that increasing the dose of imatinib in vivo did not increase the level of cytogenetic response in some non-responders suggests that in at least a proportion of patients imatinib resistance may be due to activation of BCR-ABL1-independent pathway.
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Regulation of multiple myeloma survival and progression by CD1d.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Down-regulation of conventional human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules from the surface of tumor cells is an important mechanism for tumor immune evasion, survival, and progression. Whether CD1d, a nonconventional, glycolipid-presenting HLA class I-like molecule instructing the function of the immunoregulatory invariant NKT cells can affect tumor cell survival is not known. Here we show that CD1d is highly expressed in premalignant and early myeloma, but with disease progression its expression is reduced and eventually in advanced stages and myeloma cell lines is lost altogether, suggesting that CD1d impacts negatively on myeloma cell survival. Consistent with this, engagement of CD1d by anti-CD1d monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) induces cell death of myeloma cell lines with restored CD1d expression and primary myeloma cells. Cell death induced by monoclonal antibody engagement of CD1d is associated with overexpression of proapoptotic Bax and mitochondrial membrane potential loss but it is caspase-activation independent; in addition, it requires the cytoplasmic tail but not the Tyr residue critical for lysosomal sorting of CD1d. Finally, anti-CD1d cooperates with antimyeloma agents in the killing of myeloma cells. Thus, this work provides evidence linking a novel function of CD1d in the regulation of cell death with tumor survival and progression in humans.
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Does a rise in the BCR-ABL1 transcript level identify chronic phase CML patients responding to imatinib who have a high risk of cytogenetic relapse?
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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BCR-ABL1 transcript numbers were monitored in 161 patients who started treatment with imatinib early after diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase and achieved complete cytogenetic responses (CCyR). A confirmed doubling in BCR-ABL1/ABL1 transcript levels was found to be a significant factor for predicting loss of CCyR [relative risk (RR) 8.3, P < 0.0001] and progression to advanced phase (RR 0.07, P = 0.03) provided that the eventual BCR-ABL1/ABL1 transcript level exceeded 0.05%; increases that never exceeded 0.05% had no predictive value. The finding of a kinase domain mutation in a patient in CCyR, though rare, also predicted for loss of CCyR.
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Specific patterns of chromosomal gains and losses associate with t(3;14), t(8;14), and t(14;18) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease. Certain chromosomal translocations are associated with clinical outcome, but it is likely that there are both tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes that cooperate with the primary translocations. We have used the Mitelman database to compare chromosomal losses and gains of DLBCL possessing t(14;18), t(8;14), or t(3;14) with DLBCL lacking any of these translocations. The data we obtained are low resolution, but results for t(3;14) validate the methodology. In accord with the literature, loss of 6q was associated with t(3;14). Chromosomes 11, 13, and X were gained significantly in t(3;14), whereas 8p23 was lost. Cases with t(14;18) were associated with gains of chromosomes 7 and 12; cases with t(8;14) were associated with gains of chromosomes 1 and 4.
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Phenotype of blasts in chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic phase-Analysis of bone marrow trephine biopsies and correlation with cytogenetics.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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We identified different phenotypic subsets among 62 cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis (BC) (26% B-lymphoblastic, and 74% various myeloblastic subsets) on bone marrow trephines and correlated the blast-phenotype with cytogenetics. Five of myeloid-BC had an associated 3q26 abnormality and two of these showed a megakaryoblastic-phenotype. While myeloid-BC was associated with additional copies of Philadelphia (Ph) (29%) (p=0.08), numerical abnormalities (51%) (p=0.007), trisomy-8 (29%) (p=0.08) and 17p-loss (22%), none of lymphoid-BC showed these abnormalities. Among myeloid-BC, CD34-negative cases were more often associated with trisomy-8, 17p-loss and numerical abnormalities, and the CD117-negative subset with additional copies of Ph (p<0.05).
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BCR-ABL1 compound mutations in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant CML: frequency and clonal relationships.
Blood
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BCR-ABL1 compound mutations can confer high-level resistance to imatinib and other ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The third-generation ABL1 TKI ponatinib is effective against BCR-ABL1 point mutants individually, but remains vulnerable to certain BCR-ABL1 compound mutants. To determine the frequency of compound mutations among chronic myeloid leukemia patients on ABL1 TKI therapy, in the present study, we examined a collection of patient samples (N = 47) with clear evidence of 2 BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations by direct sequencing. Using a cloning and sequencing method, we found that 70% (33/47) of double mutations detected by direct sequencing were compound mutations. Sequential, branching, and parallel routes to compound mutations were common. In addition, our approach revealed individual and compound mutations not detectable by direct sequencing. The frequency of clones harboring compound mutations with more than 2 missense mutations was low (10%), whereas the likelihood of silent mutations increased disproportionately with the total number of mutations per clone, suggesting a limited tolerance for BCR-ABL1 kinase domain missense mutations. We conclude that compound mutations are common in patients with sequencing evidence for 2 BCR-ABL1 mutations and frequently reflect a highly complex clonal network, the evolution of which may be limited by the negative impact of missense mutations on kinase function.
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Clinical drug resistance linked to interconvertible phenotypic and functional states of tumor-propagating cells in multiple myeloma.
Blood
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The phenotype and function of cells enriched in tumor-propagating activity and their relationship to the phenotypic architecture in multiple myeloma (MM) are controversial. Here, in a cohort of 30 patients, we show that MM composes 4 hierarchically organized, clonally related subpopulations, which, although phenotypically distinct, share the same oncogenic chromosomal abnormalities as well as immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity region 3 area sequence. Assessed in xenograft assays, myeloma-propagating activity is the exclusive property of a population characterized by its ability for bidirectional transition between the dominant CD19(-)CD138(+) plasma cell (PC) and a low frequency CD19(-)CD138(-) subpopulation (termed Pre-PC); in addition, Pre-PCs are more quiescent and unlike PCs, are primarily localized at extramedullary sites. As shown by gene expression profiling, compared with PCs, Pre-PCs are enriched in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that epigenetic plasticity underpins the phenotypic diversification of myeloma-propagating cells. Prospective assessment in paired, pretreatment, and posttreatment bone marrow samples shows that Pre-PCs are up to 300-fold more drug-resistant than PCs. Thus, clinical drug resistance in MM is linked to reversible, bidirectional phenotypic transition of myeloma-propagating cells. These novel biologic insights have important clinical implications in relation to assessment of minimal residual disease and development of alternative therapeutic strategies in MM.
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BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations: methodology and clinical evaluation.
Am. J. Hematol.
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The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), starting with imatinib and followed by second and third generation TKIs, has significantly changed the clinical management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Despite their unprecedented clinical success, a proportion of patients fail to achieve complete cytogenetic remission by 12 months of treatment (primary resistance) while others experience progressive resistance after an initial response (secondary resistance). BCR-ABL1 kinase domain (KD) mutations have been detected in a proportion of patients at the time of treatment failure, and therefore their identification and monitoring plays an important role in therapeutic decisions particularly when switching TKIs. When monitoring KD mutations in a clinical laboratory, the choice of method should take into account turnaround time, cost, sensitivity, specificity, and ability to accurately quantify the size of the mutant clone. In this article, we describe in a "manual" style the methods most widely used in our laboratory to monitor KD mutations in patients with CML including direct sequencing, D-HPLC, and pyrosequencing. Advantages, disadvantages, interpretation of results, and their clinical applications are reviewed for each method.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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