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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Upper esophageal and pharyngeal cancers.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on laryngopharyngeal reflux as a risk factor for laryngeal cancer; the role of pepsin in laryngopharyngeal neoplasia; natural fruit and vegetable compounds for the prevention and treatment of pharyngeal and esophageal cancers; and evaluation of cranberry constituents as inhibitors of esophageal adenocarcinoma utilizing in vitro assay and in vivo models.
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Synthesis of a 2"-deoxy-?-GalCer.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Structural studies of ternary complexes of CD1d/glycosyl ceramides/iNKT cells and CD1d/sulfatide/sulfatide reactive Type II NKT cells have shown how the polar moieties on the glycolipids interact with both the antigen presenting protein (CD1d) and the T cell receptors. However, these structures alone do not reveal the relative importance of these interactions. This study focuses on the synthesis of the previously unknown 2"-deoxy-?-galactosyl ceramide 2. This glycolipid is also evaluated for its ability to stimulate iNKT cells and sulfatide-reactive Type II NKT cells.
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Cronobacter sakazakii reduction by blueberry proanthocyanidins.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Blueberry juice and blueberry polyphenols reportedly have antimicrobial properties against foodborne pathogens, without much currently known on their effects against Cronobacter sakazakii. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and commercial blueberry juice (BJ) against two strains of C. sakazakii, ATCC 29004 and 29544. BJ (pH 2.8), blueberry PAC (5 mg/ml) and controls (phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and malic acid pH 3.0) were mixed with equal volumes of washed overnight cultures of C. sakazakii and incubated for 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h at 37°C. Reductions of ?1 and 1.50 log CFU/ml were obtained for strains 29004 and 29544, respectively after 30 min with BJ or blueberry PAC. Both C. sakazakii strains 29004 and 29544 were reduced to undetectable levels from 8.25 ± 0.12 log CFU/ml and 8.48 ± 0.03 log CFU/ml, respectively with BJ (pH 2.8) or blueberry PAC after 1 h, while malic acid (pH 3.0) showed ?1.3 log CFU/ml reduction for both strains. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed differences in cell membrane morphology with clumping and formation of blebs of the treated strains compared to untreated controls. These results warrant further in vivo studies with blueberry bioactives to determine potential for preventing and treating C. sakazakii infections.
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Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health.
Adv Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health.
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Silicon acceleration of a tandem alkene isomerization/electrocyclic ring-opening of 2-methyleneoxetanes to ?,?-unsaturated methylketones.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The first rearrangement of 2-methyleneoxetanes to ?,?-unsaturated methylketones is reported. It is proposed that when these substrates are heated, the corresponding oxetenes are formed and subsequently undergo electrocyclic ring-opening to methyl vinylketones. In particular, ?-silyl-?,?-unsaturated methylketones were isolated in moderate to high yields and with high stereoselectivities. Based on the proposed mechanism, density functional theory explains the differential kinetics and stereoselectivities among substrates.
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Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins prevent formation of Candida albicans biofilms in artificial urine through biofilm- and adherence-specific mechanisms.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Candida albicans is a common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is responsible for increased morbidity and healthcare costs. Moreover, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired catheter-associated UTIs. Thus, development of specific approaches for the prevention of Candida urinary infections is needed. Cranberry juice-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) have efficacy in the prevention of bacterial UTIs, partially due to anti-adherence properties, but there are limited data on their use for the prevention and/or treatment of Candida UTIs. Therefore, we sought to systematically assess the in vitro effect of cranberry-derived PACs on C. albicans biofilm formation in artificial urine.
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Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations.
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The pomegranate: effects on bacteria and viruses that influence human health.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Pomegranates have been known for hundreds of years for their multiple health benefits, including antimicrobial activity. The recent surge in multidrug-resistant bacteria and the possibility of widespread global virus pandemics necessitate the need for additional preventative and therapeutic options to conventional drugs. Research indicates that pomegranates and their extracts may serve as natural alternatives due to their potency against a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Nearly every part of the pomegranate plant has been tested for antimicrobial activities, including the fruit juice, peel, arils, flowers, and bark. Many studies have utilized pomegranate peel with success. There are various phytochemical compounds in pomegranate that have demonstrated antimicrobial activity, but most of the studies have found that ellagic acid and larger hydrolyzable tannins, such as punicalagin, have the highest activities. In some cases the combination of the pomegranate constituents offers the most benefit. The positive clinical results on pomegranate and suppression of oral bacteria are intriguing and worthy of further study. Much of the evidence for pomegranates antibacterial and antiviral activities against foodborne pathogens and other infectious disease organisms comes from in vitro cell-based assays, necessitating further confirmation of in vivo efficacy through human clinical trials.
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Inhibition of ?-amylase and glucoamylase by tannins extracted from cocoa, pomegranates, cranberries, and grapes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins, referred to as "tannins", exist in many plant sources. These compounds interact with proteins due to their numerous hydroxyl groups, which are suitable for hydrophobic associations. It was hypothesized that tannins could bind to the digestive enzymes ?-amylase and glucoamylase, thereby inhibiting starch hydrolysis. Slowed starch digestion can theoretically increase satiety by modulating glucose "spiking" and depletion that occurs after carbohydrate-rich meals. Tannins were isolated from extracts of pomegranate, cranberry, grape, and cocoa and these isolates tested for effectiveness to inhibit the activity of ?-amylase and glucoamylase in vitro. The compositions of the isolates were confirmed by NMR and LC/MS analysis, and tannin-protein interactions were investigated using relevant enzyme assays and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated inhibition of each enzyme by each tannin, but with variation in magnitude. In general, larger and more complex tannins, such as those in pomegranate and cranberry, more effectively inhibited the enzymes than did less polymerized cocoa tannins. Interaction of the tannins with the enzymes was confirmed through calorimetric measurements of changes in enzyme thermal stability.
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Quantifying and characterizing proanthocyanidins in cranberries in relation to urinary tract health.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The "A-type" proanthocyanidins in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are bioactive components associated with prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI). Cranberry juice, fruit (fresh and dried), functional foods, and cranberry dietary supplements are promoted for prevention of UTI and for maintenance of urinary tract health (UTH), on the basis of their content of cranberry proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) with "A-type" interflavan bonds. With increasing consumer use of cranberries for maintenance of UTH and an expanding number of commercial cranberry products of different types, the availability of unified methods for measuring levels of c-PAC is important. This review discusses quantitative and qualitative analysis of c-PAC with "A-type" interflavan bonds in relation to their biological activity for UTI prevention. The integrity (including authenticity, standardization, efficacy, and safety) of cranberry fruit, juices, and dietary supplements may now be measured by using recent advances in mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, production of c-PAC standards, and improved simple quantitative techniques.
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Cloning and characterization of a hybridoma secreting a 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-specific monoclonal antibody and recombinant F(ab).
Toxins (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Smokeless tobacco products have been associated with increased risks of oro-pharyngeal cancers, due in part to the presence of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). These potent carcinogens are formed during tobacco curing and as a result of direct nitrosation reactions that occur in the oral cavity. In the current work we describe the isolation and characterization of a hybridoma secreting a high-affinity, NNK-specific monoclonal antibody. A structurally-related benzoyl derivative was synthesized to facilitate coupling to NNK-carrier proteins, which were characterized for the presence of the N-nitroso group using the Griess reaction, and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Splenocytes from mice bearing NNK-specific antibodies were used to create hybridomas. Out of four, one was selected for subcloning and characterization. Approximately 99% of the monoclonal antibodies from this clone were competitively displaced from plate-bound NNKB conjugates in the presence of free NNK. The affinity of the monoclonal antibody to the NNKB conjugates was Kd = 2.93 nM as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Free nicotine was a poor competitor for the NNKB binding site. The heavy and light chain antibody F(ab) fragments were cloned, sequenced and inserted in tandem into an expression vector, with an FMDV Furin 2A cleavage site between them. Expression in HEK 293 cells revealed a functional F(ab) with similar binding features to that of the parent hybridoma. This study lays the groundwork for synthesizing transgenic tobacco that expresses carcinogen-sequestration properties, thereby rendering it less harmful to consumers.
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Access to oxetane-containing psico-nucleosides from 2-methyleneoxetanes: a role for neighboring group participation?
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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The first psico-oxetanocin analogue of the powerful antiviral natural product, oxetanocin A, has been readily synthesized from cis-2-butene-1,4-diol. Key 2-methyleneoxetane precursors were derived from ?-lactones prepared by the carbonylation of epoxides. F(+)-mediated nucleobase incorporation provided the corresponding nucleosides in good yield but with low diastereoselectivity. Surprisingly, attempted exploitation of anchimeric assistance to increase the selectivity was not fruitful. A range of 2-methyleneoxetane and related 2-methylenetetrahydrofuran substrates was prepared to explore the basis for this. With one exception, these substrates also showed little stereoselectivity in nucleobase incorporation. Computational studies were undertaken to examine if neighboring group participation involving fused [4.2.0] or [4.3.0] intermediates is favorable.
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V?2 natural killer T cell antigen receptor-mediated recognition of CD1d-glycolipid antigen.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Natural killer T cell antigen receptors (NKT TCRs) recognize lipid-based antigens (Ags) presented by CD1d. Although the TCR ?-chain is invariant, NKT TCR V? exhibits greater diversity, with one (V?11) and three (V?8, V?7, and V?2) V? chains in humans and mice, respectively. With the exception of the V?2 NKT TCR, NKT TCRs possess canonical tyrosine residues within complementarity determining region (CDR) 2? that are critical for CD1d binding. Thus, how V?2 NKT TCR docks with CD1d-Ag was unclear. Despite the absence of the CDR2?-encoded tyrosine residues, we show that the V?2 NKT TCR engaged CD1d-Ag in a similar manner and with a comparable affinity and energetic footprint to the manner observed for the V?8.2 and V?7 NKT TCRs. Accordingly, the germline-encoded regions of the TCR ?-chain do not exclusively dictate the innate NKT TCR-CD1d-Ag docking mode. Nevertheless, clear fine specificity differences for the CD1d-Ag existed between the V?2 NKT TCR and the V?8.2 and V?7 NKT TCRs, with the V?2 NKT TCR exhibiting greater sensitivity to modifications to the glycolipid Ag. Furthermore, within the V?2 NKT TCR-CD1d-?GalCer complex, the CDR2? loop mediated fewer contacts with CD1d, whereas the CDR1? and CDR3? loops contacted CD1d to a much greater extent compared with most V?11, V?8.2, and V?7 NKT TCRs. Accordingly, there is a greater interplay between the germline- and nongermline-encoded loops within the TCR ?-chain of the V?2 NKT TCR that enables CD1d-Ag ligation.
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MicroRNA alterations in Barretts esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines following cranberry extract treatment: Insights for chemoprevention.
J Carcinog
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Aberrant expression of small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) is documented to occur in multiple cancer types including esophageal adencarcinoma (EAC) and its only known precursor, Barretts esophagus (BE). Recent studies have linked dysregulation of specific miRNAs to histological grade, neoplastic progression and metastatic potential.
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Glycolipids that elicit IFN-?-biased responses from natural killer T cells.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d. The first antigen described, ?-galactosyl ceramide (?GalCer), is a potential anticancer agent whose activity depends upon IFN-? secretion. We report two analogs of ?GalCer based on a naturally occurring glycosphingolipid, plakoside A. These compounds induce enhanced IFN-? that correlates with detergent-resistant binding to CD1d and an increased stability of the lipid-CD1d complexes on antigen-presenting cells. Structural analysis on one of the analogs indicates that it is more deeply bound inside the CD1d groove, suggesting tighter lipid-CD1d interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which structural information provides an explanation for the increased lipid-CD1d stability, likely responsible for the Th1 bias. We provide insights into the mechanism of IFN-?-inducing compounds, and because our compounds activate human NKT cells, they could have therapeutic utility.
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Oral consumption of cranberry juice cocktail inhibits molecular-scale adhesion of clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) has been shown to inhibit the formation of biofilm by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In order to investigate whether the anti-adhesive components could reach the urinary tract after oral consumption of CJC, a volunteer was given 16?oz of either water or CJC. Urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after consumption of a single dose. The ability of compounds in the urine to influence bacterial adhesion was tested for six clinical uropathogenic E. coli strains, including four P-fimbriated strains (B37, CFT073, BF1023, and J96) and two strains not expressing P-fimbriae but exhibiting mannose-resistant hemagglutination (B73 and B78). A non-fimbriated strain, HB101, was used as a control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion force between a silicon nitride probe and bacteria treated with urine samples. Within 2 hours after CJC consumption, bacteria of the clinical strains treated with the corresponding urine sample demonstrated lower adhesion forces than those treated with urine collected before CJC consumption. The adhesion forces continued decreasing with time after CJC consumption over the 8-hour measurement period. The adhesion forces of bacteria after exposure to urine collected following water consumption did not change. HB101 showed low adhesion forces following both water and CJC consumption, and these did not change over time. The AFM adhesion force measurements were consistent with the results of a hemagglutination assay, confirming that oral consumption of CJC could act against adhesion of uropathogenic E. coli.
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A rapid fluorescence-based assay for classification of iNKT cell activating glycolipids.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Structural variants of ?-galactosylceramide (?GC) that activate invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are being developed as potential immunomodulatory agents for a variety of applications. Identification of specific forms of these glycolipids that bias responses to favor production of proinflammatory vs anti-inflammatory cytokines is central to current efforts, but this goal has been hampered by the lack of in vitro screening assays that reliably predict the in vivo biological activity of these compounds. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay to identify functionally distinct ?GC analogues. Our assay is based on recent findings showing that presentation of glycolipid antigens by CD1d molecules localized to plasma membrane detergent-resistant microdomains (lipid rafts) is correlated with induction of interferon-? secretion and Th1-biased cytokine responses. Using an assay that measures lipid raft residency of CD1d molecules loaded with ?GC, we screened a library of ?200 synthetic ?GC analogues and identified 19 agonists with potential Th1-biasing activity. Analysis of a subset of these novel candidate Th1 type agonists in vivo in mice confirmed their ability to induce systemic cytokine responses consistent with a Th1 type bias. These results demonstrate the predictive value of this novel in vitro assay for assessing the in vivo functionality of glycolipid agonists and provide the basis for a relatively simple high-throughput assay for identification and functional classification of iNKT cell activating glycolipids.
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A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the RANKL-dependent differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 µg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 µg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold) and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.
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A molecular basis for the exquisite CD1d-restricted antigen specificity and functional responses of natural killer T cells.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Natural killer T (NKT) cells respond to a variety of CD1d-restricted antigens (Ags), although the basis for Ag discrimination by the NKT cell receptor (TCR) is unclear. Here we have described NKT TCR fine specificity against several closely related Ags, termed altered glycolipid ligands (AGLs), which differentially stimulate NKT cells. The structures of five ternary complexes all revealed similar docking. Acyl chain modifications did not affect the interaction, but reduced NKT cell proliferation, indicating an affect on Ag processing or presentation. Conversely, truncation of the phytosphingosine chain caused an induced fit mode of TCR binding that affected TCR affinity. Modifications in the glycosyl head group had a direct impact on the TCR interaction and associated cellular response, with ligand potency reflecting the t(1/2) life of the interaction. Accordingly, we have provided a molecular basis for understanding how modifications in AGLs can result in striking alterations in the cellular response of NKT cells.
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Cranberry proanthocyanidins mediate growth arrest of lung cancer cells through modulation of gene expression and rapid induction of apoptosis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents purported to enhance immune function, improve urinary tract health, reduce cardiovascular disease and more recently, inhibit cancer in preclinical models. However, identification of the cranberry constituents with the strongest cancer inhibitory potential and the mechanism associated with cancer inhibition by cranberries remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the ability of a proanthocyanidin rich cranberry fraction (PAC) to alter gene expression, induce apoptosis and impact the cell cycle machinery of human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and five year survival rates remain poor at 16%. Thus, assessing potential inhibitors of lung cancer-linked signaling pathways is an active area of investigation.
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Mouse and human iNKT cell agonist ?-mannosylceramide reveals a distinct mechanism of tumor immunity.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Type 1 or invariant NKT (iNKT) cell agonists, epitomized by ?-galactosylceramide, protect against cancer largely by IFN-?-dependent mechanisms. Here we describe what we believe to be a novel IFN-?-independent mechanism induced by ?-mannosylceramide, which also defines a potentially new class of iNKT cell agonist, with an unusual ?-linked sugar. Like ?-galactosylceramide, ?-mannosylceramide directly activates iNKT cells from both mice and humans. In contrast to ?-galactosylceramide, protection by ?-mannosylceramide was completely dependent on NOS and TNF-?, neither of which was required to achieve protection with ?-galactosylceramide. Moreover, at doses too low for either alone to protect, ?-mannosylceramide synergized with ?-galactosylceramide to protect mice against tumors. These results suggest that treatment with ?-mannosylceramide provides a distinct mechanism of tumor protection that may allow efficacy where other agonists have failed. Furthermore, the ability of ?-mannosylceramide to synergize with ?-galactosylceramide suggests treatment with this class of iNKT agonist may provide protection against tumors in humans.
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Unexpected cleavage of 2-azido-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxetanes: conformation determines reaction pathway?
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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An unanticipated cleavage of 2-azido-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxetanes is reported. In attempts to oxidize the title oxetanyl alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids with RuO4, cleaved nitriles were formed as the sole isolable products, while a closely related tetrahydrofuran gave solely the expected carboxylic acid. Quantum chemical calculations suggest that the divergent outcomes are governed by conformational differences in the azidoalcohols.
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Multi-laboratory validation of a standard method for quantifying proanthocyanidins in cranberry powders.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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The objective of this study was to validate an improved 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) colorimetric method using a commercially available standard (procyanidin A2), for the standard method for quantification of proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry powders, in order to establish dosage guidelines for the uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion effect of cranberry.
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?-galactosylceramide analogs with weak agonist activity for human iNKT cells define new candidate anti-inflammatory agents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells with invariant T cell receptor ? chains (iNKT cells) are a unique lymphocyte subset that responds to recognition of specific lipid and glycolipid antigens. They are conserved between mice and humans and exert various immunoregulatory functions through their rapid secretion of a variety of cytokines and secondary activation of dendritic cells, B cells and NK cells. In the current study, we analyzed the range of functional activation states of human iNKT cells using a library of novel analogs of ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer), the prototypical iNKT cell antigen. Measurement of cytokines secreted by human iNKT cell clones over a wide range of glycolipid concentrations revealed that iNKT cell ligands could be classified into functional groups, correlating with weak versus strong agonistic activity. The findings established a hierarchy for induction of different cytokines, with thresholds for secretion being consistently lowest for IL-13, higher for interferon-? (IFN?), and even higher for IL-4. These findings suggested that human iNKT cells can be intrinsically polarized to selective production of IL-13 by maintaining a low level of activation using weak agonists, whereas selective polarization to IL-4 production cannot be achieved through modulating the strength of the activating ligand. In addition, using a newly designed in vitro system to assess the ability of human iNKT cells to transactivate NK cells, we found that robust secondary induction of interferon-? secretion by NK cells was associated with strong but not weak agonist ligands of iNKT cells. These results indicate that polarization of human iNKT cell responses to Th2-like or anti-inflammatory effects may best be achieved through selective induction of IL-13 and suggest potential discrepancies with findings from mouse models that may be important in designing iNKT cell-based therapies in humans.
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Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Ingestion of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) has traditionally been utilized for prevention of urinary tract infections. The proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry, in particular the A-type linkages have been implicated as important inhibitors of primarily P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Additional experiments were required to investigate the persistence in urine samples over a broader time period, to determine the most effective dose per day and to determine if the urinary anti-adhesion effect following cranberry is detected within volunteers of different origins.
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Antiviral effects of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on foodborne viral surrogates--a time dependence study in vitro.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are widely known for their antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The effect of CJ and cranberry PAC on the infectivity of foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage, and ?X-174 (ssDNA) bacteriophage after 0 min to 1h at room temperature was evaluated. Viruses at titers of ?5log(10)PFU/ml were mixed with equal volumes of CJ at pH 2.6, CJ at pH 7.0, 0.30 mg/ml CJ PAC, 0.60mg/ml PAC, or water and incubated for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min, and 1h at room temperature. Infectivity was determined using standard plaque assays. The viral reduction rates of the four tested viruses were found to vary considerably. Among the tested viruses, FCV-F9 titers were decreased the most by ?5log(10)PFU/ml within 30 min. MS2 titers were decreased the least by only ?1log(10)PFU/ml after 1h with CJ at pH 2.6 and 0.30 mg/ml PAC, and ?0.5log(10)PFU/ml with CJ at pH 7.0 and 0.15 mg/ml PAC. MNV-1 and ?-X174 showed comparable titer reductions which was between that of FCV-F9 and MS2. In most cases, viral reduction within the first 10 min of treatment accounted for ?50% of the total reduction. Transmission electron microscopy on FCV-F9 treated with CJ and PAC revealed structural changes. This study shows potential of using natural bioactive compounds for controlling foodborne viral diseases. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of CJ components and to understand the differences in viral titer reduction profiles.
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Anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis and anti-inflammatory activities of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) have recently been reported to be beneficial for human health, especially urinary tract health. The effect of these proanthocyanidins on periodontitis, a destructive disease of tooth-supporting tissues, needs to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AC-PACs on various virulence determinants of Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells stimulated by this periodontopathogen. We examined the effects of AC-PACs on P. gingivalis growth and biofilm formation, adherence to human oral epithelial cells and protein-coated surfaces, collagenase activity, and invasiveness. We also tested the ability of AC-PACs to modulate the P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory response by human oral epithelial cells. Our results showed that while AC-PACs neutralized all the virulence properties of P. gingivalis in a dose-dependent fashion, they did not interfere with growth. They also inhibited the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) but did not affect the secretion of IL-6 by epithelial cells stimulated with P. gingivalis. This anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 pathway. AC-PACs may be potentially valuable bioactive molecules for the development of new strategies to treat and prevent P. gingivalis-associated periodontal diseases.
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A CD1d-dependent antagonist inhibits the activation of invariant NKT cells and prevents development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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The prevalence of asthma continues to increase in westernized countries, and optimal treatment remains a significant therapeutic challenge. Recently, CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells were found to play a critical role in the induction of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in animal models and are associated with asthma in humans. To test whether iNKT cell-targeted therapy could be used to treat allergen-induced airway disease, mice were sensitized with OVA and treated with di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DPPE-PEG), a CD1d-binding lipid antagonist. A single dose of DPPE-PEG prevented the development of AHR and pulmonary infiltration of lymphocytes upon OVA challenge, but had no effect on the development of OVA-specific Th2 responses. In addition, DPPE-PEG completely prevented the development of AHR after administration of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) intranasally. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DPPE-PEG acts as antagonist to alpha-GalCer and competes with alpha-GalCer for binding to CD1d. Finally, we show that DPPE-PEG completely inhibits the alpha-GalCer-induced phosphorylation of ERK tyrosine kinase in iNKT cells, suggesting that DPPE-PEG specifically blocks TCR signaling and thus activation of iNKT cells. Because iNKT cells play a critical role in the development of AHR, the inhibition of iNKT activation by DPPE-PEG suggests a novel approach to treat iNKT cell-mediated diseases such as asthma.
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The effect of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on the infectivity of human enteric viral surrogates.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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The effect of cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2(ssRNA) bacteriophage, and phiX-174(ssDNA) bacteriophage was studied. Viruses at high (approximately 7 log(10) PFU/ml) or low (approximately 5 log(10) PFU/ml) titers were mixed with equal volumes of CJ, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 mg/ml final PAC concentration, or water and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. At low viral titers, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to CJ or the three tested PAC solutions. MNV-1 was reduced by 2.06 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 2.63, 2.75, and 2.95 log(10) PFU/ml with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml PAC, respectively. MS2 titers were reduced by 1.14 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 0.55, 0.80, and 0.96 log(10) PFU/ml with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml PAC, respectively. phi-X174 titers were reduced by 1.79 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 1.95, 3.67, and 4.98 log(10) PFU/ml with PAC at 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml, respectively. Experiments using high titers showed similar trends but with decreased effects. CJ and PAC show promise as natural antivirals that could potentially be exploited for foodborne viral illness treatment and prevention.
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Adaptability of the semi-invariant natural killer T-cell receptor towards structurally diverse CD1d-restricted ligands.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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The semi-invariant natural killer (NK) T-cell receptor (NKTcr) recognises structurally diverse glycolipid antigens presented by the monomorphic CD1d molecule. While the alpha-chain of the NKTcr is invariant, the beta-chain is more diverse, but how this diversity enables the NKTcr to recognise diverse antigens, such as an alpha-linked monosaccharide (alpha-galactosylceramide and alpha-galactosyldiacylglycerol) and the beta-linked trisaccharide (isoglobotriaosylceramide), is unclear. We demonstrate here that NKTcrs, which varied in their beta-chain usage, recognised diverse glycolipid antigens with a similar binding mode on CD1d. Nevertheless, the NKTcrs recognised distinct epitopic sites within these antigens, including alpha-galactosylceramide, the structurally similar alpha-galactosyldiacylglycerol and the very distinct isoglobotriaosylceramide. We also show that the relative roles of the CDR loops within the NKTcr beta-chain varied as a function of the antigen. Thus, while NKTcrs characteristically use a conserved docking mode, the NKTcr beta-chain allows these cells to recognise unique aspects of structurally diverse CD1d-restricted ligands.
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T cell receptor CDR2 beta and CDR3 beta loops collaborate functionally to shape the iNKT cell repertoire.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Mouse type I natural killer T cell receptors (iNKT TCRs) use a single V alpha 14-J alpha 18 sequence and V beta s that are almost always V beta 8.2, V beta 7, or V beta 2, although the basis of this differential usage is unclear. We showed that the V beta bias occurred as a consequence of the CDR2 beta loops determining the affinity of the iNKT TCR for CD1d-glycolipids, thus controlling positive selection. Within a conserved iNKT-TCR-CD1d docking framework, these inherent V beta-CD1d affinities are further modulated by the hypervariable CDR3 beta loop, thereby defining a functional interplay between the two iNKT TCR CDR beta loops. These V beta biases revealed a broadly hierarchical response in which V beta 8.2 > V beta 7 > V beta 2 in the recognition of diverse CD1d ligands. This restriction of the iNKT TCR repertoire during thymic selection paradoxically ensures that each peripheral iNKT cell recognizes a similar spectrum of antigens.
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Synthesis and evaluation of 3- and 4-deoxy and -fluoro analogs of the immunostimulatory glycolipid, KRN7000.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Four 3- and 4-deoxy and -fluorogalactosyl ceramides were synthesized, and their ability to stimulate iNKT cells, based on levels of IL-2 production, was assessed in three NKT cell receptor hybridomas. In two of the hybridomas, 1.2 and 2H4, all of the analogs were immunostimulatory, while in the 1.4 hybridoma only the 4-fluoro analog led to the production of significant levels of IL-2.
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Synthesis and evaluation of an acyl-chain unsaturated analog of the Th2 biasing, immunostimulatory glycolipid, OCH.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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An alpha-galactosyl ceramide (alpha-GalCer) 2 was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to stimulate iNKT-cell proliferation and elicit T-helper cytokines, IL-4 and IFNgamma. Compound 2 combines the acyl chain of the potent, Th2 biasing alpha-GalCer 1 with a sphingoid base of the same length as that found in OCH, which also exhibits Th2 skewing, Such complementation may enhance cytokine bias, which is thought to be important for therapeutic applications of iNKT cell stimulation. Two related alpha-GalCers, 3 and 4, with saturated acyl chains were prepared for comparison.
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Kinetics and cellular site of glycolipid loading control the outcome of natural killer T cell activation.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating alpha galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine responses to determine how ligand structure controls the outcome of NKT cell activation. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for alphaGalCer-CD1d complexes to visualize and quantitate glycolipid presentation, we found that Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing ligands were characterized by rapid and direct loading of cell-surface CD1d proteins. Complexes formed by association of these Th2 cell-type cytokine-biasing alphaGalCer analogs with CD1d showed a distinctive exclusion from ganglioside-enriched, detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains of antigen-presenting cells. These findings help to explain how subtle alterations in glycolipid ligand structure can control the balance of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities of NKT cells.
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Recognition of lyso-phospholipids by human natural killer T lymphocytes.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes with potent immunoregulatory properties. Recognition of self-antigens presented by CD1d molecules is an important route of NKT cell activation; however, the molecular identity of specific autoantigens that stimulate human NKT cells remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed human NKT cell recognition of CD1d cellular ligands. The most clearly antigenic species was lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC). Diacylated phosphatidylcholine and lyso-phosphoglycerols differing in the chemistry of the head group stimulated only weak responses from human NKT cells. However, lyso-sphingomyelin, which shares the phosphocholine head group of LPC, also activated NKT cells. Antigen-presenting cells pulsed with LPC were capable of stimulating increased cytokine responses by NKT cell clones and by freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that human NKT cells recognize cholinated lyso-phospholipids as antigens presented by CD1d. Since these lyso-phospholipids serve as lipid messengers in normal physiological processes and are present at elevated levels during inflammatory responses, these findings point to a novel link between NKT cells and cellular signaling pathways that are associated with human disease pathophysiology.
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Human and mouse type I natural killer T cell antigen receptors exhibit different fine specificities for CD1d-antigen complex.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Human and mouse type I natural killer T (NKT) cells respond to a variety of CD1d-restricted glycolipid antigens (Ags), with their NKT cell antigen receptors (NKT TCRs) exhibiting reciprocal cross-species reactivity that is underpinned by a conserved NKT TCR-CD1d-Ag docking mode. Within this common docking footprint, the NKT TCR recognizes, to varying degrees of affinity, a range of Ags. Presently, it is unclear whether the human NKT TCRs will mirror the generalities underpinning the fine specificity of the mouse NKT TCR-CD1d-Ag interaction. Here, we assessed human NKT TCR recognition against altered glycolipid ligands of ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) and have determined the structures of a human NKT TCR in complex with CD1d-4,4?-deoxy-?-GalCer and CD1d-?-GalCer with a shorter, di-unsaturated acyl chain (C20:2). Altered glycolipid ligands with acyl chain modifications did not affect the affinity of the human NKT TCR-CD1d-Ag interaction. Surprisingly, human NKT TCR recognition is more tolerant to modifications at the 4-OH position in comparison with the 3-OH position of ?-GalCer, which contrasts the fine specificity of the mouse NKT TCR-CD1d-Ag recognition (4-OH > 3-OH). The fine specificity differences between human and mouse NKT TCRs was attributable to differing interactions between the respective complementarity-determining region 1? loops and the Ag. Accordingly, germline encoded fine-specificity differences underpin human and mouse type I NKT TCR interactions, which is an important consideration for therapeutic development and NKT cell physiology.
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Toward a formal synthesis of laureatin: unexpected rearrangements involving cyclic ether nucleophiles.
J. Org. Chem.
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Laureatin, a metabolite of the red algae Laurencia nipponica, has shown potent activity as a mosquito larvicide. The two previously published syntheses of laureatin involved an initial preparation of the 8-membered cyclic ether, followed by formation of the oxetane ring. Our strategy was the reverse, i.e., to utilize an oxetane as the framework to construct the larger ring. During this work, attempted N-bromosuccinimide (NBS)-mediated cyclization of oxetane alcohol 17, prepared from readily accessible 2-methyleneoxetane 12, yielded epoxytetrahydrofuran 19 rather than the expected laureatin core. Further derivatization of 19 yielded trans fused bis-tetrahydrofuran 32. The synthesis of 19 and 32, as well as structural and stereochemical elucidation studies, are described.
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Antibacterial effects of plant-derived extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
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Natural chemicals have been reported to have antibacterial effects against a variety of bacteria. The present study evaluated the antibacterial effects of commercially available grape-seed extract (GSE), pomegranate polyphenols (PP), and lab-prepared cranberry proanthocyanidins (C-PAC) against two strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). GSE, PP, and C-PAC at concentrations of 2 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, or controls were mixed with equal volumes of overnight cultures of MRSA at ~6 log?? colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and incubated for 0, 1, 2, 8, and 24 h at 37°C. Treatments were neutralized/stopped using tryptic soy broth containing 3% beef extract. Serial dilutions of the treated MRSA strains and controls were spread-plated on trypticase soy agar and incubated for 24-48 h at 37°C and colonies were counted. Among the three tested agents, GSE at 1 and 5 mg/mL was found to be most effective against MRSA, resulting in a 2.9-4.0 log?? CFU/mL reduction of both strains after 2 h at 37°C. PP at 1 and 5 mg/mL was found to cause 1.1-2.3 log?? CFU/mL reduction, while C-PAC at 1 mg/mL caused <1 log?? CFU/mL reduction of the two MRSA strains after 2 h at 37°C. All three extracts at the tested concentrations decreased the two MRSA strains to undetectable levels within 24 h, with the exception of 1 mg/mL PP for strain 33591. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA after 2 h of treatment showed that GSE and PP caused bacterial cell wall alteration, with negligible effect observed by C-PAC treatment. However, the in vivo activity and clinical safety applications of GSE, PP, and C-PAC need to be evaluated before suggestion for use as a treatment/control measure.
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Comparison of isolated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) proanthocyanidins to catechin and procyanidins A2 and B2 for use as standards in the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde assay.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. However, this method suffers from issues of accuracy and precision in the analysis and comparison of PAC levels across a broad range of cranberry products. Current use of procyanidin A2 as a standard leads to an underestimation of PACs content in certain cranberry products, especially those containing higher molecular weight PACs. To begin to address the issue of accuracy, a method for the production of a cranberry PAC standard, derived from an extraction of cranberry (c-PAC) press cake, was developed and evaluated. Use of the c-PAC standard to quantify PAC content in cranberry samples resulted in values that were 2.2 times higher than those determined by procyanidin A2. Increased accuracy is critical for estimating PAC content in relationship to research on authenticity, efficacy, and bioactivity, especially in designing clinical trials for determination of putative health benefits.
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Efficient sorption of polyphenols to soybean flour enables natural fortification of foods.
Food Chem
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The present study demonstrated that defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb polyphenols from blueberry and cranberry juices while separating them from sugars. Depending on DSF concentration and juice dilution, the concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols sorbed to DSF ranged from 2 - 22 mg/g and 10 - 95 mg/g, respectively while the concentration of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF ranged from 2.5 - 17 mg/g and 21 - 101 mg/g, respectively. Blueberry polyphenols present in one serving of fresh blueberries (73g) were delivered in just 1.4 g of blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF. Similarly, one gram of cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF delivered the amount of proanthocyanidins available in three 240 ml servings of cranberry juice cocktail. The concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols eluted from DSF remained constant after 22 weeks of incubation at 37°C, demonstrating the high stability of the polyphenol-DSF matrix. LC-MS analysis of eluates confirmed DSF retained major cranberry and blueberry polyphenols remained intact. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF exhibited significant hypoglycemic activities in C57bl/6J mice, and cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF showed anti-microbial and anti-UTI activities in vitro, confirming its efficacy. The described sorption process provides a means to create protein-rich food ingredients containing concentrated plant bioactives without excess sugars, fats and water that can be incorporated in a variety of scientifically validated functional foods and dietary supplements.
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Comprehensive assessment of the quality of commercial cranberry products. Phenolic characterization and in vitro bioactivity.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) products have been widely recommended in traditional American medicine for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 19 different commercial cranberry products from American and European markets have been analyzed by different global phenolic methods and by UPLC-DAD-ESI-TQ MS. In addition, in vitro antioxidant capacity and uropathogenic bacterial antiadhesion activity tests have been performed. Results revealed that products found in the market widely differed in their phenolic content and distribution, including products completely devoid of flavan-3-ols to highly purified ones, either in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) or in anthocyanins. The product presentation form and polyphenolic profile widely affected the antiadhesion activity, ranging from a negative (nulel) effect to a MIC = 0.5 mg/mL for cranberry powders and a MIC=112 mg/mL for gel capsule samples. Only 4 of 19 products would provide the recommended dose of intake of 36 mg total PACs/day. Of most importance was the fact that this dose would actually provide as low as 0.00 and up to 205 ?g/g of procyanidin A2, indicating the lack of product standardization and incongruence between global and individual compound analysis.
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Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans and cytokine secretion by oral epithelial cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med
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Oral candidiasis is a common fungal disease mainly caused by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on pathogenic properties of C. albicans as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells induced by this oral pathogen.
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