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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Diagnostic yield of specific inhalation challenge in hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Reliable methods are needed to diagnose hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The aim of the study was to establish the diagnostic yield of specific inhalation challenge (SIC) in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. All patients with suspected hypersensitivity pneumonitis in whom SIC was performed (n = 113) were included. SIC was considered positive when patients showed a decrease of >15% in forced vital capacity (FVC) or >20% in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon dioxide, or a decrease of 10% to 15% in FVC accompanied by a temperature increase of 0.5°C within 24 h of inhalation of the antigen. SIC was positive to the agents tested in 68 patients: 64 received a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and SIC results were considered false-positive in the remaining four patients. In the SIC-negative group (n = 45), 24 patients received a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and SIC results were considered false-negative, and 21 patients were diagnosed with other respiratory diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 72.7% and 84%, respectively. Having hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by an antigen other than birds or fungi predicted a false-negative result (p = 0.001). In hypersensitivity pneumonitis, positive SIC testing virtually confirms the diagnosis, whereas negative testing does not rule it out, especially when the antigenic sources are not birds or fungi.
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Analysis of histone posttranslational modifications from nucleolus-associated chromatin by mass spectrometry.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Chromatin is unevenly distributed within the eukaryote nucleus and it contributes to the formation of morphologically and functionally distinct substructures, called chromatin domains and nuclear bodies. Here we describe an approach to assess specific chromatin features, the histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs), of the largest nuclear sub-compartment, the nucleolus. In this chapter, methods for the isolation of nucleolus-associated chromatin from native or formaldehyde-fixed cells and the effect of experimental procedures on the outcome of mass spectrometry analysis of histone PTMs are compared.
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[Adult pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: Approach to the reality of the Spanish population.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare respiratory disease closely associated with smoking. The aim of the study is to know the reality of PLCH in the Catalonian population.
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Factors influencing response to intravenous lacosamide in emergency situations: LACO-IV study.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Status epilepticus (SE) and acute repetitive seizures (ARSs) frequently result in emergency visits. Wide variations in response are seen with standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Oral and intravenous (IV) formulations of lacosamide are approved as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults and adolescents. The aim of the retrospective multicenter observational study (LACO-IV) was to analyze data from a large cohort of patients with SE or ARSs of varying severity and etiology, who received IV lacosamide in the emergency setting. Patient clinical data were entered into a database; lacosamide use and efficacy and tolerability variables were analyzed. In SE, IV lacosamide tended to be used mainly in nonconvulsive status epilepticus as second- or third-line treatment. The proportion of patients with no seizures when IV lacosamide was the last drug administered was 76.5% (70.9% SE and 83.7% ARSs). The rate of seizure cessation ? 24 h after IV lacosamide administration was 57.1% (49.1% SE and 67.4% ARSs). Of the factors analyzed, a shorter latency from seizure onset to IV lacosamide infusion influenced treatment response significantly. A nonsignificant tendency towards a higher response was seen with lacosamide dose >200mg versus ? 200 mg. Analysis of response according to mechanism of action showed no significant differences in response to IV lacosamide in patients receiving prior sodium channel blocker (SCB) or non-SCB AEDs in the overall or SE population; however, in ARSs, a tendency towards a higher response was observed in those receiving non-SCB AEDs. The frequency and nature of adverse events observed were in line with those reported in other studies (somnolence being the most frequent). In the absence of randomized prospective controlled studies of IV lacosamide, our observations suggest that IV lacosamide may be a potential alternative for treatment of SE/ARSs when seizures fail to improve with standard AEDs or when AEDs are contraindicated or not recommended.
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Bronchial inflammation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis after antigen-specific inhalation challenge.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The aim of this study is to compare the inflammatory profile before and after specific inhalation challenge (SIC) in induced sputum from patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and to investigate whether different causal antigens define the resulting profile.
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Mislocalization of the centromeric histone variant CenH3/CENP-A in human cells depends on the chaperone DAXX.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Centromeres are essential for ensuring proper chromosome segregation in eukaryotes. Their definition relies on the presence of a centromere-specific H3 histone variant CenH3, known as CENP-A in mammals. Its overexpression in aggressive cancers raises questions concerning its effect on chromatin dynamics and contribution to tumorigenesis. We find that CenH3 overexpression in human cells leads to ectopic enrichment at sites of active histone turnover involving a heterotypic tetramer containing CenH3-H4 with H3.3-H4. Ectopic localization of this particle depends on the H3.3 chaperone DAXX rather than the dedicated CenH3 chaperone HJURP. This aberrant nucleosome occludes CTCF binding and has a minor effect on gene expression. Cells overexpressing CenH3 are more tolerant of DNA damage. Both the survival advantage and CTCF occlusion in these cells are dependent on DAXX. Our findings illustrate how changes in histone variant levels can disrupt chromatin dynamics and suggests a possible mechanism for cell resistance to anticancer treatments.
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Compositional and structural analysis of selected chromosomal domains from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Chromatin is the template for replication and transcription in the eukaryotic nucleus, which needs to be defined in composition and structure before these processes can be fully understood. We report an isolation protocol for the targeted purification of specific genomic regions in their native chromatin context from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subdomains of the multicopy ribosomal DNA locus containing transcription units of RNA polymerases I, II or III or an autonomous replication sequence were independently purified in sufficient amounts and purity to analyze protein composition and histone modifications by mass spectrometry. We present and discuss the proteomic data sets obtained for chromatin in different functional states. The native chromatin was further amenable to electron microscopy analysis yielding information about nucleosome occupancy and positioning at the single-molecule level. We also provide evidence that chromatin from virtually every single copy genomic locus of interest can be purified and analyzed by this technique.
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Circulating levels of miR-133a predict the regression potential of left ventricular hypertrophy after valve replacement surgery in patients with aortic stenosis.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Myocardial microRNA-133a (miR-133a) is directly related to reverse remodeling after pressure overload release in aortic stenosis patients. Herein, we assessed the significance of plasma miR-133a as an accessible biomarker with prognostic value in predicting the reversibility potential of LV hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in these patients.
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Validated spectrofluorometric method for determination of gemfibrozil in self nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS).
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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A spectrofluorometric method has been developed and validated for the determination of gemfibrozil. The method is based on the excitation and emission capacities of gemfibrozil with excitation and emission wavelengths of 276 and 304 nm respectively. This method allows de determination of the drug in a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for improve its intestinal absorption. Results obtained showed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.999) and low limits of detection and quantification (LOD of 0.075 ?g mL(-1) and LOQ of 0.226 ?g mL(-1)) in the range of 0.2-5 ?g mL(-1), equally this method showed a good robustness and stability. Thus the amounts of gemfibrozil released from SNEDDS contained in gastro resistant hard gelatine capsules were analysed, and release studies could be performed satisfactorily.
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[Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall dHebron (Barcelona, Spain).
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Developmental regulation of N-terminal H2B methylation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Histone post-translational modifications play an important role in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression in vivo. Extensive studies investigated the post-translational modifications of the core histones H3 and H4 or the linker histone H1. Much less is known on the regulation of H2A and H2B modifications. Here, we show that a major modification of H2B in Drosophila melanogaster is the methylation of the N-terminal proline, which increases during fly development. Experiments performed in cultured cells revealed higher levels of H2B methylation when cells are dense, regardless of their cell cycle distribution. We identified dNTMT (CG1675) as the enzyme responsible for H2B methylation. We also found that the level of N-terminal methylation is regulated by dART8, an arginine methyltransferase that physically interacts with dNTMT and asymmetrically methylates H3R2. Our results demonstrate the existence of a complex containing two methyltransferases enzymes, which negatively influence each others activity.
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Myocardial gene expression of microRNA-133a and myosin heavy and light chains, in conjunction with clinical parameters, predict regression of left ventricular hypertrophy after valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling after valve replacement in aortic stenosis (AS) has been classically linked to the hydraulic performance of the replacement device, but myocardial status at the time of surgery has received little attention.
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Chronic treatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone favours the coupling of spinal cord ?-opioid receptors to G?z protein subunits.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Sustained administration of opioid antagonists to rodents results in an enhanced antinociceptive response to agonists. We investigated the changes in spinal ?-opioid receptor signalling underlying this phenomenon. Rats received naltrexone (120 ?g/h; 7 days) via osmotic minipumps. The antinociceptive response to the ?-agonist sufentanil was tested 24 h after naltrexone withdrawal. In spinal cord samples, we determined the interaction of ?-receptors with G? proteins (agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding and immunoprecipitation of [(35)S]GTP?S-labelled G? subunits) as well as ?-opioid receptor-dependent inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Chronic naltrexone treatment augmented DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding, potentiated the inhibitory effect of DAMGO on the AC/cAMP pathway, and increased the inverse agonist effect of naltrexone on cAMP accumulation. In control rats, the inhibitory effect of DAMGO on cAMP production was antagonized by pertussis toxin (PTX) whereas, after chronic naltrexone, the effect became resistant to the toxin, suggesting a coupling of ?-receptors to PTX-insensitive G?(z) subunits. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the transduction switch from G?(i/o) to G?(z) proteins. The consequence was an enhancement of the antinociceptive response to sufentanil that, in consonance with the neurochemical data, was prevented by G?(z)-antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides but not by PTX. Such changes in opioid receptor signalling can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, they may have potential applicability to the optimisation of the analgesic effects of opioid drugs for the control of pain. On the other hand, they represent an important homeostatic dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system that might account for undesirable effects in patients chronically treated with opioid antagonists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
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[Provincial stroke code: characteristics and impact on health care].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Endovenous thrombolysis is the preferred treatment in the early hours following cerebral infarction and delays are the main obstacle preventing it from being used on a more widespread basis. The stroke code (SC) is a system that allows stroke patients to be identified quickly and taken to the most suitable hospital for such treatment to be implemented. AIM. To determine the impact of extending the intra-hospital SC (ISC) to a provincial SC (PSC).
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High eosinophil levels and poor evolution in occupational asthma due to cyanoacrylate exposure.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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We present the case of a 41-year-old woman who developed occupational asthma (OA) due to cyanoacrylate while working in a company that manufactured and marketed plastic products. Specific inhalation challenge confirmed the diagnosis of OA to cyanoacrylate. The patient expressed marked eosinophilic inflammation and marked deterioration of pulmonary function while in persistent contact with the causal agent. The possible etiologic mechanisms implicated in the origin of this type of OA are discussed. Patients diagnosed with this condition are advised to avoid exposure to cyanoacrylates.
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[Comparative study of dietary intake and nutritional status in elderly women with and without hip fracture].
Aten Primaria
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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To compare the nutritional status and dietary intake of elderly women admitted with hip fracture (HF) versus a control group without fracture and without known abnormalities of bone mineral density. Design: Descriptive and observational study. Location: Hospital Neurotraumatológico in Jaen (Spain) and three urban Primary Health Care centers in Jaen city (San Felipe, Virgen de la Capilla and El Valle).
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BAMBI (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) reveals the involvement of the transforming growth factor-beta family in pain modulation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-betas) signal through type I and type II serine-threonine kinase receptor complexes. During ligand binding, type II receptors recruit and phosphorylate type I receptors, triggering downstream signaling. BAMBI [bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin membrane-bound inhibitor] is a transmembrane pseudoreceptor structurally similar to type I receptors but lacks the intracellular kinase domain. BAMBI modulates negatively pan-TGF-beta family signaling; therefore, it can be used as an instrument for unraveling the roles of these cytokines in the adult CNS. BAMBI is expressed in regions of the CNS involved in pain transmission and modulation. The lack of BAMBI in mutant mice resulted in increased levels of TGF-beta signaling activity, which was associated with attenuation of acute pain behaviors, regardless of the modality of the stimuli (thermal, mechanical, chemical/inflammatory). The nociceptive hyposensitivity exhibited by BAMBI(-/-) mice was reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Moreover, in a model of chronic neuropathic pain, the allodynic responses of BAMBI(-/-) mice also appeared attenuated through a mechanism involving delta-opioid receptor signaling. Basal mRNA and protein levels of precursor proteins of the endogenous opioid peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and proenkephalin (PENK) appeared increased in the spinal cords of BAMBI(-/-). Transcript levels of TGF-betas and their intracellular effectors correlated directly with genes encoding opioid peptides, whereas BAMBI correlated inversely. Furthermore, incubation of spinal cord explants with activin A or BMP-7 increased POMC and/or PENK mRNA levels. Our findings identify TGF-beta family members as modulators of acute and chronic pain perception through the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding the endogenous opioids.
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Intravenous thrombolysis in an elderly patient with acute ischemic stroke masking aortic dissection.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Before thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke is undertaken, conditions associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, such as an acute aortic dissection (AAD), should be excluded. We report an 80-year-old woman with acute ischemic stroke as the sole clinical manifestation of AAD who was treated with intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). She had no history of hypertension or any signs or symptoms suggestive of AAD. After IV tPA infusion was started, carotid color-coded duplex sonography demonstrated proximal left common carotid artery dissection suggestive of AAD. Infusion of tPA was stopped, and subsequent computed tomography angiography confirmed Stanford type A aortic dissection. In this case, prompt neurosonologic evaluation helped us make an appropriate diagnosis and avoid complications related to treatment. Neurosonologic evaluation should be considered as soon as possible in all patients with acute ischemic stroke, especially when thrombolytic treatment is being considered.
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Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 reflect left ventricular remodeling in aortic stenosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2009
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TGF-beta1 is involved in cardiac remodeling through an auto/paracrine mechanism. The contribution of TGF-beta1 from plasmatic source to pressure overload myocardial remodeling has not been analyzed. We investigated, in patients with valvular aortic stenosis (AS), and in mice subjected to transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC), whether plasma TGF-beta1 relates with myocardial remodeling, reflected by LV transcriptional adaptations of genes linked to myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, and by heart morphology and function.
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Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of surfactant composed of amines.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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Occupational asthma (OA) is highly prevalent in industrialized countries and nearly 400 causal agents of this condition have been described to date. This study aims to describe the case of a patient who developed OA secondary to exposure to a surfactant agent comprised of alkylamine ethoxylate and a mixture of alkyleneoxy and ethylenediamine.
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Gender differences of echocardiographic and gene expression patterns in human pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Gender influence on left ventricular (LV) remodeling associated to aortic valve stenosis (AS) has been long recognized, but underlying myocardial gene expression patterns have not been explored. We studied whether sex differences in echocardiographic LV anatomy and function in AS patients are associated with specific changes in myocardial mRNA expression of remodeling proteins. AS (n=39) and control (n=23)patients were assessed echocardiographically, and LV myocardial mRNA levels were quantified by PCR. AS patients exhibit increased wall thicknesses and LV mass index (LVMI), but only men show chamber dilation.Collagens and fibronectin mRNA levels increased correlatively to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). In AS women, collagen I upregulation was proportionally higher than other extracellular matrix (ECM)components. No changes in matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 were detected. Gene expressions of sarcomeric proteins (beta-myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain-2) and TGF-beta1 were directly correlated with each other. Myosin light chain-2 mRNA levels increased proportionally to the transvalvular gradient, but women did so in a greater extent than men for a given gradient. In women, the hypertrophic growth response, reflected by LVMI, was proportional to the expression of genes encoding sarcomeric proteins and TGF-beta1. In men, chamber dilation and deterioration of LVEF was proportional to collagens, fibronectin, and TGF-beta1 gene expression levels. We evidenced gender biased gene expression patterns of the intracellular TGF-beta pathways involving the Smad branch, but not the TAK-1 branch, that could contribute to the remodeling differences observed in AS men and women. Based on these findings, a gender specific therapeutic approach of pressure overload LV hypertrophy could be justified.
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[Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Mucor species in a cork worker].
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Suberosis is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to cork proteins and molds such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium frequentans. We present the case of a man with suberosis caused by Mucor species, a mold that has been rarely reported to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Furthermore, the patient had symptoms and lung function tests indicating bronchial obstruction-an atypical presentation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. No imaging abnormalities were observed. A diagnosis was made on the basis of bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy findings. Mucor species was identified as the causative agent using a specific bronchial challenge test.
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Ceramide-induced transbilayer (flip-flop) lipid movement in membranes.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Lipids in biological membranes are asymmetrically distributed across the bilayer. The choline-containing lipids, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and sphingomyelin (SM), are more abundant in the external leaflet. In contrast, the amino-containing glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth), are located preferentially on the cytoplasmic leaflet. The maintenance of transbilayer lipid asymmetry is essential for normal membrane function, and disruption of this asymmetry is associated with cell activation or pathological condition. The physiological role of ceramide formation in response to cell stimulation remains controversial. Ceramide formation serves many different functions at various locations in the cell. Despite the limited capacity for spontaneous intracellular diffusion or membrane flip-flop of lipids in membranes, we have found that ceramide production, via sphingomyelinase action or addition of external ceramide, induces the transbilayer lipid motion of the lipids within the cellular membrane. This chapter outlines various commonly used assays for measuring lipid flip-flop induced by ceramide in cell and model membranes.
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[Future prospects in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].
Arch. Bronconeumol.
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After the three revisions done by Cochrane for the last ten years, it has been demonstrated that most of the clinical assays performed with corticosteroids, immunomodulators and antifibrotic drugs have shown inconclusive results for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, only pirfenidone has proved to have significant efficacy in controlled clinical trials in the treatment of this disease. At present, a large number of new drugs are being tested, which offers a new perspective in some ways optimistic concerning the future treatment of this disease.
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BAMBI (BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) protects the murine heart from pressure-overload biomechanical stress by restraining TGF-? signaling.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Left ventricular (LV) pressure overload is a major cause of heart failure. Transforming growth factors-? (TGF-?s) promote LV remodeling under biomechanical stress. BAMBI (BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) is a pseudoreceptor that negatively modulates TGF-? signaling. The present study tests the hypothesis that BAMBI plays a protective role during the adverse LV remodeling under pressure overload. The subjects of the study were BAMBI knockout mice (BAMBI(-/-)) undergoing transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). We examined LV gene and protein expression of remodeling-related elements, histological fibrosis, and heart morphology and function. LV expression of BAMBI was increased in AS patients and TAC-mice and correlated directly with TGF-?. BAMBI deletion led to a gain of myocardial TGF-? signaling through canonical (Smads) and non-canonical (TAK1-p38 and TAK1-JNK) pathways. As a consequence, the remodeling response to pressure overload in BAMBI(-/-) mice was exacerbated in terms of hypertrophy, chamber dilation, deterioration of long-axis LV systolic function and diastolic dysfunction. Functional remodeling associated transcriptional activation of fibrosis-related TGF-? targets, up-regulation of the profibrotic micro-RNA-21, histological fibrosis and increased metalloproteinase-2 activity. Histological remodeling in BAMBI(-/-) mice involved TGF-?s. BAMBI deletion in primary cardiac fibroblasts exacerbated TGF-?-induced profibrotic responses while BAMBI overexpression in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts attenuated them. Our findings identify BAMBI as a critical negative modulator of myocardial remodeling under pressure overload. We suggest that BAMBI is involved in negative feedback loops that restrain the TGF-? remodeling signals to protect the pressure-overloaded myocardium from uncontrolled extracellular matrix deposition in humans and mice.
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Myocardial and circulating levels of microRNA-21 reflect left ventricular fibrosis in aortic stenosis patients.
Int. J. Cardiol.
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Various human cardiovascular pathophysiological conditions associate aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and circulating miRNAs are emerging as promising biomarkers. In mice, myocardial miR-21 overexpression is related to cardiac fibrosis elicited by pressure overload. This study was designed to determine the role of myocardial and plasmatic miR-21 in the maladaptive remodeling of the extracellular matrix induced by pressure overload in aortic stenosis (AS) patients and the clinical value of miR-21 as a biomarker for pathological myocardial fibrosis.
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Androgens contribute to sex differences in myocardial remodeling under pressure overload by a mechanism involving TGF-?.
PLoS ONE
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In clinical studies, myocardial remodeling in aortic valve stenosis appears to be more favorable in women than in men, even after menopause. In the present study, we assessed whether circulating androgens contribute to a less favorable myocardial remodeling under pressure overload in males. We examined sex-related differences in one-year-old male and female mice. Whereas male mice at this age exhibited circulating androgen levels within the normal range for young adults, the circulating estrogens in females were reduced. The contribution of gonadal androgens to cardiac remodeling was analyzed in a group of same-age castrated mice.
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Design and optimization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhanced dissolution of gemfibrozil.
Int J Pharm
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Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems of gemfibrozil were developed under Quality by Design approach for improvement of dissolution and oral absorption. Preliminary screening was performed to select proper components combination. Box-Behnken experimental design was employed as statistical tool to optimize the formulation variables, X(1) (Cremophor(®) EL), X(2) (Capmul(®) MCM-C8), and X(3) (lemon essential oil). Systems were assessed for visual characteristics (emulsification efficacy), turbidity, droplet size, polydispersity index and drug release. Different pH media were also assayed for optimization. Following optimization, the values of formulation components (X(1), X(2), and X(3)) were 32.43%, 29.73% and 21.62%, respectively (16.22% of gemfibrozil). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated spherical droplet morphology. SNEEDS release study was compared to commercial tablets. Optimized SNEDDS formulation of gemfibrozil showed a significant increase in dissolution rate compared to conventional tablets. Both formulations followed Weibull mathematical model release with a significant difference in t(d) parameter in favor of the SNEDDS. Equally amodelistic parameters were calculated being the dissolution efficiency significantly higher for SNEDDS, confirming that the developed SNEDDS formulation was superior to commercial formulation with respect to in vitro dissolution profile. This paper provides an overview of the SNEDDS of the gemfibrozil as a promising alternative to improve oral absorption.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.