JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The presence of perforated synapses in the striatum after dopamine depletion, is this a sign of maladaptive brain plasticity?
Microscopy (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Synaptic plasticity is the process by which long-lasting changes take place at synaptic connections. The phenomenon itself is complex and can involve many levels of organization. Some authors separate forms into adaptations that have positive or negative consequences for the individual. It has been hypothesized that an increase in the number of synapses may represent a structural basis for the enduring expression of synaptic plasticity during some events that involve memory and learning; also, it has been suggested that perforated synapses increase in number after some diseases and experimental situations. The aim of this study was to analyze whether dopamine depletion induces changes in the synaptology of the corpus striatum of rats after the unilateral injection of 6-OHDA. The findings suggest that after the lesion, both contralateral and ipsilateral striata exhibit an increased length of the synaptic ending in ipsilateral (since third day) and contralateral striatum (since Day 20), loss of axospinous synapses in ipsilateral striatum and a significant increment in the number of perforated synapses, suggesting brain plasticity that might be deleterious for the spines, because this type of synaptic contacts are presumably excitatory, and in the absence of the modulatory effects of dopamine, the neuron could die through excitotoxic mechanisms. Thus, we can conclude that the presence of perforated synapses after striatal dopamine depletion might be a form of maladaptive synaptic plasticity.
Related JoVE Video
[Measurement units used in treatments to reduce weight and obesity. Systematic review].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are different parameters to express the loss of weight in the treatment of overweight and obesity: absolute loss, percentage of loss, decrease in BMI, etc.
Related JoVE Video
[Infant pain response according to vaccine administration].
Rev Enferm
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine if acute pain response in infants after administration of pentavalent diphtheria (polio, tetanus, acellular pertussis and B Type Hemophilus influenzae: Pentavac) and meningitis C vaccine (NeisVacC) vary according to the administration order.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study identifies a novel locus at 6q22.1 associated with ulcerative colitis.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genetic analysis of ulcerative colitis (UC) has provided new insights into the etiology of this prevalent inflammatory bowel disease. However, most of the heritability of UC (>70%) has still not been characterized. To identify new risk loci for UC we have performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Southern European population and undertaken a meta-analysis study combining the newly genotyped 825 UC patients and 1525 healthy controls from Spain with the six previously published GWAS comprising 6687 cases and 19 718 controls from Northern-European ancestry. We identified a novel locus with genome-wide significance at 6q22.1 [rs2858829, P = 8.97 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI] = 1.12 (1.08-1.16)] that was validated with genotype data from a replication cohort of the same Southern European ancestry consisting in 1073 cases and 1279 controls [combined P = 7.59 × 10(-10), OR (95% CI) = 1.12 (1.08-1.16)]. Furthermore, we confirmed the association of 33 reported associations with UC and we nominally validated the GWAS results of nine new risk loci (P < 0.05, same direction of effect). SNP rs2858829 lies in an intergenic region and is a strong cis-eQTL for FAM26F gene, a gene that is shown to be selectively upregulated in UC colonic mucosa with active inflammation. Our results provide new insight into the genetic risk background of UC, confirming that there is a genetic risk component that differentiates from Crohn's Disease, the other major form of inflammatory bowel disease.
Related JoVE Video
Perceived self-competence, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life in pediatric patients with pacemakers.
J Dev Behav Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare participants' self-competence levels to normative data and examine self-competence as a potential protective factor against poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial adjustment in children with pacemakers.
Related JoVE Video
Health-Related Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning in Children With Tourette Syndrome: Parent-Child Agreement and Comparison to Healthy Norms.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the degree of agreement between parent proxy- and child self-report on measures of child psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life in children with Tourette syndrome. Participants included 28 children with Tourette syndrome and their parents. All participants provided ratings of children's level of quality of life and psychosocial functioning. Results revealed strong, positive relationships between child self- and parent proxy-reports on all quality of life and psychosocial functioning domains. Parents perceived significantly higher levels of depression compared to their children, whereas children reported significantly lower Physical quality of life compared to their parents. Results suggest that assessment of quality of life and psychosocial functioning should include multiple reporters whenever feasible. Caution should be used when exclusively relying on parent proxy-reports of quality of life and psychosocial functioning, as these reports may not accurately reflect children's difficulties or perceptions of their functioning.
Related JoVE Video
PINK1 deficiency in b-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice.
Open Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function. We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function.
Related JoVE Video
Longitudinal stability of specific barriers to medication adherence.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Higher levels of barriers are related to lower medication adherence and negative medical outcomes in pediatric transplant recipients. Although total number of barriers appears to be stable over time, it is unclear whether the same is true for specific barriers. This study examined the frequency of endorsement and the stability of specific barriers over 18 months.
Related JoVE Video
PINK1 deficiency in ?-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice.
Open Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function. We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function.
Related JoVE Video
Development and glycoprotein composition of the perimicrovillar membrane in Triatoma (Meccus) pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).
Arthropod Struct Dev
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemipterans and thysanopterans (Paneoptera: Condylognatha) differ from other insects by having an intestinal perimicrovillar membrane (PMM) which extends from the base of the microvilli to the intestinal lumen. The development and composition of the PMM in hematophagous Reduviidae depend on factors related to diet. The PMM may also allow the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of human Chagas Disease, to establish and develop in this insect vector. We studied the PMM development in the Mexican vector of Chagas Disease, Triatoma (Meccus) pallidipennis. We describe changes in the midgut epithelial cells of insects in response to starvation, and at different times (10, 15 and 20 days) after bloodfeeding. In starved insects, the midguts showed epithelial cells closely connected to each other but apparently free of PMM with some regions being periodic acid-Schiff (PAS-Schiff) positive. In contrast, the PMM was evident and fully developed in the midgut region of insects 15 days after feeding. After this time, the PMM completely covered the microvilli and reached the midgut lumen. At 15 days following feeding the labeled PAS-Schiff increased in the epithelial apex, suggesting an increase in carbohydrates. Lectins as histochemical reagents show the presence of a variety of glycoconjugates including mannose, glucose, galactosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine. Also present were N-acetyl-glucosamine and sialic acid which contribute to the successful establishment and replication or T. cruzi in its insect vectors. By means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the formation and structure of the PMM is confirmed at 15 days post feeding. Our results confirmed the importance of the feeding processes in the formation of the PMM and showed the nature of the biochemical composition of the vectors' intestine in this important Mexican vector of Chagas disease.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and preoperative markers of inflammation.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Explanatory mechanisms for the association between poor exercise capacity and infections following surgery are underexplored. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness-assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET)-would be associated with circulating inflammatory markers, as quantified by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte subsets. The association between cardiopulmonary reserve and inflammation was tested by multivariable regression analysis with covariates including anaerobic threshold (AT) and malignancy. In a first cohort of 240 colorectal patients, AT was identified as the sole factor associated with higher NLR (P = 0.03) and absolute and relative lymphopenia (P = 0.01). Preoperative leukocyte subsets and monocyte CD14(+) expression (downregulated by endotoxin and indicative of chronic inflammation) were also assessed in two further cohorts of age-matched elective gastrointestinal and orthopaedic surgical patients. Monocyte CD14(+) expression was lower in gastrointestinal patients (n = 43) compared to age-matched orthopaedic patients (n = 31). The circulating CD14(+)CD16(-) monocyte subset was reduced in patients with low cardiopulmonary reserve. Poor exercise capacity in patients without a diagnosis of heart failure is independently associated with markers of inflammation. These observations suggest that preoperative inflammation associated with impaired cardiorespiratory performance may contribute to the pathophysiology of postoperative outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: a pilot study.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs.
Related JoVE Video
Intensive nutritional support improves the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia.
Related JoVE Video
Enzymatic degradation of Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) stems: influence of the pith and bark in the total hydrolysis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The internal pith of a high energy plant, Elephant grass (EG), was more extensively degraded (>50% dry matter) compared to the outer cortex (31%) or the whole stem (35%) by an enzyme preparation from Humicola insolens, Ultraflo. Reducing sugars and acetic acid release from the pith was also higher compared to the cortex. Supplementation of Ultraflo with a type-C feruloyl esterase increased the level of deacetylation but also led to reduced solubilisation. The addition of 20% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a co-solvent also reduced the solubility of EG by Ultraflo, although acetic acid release was increased, complimenting previous results found on model substrates. The presence of DMSO was also shown to have a protective effect on xylanase activity but not acetyl esterase activity in Ultraflo. Xylan in the biomass was preferentially solubilised by DMSO, while Ultraflo removed more glucose than xylose.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of repeated administration of lipopolysaccharide on inflammatory and stress markers in saliva of growing pigs.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although saliva could be considered to be an ideal biological sample for evaluation of biomarkers relating to stress and inflammatory responses in pigs, little is known about how these might be influenced by the presence of endotoxaemia. In the present study, the response to repeated administrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated, using a panel of salivary stress markers such as chromogranin A (CgA) and cortisol, as well as inflammatory/immune markers such as haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulin A (IgA). Sixteen growing pigs were adapted to experimental conditions for 3 weeks, after which, 10 of the pigs were selected to receive three doses of LPS at 48?h intervals. Saliva samples were taken from all pigs prior to any LPS administration (baseline) and at time points corresponding to 3?h after each injection of LPS (T1, T2 and T3). Results showed that repeated administration of LPS induced significant elevation of salivary markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (cortisol) and immune (Hp, CRP and IgA) activity compared to baseline levels (P?
Related JoVE Video
Impact of OSA on biological markers in morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is compelling evidence that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can affect metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk, but the intermediate mechanisms through which it occurs have not been well defined. We explored the impact of OSA in morbidly obese patients with MetS on adipokines, pro-inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis markers.
Related JoVE Video
Insights into water coordination associated with the Cu(II)/Cu(I) electron transfer at a biomimetic Cu centre.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The coordination properties of the biomimetic complex [Cu(TMPA)(H2O)](CF3SO3)2 (TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) have been investigated by electrochemistry combined with UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopy in different non-coordinating media including imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids, for different water contents. The solid-state X-ray diffraction analysis of the complex shows that the cupric centre lies in a N4O coordination environment with a nearly perfect trigonal bipyramidal geometry (TBP), the water ligand being axially coordinated to Cu(II). In solution, the coordination geometry of the complex remains TBP in all media. Neither the triflate ion nor the anions of the ionic liquids were found to coordinate the copper centre. Cyclic voltammetry in all media shows that the decoordination of the water molecule occurs upon monoelectronic reduction of the Cu(II) complex. Back-coordination of the water ligand at the cuprous state can be detected by increasing the water content and/or decreasing the timescale of the experiment. Numerical simulations of the voltammograms allow the determination of kinetics and thermodynamics for the water association-dissociation mechanism. The resulting data suggest that (i) the binding/unbinding of water at the Cu(I) redox state is relatively slow and equilibrated in all media, and (ii) the binding of water at Cu(I) is somewhat faster in the ionic liquids than in the non-coordinating solvents, while the decoordination process is weakly sensitive to the nature of the solvents. These results suggest that ionic liquids favour water exchange without interfering with the coordination sphere of the metal centre. This makes them promising media for studying host-guest reactions with biomimetic complexes.
Related JoVE Video
A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.
Curr. Protein Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.
Related JoVE Video
Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery: a large, international, prospective cohort study establishing diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes.
Fernando Botto, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Matthew T V Chan, Juan Carlos Villar, Denis Xavier, Sadeesh Srinathan, Gordon Guyatt, Patricia Cruz, Michelle Graham, C Y Wang, Otávio Berwanger, Rupert M Pearse, Bruce M Biccard, Valsa Abraham, German Malaga, Graham S Hillis, Reitze N Rodseth, Deborah Cook, Carisi A Polanczyk, Wojciech Szczeklik, Daniel I Sessler, Tej Sheth, Gareth L Ackland, Martin Leuwer, Amit X Garg, Yannick Lemanach, Shirley Pettit, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Giovanna Luratibuse, Michael Walsh, Robert Sapsford, Holger J Schünemann, Andrea Kurz, Sabu Thomas, Marko Mrkobrada, Lehana Thabane, Hertzel Gerstein, Pilar Paniagua, Peter Nagele, Parminder Raina, Salim Yusuf, P J Devereaux, Matthew J McQueen, Mohit Bhandari, Jackie Bosch, Norman Buckley, Clara K Chow, Richard Halliwell, Stephen Li, Vincent W Lee, John Mooney, Mariana V Furtado, Erica Suzumura, Eliana Santucci, Kátia Leite, Jose Amalth do Espirirto Santo, Cesar A P Jardim, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Helio Penna Guimaraes, Michael J Jacka, Finlay McAlister, Sean McMurtry, Derek Townsend, Neesh Pannu, Sean Bagshaw, Amal Bessissow, Emmanuelle Duceppe, John Eikelboom, Javier Ganame, James Hankinson, Stephen Hill, Sanjit Jolly, Andre Lamy, Elizabeth Ling, Patrick Magloire, Guillaume Paré, Deven Reddy, David Szalay, Jacques Tittley, Jeff Weitz, Richard Whitlock, Saeed Darvish-Kazim, Justin Debeer, Peter Kavsak, Clive Kearon, Richard Mizera, Martin O'Donnell, Matthew McQueen, Jehonathan Pinthus, Sebastian Ribas, Marko Simunovic, Vikas Tandon, Tomas VanHelder, Mitchell Winemaker, Sarah McDonald, Paul O'Bryne, Ameen Patel, James Paul, Zubin Punthakee, Karen Raymer, Omid Salehian, Fred Spencer, Stephen Walter, Andrew Worster, Anthony Adili, Catherine Clase, Mark Crowther, James Douketis, Azim Gangji, Paul Jackson, Wendy Lim, Peter Lovrics, Sergio Mazzadi, William Orovan, Jill Rudkowski, Mark Soth, Maria Tiboni, Rey Acedillo, Amit Garg, Ainslie Hildebrand, Ngan Lam, Danielle MacNeil, Pavel S Roshanov, Sadeesh K Srinathan, Clare Ramsey, Philip St John, Laurel Thorlacius, Faisal S Siddiqui, Hilary P Grocott, Andrew McKay, Trevor W R Lee, Ryan Amadeo, Duane Funk, Heather McDonald, James Zacharias, Olga Lucia Cortes, Maria Stella Chaparro, Skarlett Vásquez, Alvaro Castañeda, Sílvia Ferreira, Pierre Coriat, Denis Monneret, Jean Pierre Goarin, Cristina Ibanez Esteve, Catherine Royer, Georges Daas, Gordon Y S Choi, Tony Gin, Lydia C W Lit, Alben Sigamani, Atiya Faruqui, Radhika Dhanpal, Smitha Almeida, Joseph Cherian, Sultana Furruqh, Lalita Afzal, Preetha George, Shaveta Mala, Holger Schünemann, Paola Muti, Enrico Vizza, G S Y Ong, Marzida Mansor, Alvin S B Tan, Ina I Shariffuddin, V Vasanthan, N H M Hashim, A Wahab Undok, Ushananthini Ki, Hou Yee Lai, Wan Azman Ahmad, Azad H A Razack, Vanessa Valderrama-Victoria, Javier D Loza-Herrera, Maria De Los Angeles Lazo, Aida Rotta-Rotta, Barbara Sokolowska, Jacek Musial, Jacek Górka, Pawel Iwaszczuk, Mateusz Kozka, Maciej Chwala, Marcin Raczek, Tomasz Mrowiecki, Bogusz Kaczmarek, Bruce Biccard, Hussein Cassimjee, Dean Gopalan, Theroshnie Kisten, Aine Mugabi, Prebashini Naidoo, Rubeshan Naidoo, Reitze Rodseth, David Skinner, Alex Torborg, Gerard Urrútia, Mari Luz Maestre, Miquel Santaló, Raúl González, Adrià Font, Cecilia Martínez, Xavier Pelaez, Marta De Antonio, Jose Marcial Villamor, Jesús Alvarez García, Maria José Ferré, Ekaterina Popova, Ignacio Garutti, Carmen Fernandez, Maria Palencia, Susana Díaz, Teresa del Castillo, Alberto Varela, Angeles de Miguel, Manuel Munoz, Patricia Piñeiro, Gabriel Cusati, Maria Del Barrio, Maria José Membrillo, David Orozco, Fidel Reyes, Robert J Sapsford, Julian Barth, Julian Scott, Alistair Hall, Simon Howell, Michaela Lobley, Janet Woods, Susannah Howard, Joanne Fletcher, Nikki Dewhirst, C Williams, A Rushton, I Welters, M Leuwer, Rupert Pearse, Gareth Ackland, Ahsun Khan, Edyta Niebrzegowska, Sally Benton, Andrew Wragg, Andrew Archbold, Amanda Smith, Eleanor McAlees, Cheryl Ramballi, Neil MacDonald, Marta Januszewska, Robert Stephens, Anna Reyes, Laura Gallego Paredes, Pervez Sultan, David Cain, John Whittle, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Zhuo Sun, Patrick S Finnegan, Cameron Egan, Hooman Honar, Aram Shahinyan, Krit Panjasawatwong, Alexander Y Fu, Sihe Wang, Edmunds Reineks, Jane Blood, Megan Kalin, David Gibson, Troy Wildes, .
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS.
Related JoVE Video
Se metallomics during lactic fermentation of Se-enriched yogurt.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selenium biotransformation by lactic acid bacteria during the preparation of Se-enriched yogurt was evaluated. The study focused on the distribution of selenium in the aqueous soluble protein fraction and the detection of selenoamino acids. Screening of selenium in Tris-buffer-urea soluble fraction was carried out by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after pre-fractionating with asymmetric field flow fractionation using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as the detector. Selenium-containing fractions were identified by peptide mapping using nano LC-ESI/LTQMS. Proteins such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, albumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and lactoperoxidase were identified in the selenium-containing fraction. All these proteins were detected in both the control and the selenium-enriched yogurt except chaperones, which were only detected in the control samples. Chaperones are heat-shock proteins expressed in response to elevated temperature or other cellular stresses. Selenium may have an effect on chaperones expression in Lactobacillus. For the amino acids analysis, selenocysteine was the primary seleno-containing species.
Related JoVE Video
A uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor associated with tamoxifen treatment: a case report and literature review.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are rare neoplasms of unknown etiology that are classified as distinct from endometrial stromal tumors on the basis of their morphologic, molecular, and behavioral characteristics. These neoplasms have a variable immunophenotype, sometimes coexpressing epithelial, myoid, and sex cord markers. To date, only 2 cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors associated with tamoxifen use have been reported. Here, we report the case of a 49-year-old woman who had been using tamoxifen for 5 years to treat breast cancer. The tumor was initially diagnosed by hysteroscopy biopsy on the basis of morphologic and immunohistochemical features. Hysterectomy revealed a polypoid mass measuring 20 mm. After an 18-month follow-up, the patient remains disease free. Here, we review the clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical features of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and endometrial stromal tumors with a sex cord component associated with tamoxifen treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive study of valuable lipophilic phytochemicals in wheat bran.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wheat bran, the major side-stream generated in the milling of wheat grains in the production of white flour, contains significant quantities of carbohydrate and proteins. While not interfering with flour utilization, the bran could be considered as an important feedstock within a biorefinery concept. Wheat bran also contains some amounts of lipids that can be used as a source of valuable phytochemicals. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid composition of destarched wheat bran demonstrated that the predominant lipids found in wheat bran were free fatty acids (ca. 40% of total lipids), followed by acylglycerols (40%). Additionally, important amounts of alkylresorcinols (13% of total lipids) and steroid compounds (hydrocarbons, ketones, free sterols, sterol glycosides, sterol esters, and sterol ferulates) (7% of total lipids) were also present among the lipids of wheat bran. The use of wheat bran as a valuable source of phytochemicals of interest in the context of a wheat bran biorefinery is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of lignin-carbohydrate and lignin-lignin linkages after hydrolase treatment of xylan-lignin, glucomannan-lignin and glucan-lignin complexes from spruce wood.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xylan-lignin (XL), glucomannan-lignin (GML) and glucan-lignin (GL) complexes were isolated from spruce wood, hydrolyzed with xylanase or endoglucanase/?-glucosidase, and analyzed by analytical pyrolysis and 2D-NMR. The enzymatic hydrolysis removed most of the polysaccharide moieties in the complexes, and the lignin content and relative abundance of lignin-carbohydrate linkages increased. Analytical pyrolysis confirmed the action of the enzymatic hydrolysis, with strong decreases of levoglucosane and other carbohydrate-derived products. Unexpectedly it also revealed that the hydrolase treatment alters the pattern of lignin breakdown products, resulting in higher amounts of coniferyl alcohol. From the anomeric carbohydrate signals in the 2D-NMR spectra, phenyl glycoside linkages (undetectable in the original complexes) could be identified in the hydrolyzed GML complex. Lower amounts of glucuronosyl and benzyl ether linkages were also observed after the hydrolysis. From the 2D-NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed complexes, it was concluded that the lignin in GML is less condensed than in XL due to its higher content in ?-O-4' ether substructures (62 % of side chains in GML vs 53 % in XL) accompanied by more coniferyl alcohol end units (16 vs 13 %). In contrast, the XL lignin has more pinoresinols (11 vs 6 %) and dibenzodioxocins (9 vs 2 %) than the GML (and both have ~13 % phenylcoumarans and 1 % spirodienones). Direct 2D-NMR analysis of the hydrolyzed GL complex was not possible due to its low solubility. However, after sample acetylation, an even less condensed lignin than in the GML complex was found (with up to 72 % ?-O-4' substructures and only 1 % pinoresinols). The study provides evidence for the existence of structurally different lignins associated to hemicelluloses (xylan and glucomannan) and cellulose in spruce wood and, at the same time, offers information on some of the chemical linkages between the above polymers.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of a Deschampsia antarctica Desv. polypeptide with lipase activity in a Pichia pastoris vector.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The current study isolated and characterized the Lip3F9 polypeptide sequence of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (GeneBank Accession Number JX846628), which was found to be comprised of 291 base pairs and was, moreover, expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 cells. The enzyme was secreted after 24 h of P. pastoris culture incubation and through induction with methanol. The expressed protein showed maximum lipase activity (35 U/L) with an optimal temperature of 37 °C. The lipase-expressed enzyme lost 50% of its specific activity at 25 °C, a behavior characteristic of a psychrotolerant enzyme. Recombinant enzyme activity was measured in the presence of ionic and non-ionic detergents, and a decrease in enzyme activity was detected for all concentrations of ionic and non-ionic detergents assessed.
Related JoVE Video
Mutations in filamin C cause a new form of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in different genes encoding sarcomeric proteins are responsible for 50-60% of familial cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the genetic alterations causing the disease in one-third of patients are currently unknown. Here we describe a case with familial HCM of unknown cause. Whole-exome sequencing reveals a variant in the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein filamin C (p.A1539T) that segregates with the disease in this family. Sequencing of 92 HCM cases identifies seven additional variants segregating with the disease in eight families. Patients with FLNC mutations show marked sarcomeric abnormalities in cardiac muscle, and functional analysis reveals that expression of these FLNC variants resulted in the formation of large filamin C aggregates. Clinical studies indicate that FLNC-mutated patients have higher incidence of sudden cardiac death. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that mutations in the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein filamin C cause a new form of familial HMC.
Related JoVE Video
Saliva chromogranin A in growing pigs: a study of circadian patterns during daytime and stability under different storage conditions.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salivary chromogranin A (CgA) is considered to be a biomarker of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and has recently been proposed as a useful indicator of the acute stress response in pigs. The aim of the present study was to determinate whether salivary CgA concentrations in healthy growing pigs exhibits any circadian pattern during the daytime, and to evaluate its stability under different storage conditions. A total of 80 pigs (40 in spring and another 40 in autumn) of two different ages and genders were used. To establish the circadian pattern, saliva samples were collected at 07.00, 11.00, 15.00 and 19.00 h on two consecutive days. Pooled samples were used for the stability study and were measured on the day of sampling and periodically for up to 360 days later. Samples were stored at 4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C and the effect of repeated freezing and thawing was also evaluated. No circadian pattern was detected for salivary CgA in either season and there were no significant effects of gender or age. However, mean salivary CgA concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in the pigs sampled in autumn, compared to those sampled in the spring. Short term storage at 4 °C is recommended for up to 2 days, whereas frozen samples can be stored for 1 year at -20 °C or -80 °C, without substantial reduction in CgA values. In addition, samples can be frozen and thawed up to seven times without significant loss of the biomarker.
Related JoVE Video
Pretreatment with laccase and a phenolic mediator degrades lignin and enhances saccharification of Eucalyptus feedstock.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biofuel production from lignocellulosic material is hampered by biomass recalcitrance towards enzymatic hydrolysis due to the compact architecture of the plant cell wall and the presence of lignin. The purpose of this work is to study the ability of an industrially available laccase-mediator system to modify and remove lignin during pretreatment of wood (Eucalyptus globulus) feedstock, thus improving saccharification, and to analyze the chemical modifications produced in the whole material and especially in the recalcitrant lignin moiety.
Related JoVE Video
Phenotypic concordance in familial inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Results of a nationwide IBD Spanish database.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disease outcome has been found to be poorer in familial inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in sporadic forms, but assessment of phenotypic concordance in familial IBD provided controversial results. We assessed the concordance for disease type and phenotypic features in IBD families.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of colectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis under thiopurine treatment.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the risk factors of colectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) under thiopurine treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and the predictive risk factors of colectomy in an extensive cohort of patients with UC treated with thiopurines in Spain.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicians perspectives on cognitive therapy in community mental health settings: implications for training and implementation.
Adm Policy Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Policymakers are investing significant resources in large-scale training and implementation programs for evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) in public mental health systems. However, relatively little research has been conducted to understand factors that may influence the success of efforts to implement EBPTs for adult consumers of mental health services. In a formative investigation during the development of a program to implement cognitive therapy (CT) in a community mental health system, we surveyed and interviewed clinicians and clinical administrators to identify potential influences on CT implementation within their agencies. Four primary themes were identified. Two related to attitudes towards CT: (1) ability to address client needs and issues that are perceived as most central to their presenting problems, and (2) reluctance to fully implement CT. Two themes were relevant to context: (1) agency-level barriers, specifically workload and productivity concerns and reactions to change, and (2) agency-level facilitators, specifically, treatment planning requirements and openness to training. These findings provide information that can be used to develop strategies to facilitate the implementation of CT interventions for clients being treated in public-sector settings.
Related JoVE Video
The combination of oral L-DOPA/rimonabant for effective dyskinesia treatment and cytological preservation in a rat model of Parkinsons disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.
Behav Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinsons disease is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the world. Its treatment is limited so far to the management of parkinsonian symptoms with L-DOPA (LD). The long-term use of LD is limited by the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias and dystonia. However, recent studies have suggested that pharmacological targeting of the endocannabinoid system may potentially provide a valuable therapeutic tool to suppress these motor alterations. In the present study, we have explored the behavioral (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias severity) and cytological (substantia nigra compacta neurons and striatum neuropil preservation) effects of the oral coadministration of LD and rimonabant, a selective antagonist of CB1 receptors, in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinsons disease. Oral coadministration of LD (30 mg/kg) and rimonabant (1 mg/kg) significantly decreased abnormal involuntary movements and dystonia, possibly through the conservation of some functional tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopaminergic cells, which in turn translates into a well-preserved neuropil of a less denervated striatum. Our results provide anatomical evidence that long-term coadministration of LD with cannabinoid antagonist-based therapy may not only alleviate specific motor symptoms but also delay/arrest the degeneration of striatal and substantia nigra compacta cells.
Related JoVE Video
Emotional Functioning, Barriers, and Medication Adherence in Pediatric Transplant Recipients.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study assessed relationships among internalizing symptoms, barriers to medication adherence, and medication adherence in adolescents with solid organ transplants.
Related JoVE Video
Norovirus genome circularization and efficient replication are facilitated by binding of PCBP2 and hnRNP A1.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sequences and structures within the terminal genomic regions of plus-strand RNA viruses are targets for the binding of host proteins that modulate functions such as translation, RNA replication, and encapsidation. Using murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), we describe the presence of long-range RNA-RNA interactions that were stabilized by cellular proteins. The proteins potentially responsible for the stabilization were selected based on their ability to bind the MNV-1 genome and/or having been reported to be involved in the stabilization of RNA-RNA interactions. Cell extracts were preincubated with antibodies against the selected proteins and used for coprecipitation reactions. Extracts treated with antibodies to poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 significantly reduced the 5-3 interaction. Both PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 recombinant proteins stabilized the 5-3 interactions and formed ribonucleoprotein complexes with the 5 and 3 ends of the MNV-1 genomic RNA. Mutations within the 3 complementary sequences (CS) that disrupt the 5-3-end interactions resulted in a significant reduction of the viral titer, suggesting that the integrity of the 3-end sequence and/or the lack of complementarity with the 5 end is important for efficient virus replication. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PCBP2 or hnRNP A1 resulted in a reduction in virus yield, confirming a role for the observed interactions in efficient viral replication. PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 induced the circularization of MNV-1 RNA, as revealed by electron microscopy. This study provides evidence that PCBP2 and hnRNP A1 bind to the 5 and 3 ends of the MNV-1 viral RNA and contribute to RNA circularization, playing a role in the virus life cycle.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding pulp delignification by laccase-mediator systems through isolation and characterization of lignin-carbohydrate complexes.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects and mechanism of pulp delignification by laccases in the presence of redox mediators have been investigated on unbleached eucalyptus kraft pulp treated with laccases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (PcL) and Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) and methyl syringate (MeS) as mediators, respectively. Determination of the corrected ? number in eucalyptus pulps after the enzymatic treatments revealed that the PcL-HBT system exhibited a more remarkable delignification effect than the MtL-MeS system. To obtain further insight, lignin-carbohydrate complexes were fractionated and subsequently characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, thioacidolysis (followed by gas chromatography and size exclusion chromatography), and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS) analyses before and after the enzymatic treatments and their controls. We can conclude that the laccase-mediator treatments altered the lignin structures in such a way that more lignin was recovered in the xylan-lignin fractions, as shown by Klason lignin estimation, with smaller amounts of both syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) uncondensed units, as shown by thioacidolysis and gas chromatography, especially after the PcL-HBT treatment. The laccase-mediator treatment produced oxidation at C? and cleavage of C? and C? bonds in pulp lignin, as shown by pyrolysis-GC-MS. The general mechanism of residual lignin degradation in the pulp by laccase-mediator treatments is discussed in light of the results obtained.
Related JoVE Video
The low-abundance transcriptome reveals novel biomarkers, specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes associated with advanced gastric cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies on the low-abundance transcriptome are of paramount importance for identifying the intimate mechanisms of tumor progression that can lead to novel therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers and targetable genes and pathways in advanced human gastric cancer through analyses of the low-abundance transcriptome. The procedure involved an initial subtractive hybridization step, followed by global gene expression analysis using microarrays. We observed profound differences, both at the single gene and gene ontology levels, between the low-abundance transcriptome and the whole transcriptome. Analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome led to the identification and validation by tissue microarrays of novel biomarkers, such as LAMA3 and TTN; moreover, we identified cancer type-specific intracellular pathways and targetable genes, such as IRS2, IL17, IFN?, VEGF-C, WISP1, FZD5 and CTBP1 that were not detectable by whole transcriptome analyses. We also demonstrated that knocking down the expression of CTBP1 sensitized gastric cancer cells to mainstay chemotherapeutic drugs. We conclude that the analysis of the low-abundance transcriptome provides useful insights into the molecular basis and treatment of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Factors predicting response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis-B-seronegative patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be vaccinated. However, response to vaccination in this population seems to be poorer than in healthy people. The aim of this study is to assess which clinical, analytical and immunosuppressive therapy parameters affect the response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. A follow-up including monitoring of the immunosuppressive therapy of a cohort of 123 patients with IBD was carried out after each round of vaccination against hepatitis B virus. The recombinant HBsAg vaccine (20 ?g) was administered using the standard regimen (0, 1 and 6 months). Anti-HBs values >10I U/L after 1-3 months post-vaccination were considered as a successful response to vaccination. One hundred and five patients (85.5%) completed the programme and response to vaccination was observed in 50 (47.6%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship, with weaker response to vaccination, for IBD duration equal to or longer than 110 months [adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.282 (0.114-0.701)], serum albumin levels below 3.6 mg/dl at the beginning of vaccination [adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.336 (0.112-1.009)], and corticosteroid therapy in more than one vaccination dose [adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.333 (0.135-0.820)]. This study confirms the poor response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD, being particularly weak in individuals with long-term IBD progression, low serum albumin levels and those on corticosteroid therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition.
Related JoVE Video
Electrographic status epilepticus is associated with mortality and worse short-term outcome in critically ill children.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus are common in critically ill children. We aimed to determine whether electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus are associated with higher mortality or worse short-term neurologic outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Structural Characterization of Lignin Isolated from Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Coir Fibers.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structure of the isolated milled "wood" lignin from coconut coir has been characterized using different analytical methods, including Py-GC/MS, 2D NMR, DFRC, and thioacidolysis. The analyses demonstrated that it is a p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with a predominance of G units (S/G ratio 0.23) and considerable amounts of associated p-hydroxybenzoates. Two-dimensional NMR indicated that the main substructures present in this lignin include ?-O-4 alkyl aryl ethers followed by phenylcoumarans and resinols. Two-dimensional NMR spectra also indicated that coir lignin is partially acylated at the ?-carbon of the side chain with p-hydroxybenzoates and acetates. DFRC analysis showed that acetates preferentially acylate the ?-OH in S rather than in G units. Despite coir lignins being highly enriched in G-units, thioacidolysis indicated that ?-? resinol structures are mostly derived from sinapyl alcohol. Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses.
Related JoVE Video
A comprehensive characterization of lipids in wheat straw.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemical composition of the lipids in wheat straw was studied in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Important discrepancies with the data reported in previous papers were found. The predominant lipids identified were series of long-chain free fatty acids (25% of total extract), followed by series of free fatty alcohols (ca. 20%). High molecular weight esters of long chain fatty acids esterified to long chain fatty alcohols were also found (11%), together with lower amounts of other aliphatic series, such as n-alkanes, n-aldehydes, and glycerides (mono-, di-, and triglycerides). Relatively high amounts of ?-diketones (10%), particularly 14,16-hentriacontanedione, which is the second most abundant single compound among the lipids in wheat straw, were also identified. Finally, steroid compounds (steroid hydrocarbons, steroid ketones, free sterols, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides) were also found, with sterols accounting for nearly 14% of all identified compounds.
Related JoVE Video
Early azathioprine therapy is no more effective than placebo for newly diagnosed Crohns disease.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A small placebo-controlled trial reported the efficacy of mercaptopurine therapy for children newly diagnosed with Crohns disease, yet little is known about the efficacy of early thiopurine therapy in adults.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic susceptibility to increased bacterial translocation influences the response to biological therapy in patients with Crohns disease.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aetiology of Crohns disease (CD) has been related to nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain containing 2 (NOD2) and ATG16L1 gene variants. The observation of bacterial DNA translocation in patients with CD led us to hypothesise that this process may be facilitated in patients with NOD2/ATG16L1-variant genotypes, affecting the efficacy of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic compounds by a recombinant peroxygenase from Coprinopsis cinerea.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The goal of this study is the selective oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic compounds under mild and environmentally friendly conditions using a low-cost enzymatic biocatalyst. This could be possible taking advantage from a new peroxidase type that catalyzes monooxygenase reactions with H2 O2 as the only cosubstrate (peroxygenase). With this purpose, recombinant peroxygenase, from gene mining in the sequenced genome of Coprinopsis cinerea and heterologous expression using an industrial fungal host, is tested for the first time on aliphatic substrates. The reaction on free and esterified fatty acids and alcohols, and long-chain alkanes was followed by gas chromatography, and the different reaction products were identified by mass spectrometry. Regioselective hydroxylation of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids was observed at the ?-1 and ?-2 positions (only at the ?-2 position in myristoleic acid). Alkyl esters of fatty acids and monoglycerides were also ?-1 or ?-2 hydroxylated, but di- and tri-glycerides were not modified. Fatty alcohols yielded hydroxy derivatives at the ?-1 or ?-2 positions (diols) but also fatty acids and their hydroxy derivatives. Interestingly, the peroxygenase was able to oxyfunctionalize alkanes giving, in addition to alcohols at positions 2 or 3, dihydroxylated derivatives at both sides of the molecule. The predominance of mono- or di-hydroxylated derivatives seems related to the higher or lower proportion of acetone, respectively, in the reaction medium. The recombinant C. cinerea peroxygenase appears as a promising biocatalyst for alkane activation and production of aliphatic oxygenated derivatives, with better properties than the previously reported peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita, and advantages related to its recombinant nature for enzyme engineering and industrial production.
Related JoVE Video
Semaphorins 3A and 7A: potential immune and neuroregenerative targets in multiple sclerosis.
Trends Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Semaphorins have been classically defined as axonal signalling cues involved in central nervous system (CNS) development, but in adults these molecules are expressed in distinct tissues and exert various functions under several physiological and pathological contexts. Semaphorins capable of modulating the immune system are particularly relevant in autoimmune diseases, especially multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease. In this article, we compile recent insights into the specific roles of semaphorin (sema)3A and sema7A to clarify the details of their possible participation in the inflammatory and neurodegenerative phases of MS.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the second generation of a commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of rotavirus antigens in fecal samples.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite vaccine availability, the infection rate and disease burden associated with rotavirus infection are still high. Thus, accurate diagnosis of rotavirus infection continues to be necessary for proper patient clinical management and disease control.
Related JoVE Video
Amniotic fluid or its fatty acids produce actions similar to diazepam on lateral septal neurons firing rate.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human amniotic fluid (AF) contains eight fatty acids (FATs), and both produce anxiolytic-like effects in adult rats and appetitive responses in human newborns. The medial amygdala and lateral septal nucleus function are related to social behavior, but the action of AF or its FATs in this circuit is known. We obtained 267 single-unit extracellular recordings in Wistar rats treated with vehicle (1?mL, s.c.; n = 12), human AF (1?mL, s.c.; n = 12), a FAT mixture (1?mL, s.c.; n = 13), diazepam (1?mg/kg, i.p.; n = 11), and fluoxetine (1?mg/kg, p.o.; n = 12). Compared with the vehicle group, the spontaneous septal firing rate in the AF, FAT mixture, and diazepam groups was the lowest and in the fluoxetine group the highest. Cumulative peristimulus histograms indicated that the significant change in septal firing occurred only in the AF and FAT mixture groups and exclusively in those neurons that increased their firing rate during amygdala stimulation. We conclude that human AF and its FATs produce actions comparable to anxiolytic drugs and are able to modify the responsivity of a circuit involved in social behavior, suggesting facilitation of social recognition processes by maternal-fetal fluids.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of an implementation strategy for a breastfeeding guideline in Primary Care: cluster randomised trial.
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The protection and promotion of breastfeeding is considered a priority in Europe where only 22% of infants less than 6 months old are exclusively breastfed. In Spain this percentage reaches 24.8% but in our city it falls to 18.26%. Various studies emphasise that the improvement of these results should be based upon the training of health professionals. Following the recommendations of a breastfeeding guide can modify the practice of health professionals and improve results with respect to exclusively or predominatly breastfed children at 6 months of age.
Related JoVE Video
Structural characterization of guaiacyl-rich lignins in flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structural characteristics of the lignins from flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives were studied. Significant differences in the content and composition of the lignin from both parts were observed. The lignin contents were 3.8% in the fibers and 29.0% in the shives. Analysis by Py-GC/MS indicated a H:G:S molar ratio of 13:72:15 in the milled wood lignin (MWL) isolated from flax fibers and a molar ratio of 5:87:8 in the MWL isolated from flax shives. In addition, 2D-NMR showed a predominance of ?-O-4 aryl ether linkages, followed by ?-5 phenylcoumaran and ?-? resinol-type linkages in both MWLs, with a higher content of condensed linkages in flax shives. Thioacidolysis (followed by Raney nickel desulfurization) gave further information on the lignin units involved in the different linkages and confirmed the enrichment of G units. The thioacidolysis dimers released were similar from both lignins, with a predominance of the ?-5 followed by ?-1 and 5-5 structures.
Related JoVE Video
Anxiolytic-like effects of human amniotic fluid and its fatty acids in Wistar rats.
Behav Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Odors from amniotic fluid produce signs of calmness in mammals suggesting some anxiolytic-like properties. Experimental models, such as the defensive burying, elevated plus maze, and open field tests offer well-controlled approaches to the study of putative anxiolytic substances using rats. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we first identified eight fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, and linoleic acids) as consistently present in human amniotic fluid. We then used the defensive burying and elevated plus maze tests to compare the action of diazepam (2 mg/kg), fresh amniotic fluid, and a mixture of its fatty acids with two vehicles (i.e. propylene glycol and centrifuged amniotic fluid with a low fatty acid content). No significant differences in estradiol or progesterone content were found between fresh amniotic fluid and centrifuged amniotic fluid using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Compared with the vehicle, diazepam, fresh amniotic fluid, and the fatty acid mixture increased burying latency, reduced cumulative burying, and increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze in both sexes without altering general locomotor activity. We conclude that the fatty acids contained in human amniotic fluid exert anxiolytic-like effects, with minimal or no participation of female gonadal steroids.
Related JoVE Video
Fast measurement of serum amyloid A in different specimens from swine by using a new one-step time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the present study was to develop a one-step, fast, competitive time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay to determine porcine serum amyloid A (SAA) by using species-specific reagents. The assay consisted of an all-in-one format involving only 55 min of incubation that was adapted and validated for use in 3 different specimens: serum, saliva, and meat juice. The method had overall within- and between-run coefficients of variation under 8% and 12%, respectively, and coefficients of determination higher than 0.93 for linearity under dilution analysis for all specimens. The limits of detection were 0.32 mg/l, 0.28 mg/l, and 1.74 mg/l for serum, saliva, and meat juice measurements, respectively. Upper and lower limits of quantification were determined for each sample type and resulted in wide assay ranges that allowed a precise SAA measurement in all the fluids investigated. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0004 for serum and P < 0.0001 for the saliva and meat juice samples) in SAA levels were found when healthy (n = 20) and diseased (n = 20) pigs were compared. The obtained results indicate that this fast, sensitive, and robust assay for SAA measurement could be of use to determine health and welfare status in swine by employing alternative samples to serum.
Related JoVE Video
Double mutation in photosystem II reaction centers and elevated CO2 grant thermotolerance to mesophilic cyanobacterium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Photosynthetic biomass production rapidly declines in mesophilic cyanobacteria grown above their physiological temperatures largely due to the imbalance between degradation and repair of the D1 protein subunit of the heat susceptible Photosystem II reaction centers (PSIIRC). Here we show that simultaneous replacement of two conserved residues in the D1 protein of the mesophilic Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, by the analogue residues present in the thermophilic Thermosynechococcus elongatus, enables photosynthetic growth, extensive biomass production and markedly enhanced stability and repair rate of PSIIRC for seven days even at 43 °C but only at elevated CO(2) (1%). Under the same conditions, the Synechocystis control strain initially presented very slow growth followed by a decline after 3 days. Change in the thylakoid membrane lipids, namely the saturation of the fatty acids is observed upon incubation for the different strains, but only the double mutant shows a concomitant major change of the enthalpy and entropy for the light activated Q(A)(-)?Q(B) electron transfer, rendering them similar to those of the thermophilic strain. Following these findings, computational chemistry and protein dynamics simulations we propose that the D1 double mutation increases the folding stability of the PSIIRC at elevated temperatures. This, together with the decreased impairment of D1 protein repair under increased CO(2) concentrations result in the observed photothermal tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery in the double mutant.
Related JoVE Video
Regioselective oxygenation of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and other aliphatic compounds by a basidiomycete heme-thiolate peroxidase.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reaction of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, sterols, sterol esters and triglycerides with the so-called aromatic peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita was investigated using GC-MS. Regioselective hydroxylation of C(12)-C(20) saturated/unsaturated fatty acids was observed at the ?-1 and ?-2 positions (except myristoleic acid only forming the ?-2 derivative). Minor hydroxylation at ? and ?-3 to ?-5 positions was also observed. Further oxidized products were detected, including keto, dihydroxylated, keto-hydroxy and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Fatty alcohols also yielded hydroxy or keto derivatives of the corresponding fatty acid. Finally, alkanes gave, in addition to alcohols at positions 2 or 3, dihydroxylated derivatives at both sides of the molecule; and sterols showed side-chain hydroxylation. No derivatives were found for fatty acids esterified with sterols or forming triglycerides, but methyl esters were ?-1 or ?-2 hydroxylated. Reactions using H(2)(18)O(2) established that peroxide is the source of the oxygen introduced in aliphatic hydroxylations. These studies also indicated that oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl and carboxyl groups is produced by successive hydroxylations combined with one dehydration step. We conclude that the A. aegerita peroxygenase not only oxidizes aromatic compounds but also catalyzes the stepwise oxidation of aliphatic compounds by hydrogen peroxide, with different hydroxylated intermediates.
Related JoVE Video
Nucleolin interacts with the feline calicivirus 3 untranslated region and the protease-polymerase NS6 and NS7 proteins, playing a role in virus replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3 untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication.
Related JoVE Video
Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with inflammation and bacterial translocation in mice with CCl4-induced fibrosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gut is the major source of endogenous bacteria causing infections in advanced cirrhosis. Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been described in cirrhosis and account for an increased bacterial translocation rate.
Related JoVE Video
Short-term outcome prediction by electroencephalographic features in children treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.
Neurocrit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electroencephalographic (EEG) features may provide objective data regarding prognosis in children resuscitated from cardiac arrest (CA), but therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may impact its predictive value. We aimed to determine whether specific EEG features were predictive of short-term outcome in children treated with TH after CA, both during hypothermia and after return to normothermia.
Related JoVE Video
Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Electrographic seizures during therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electrographic seizures are common in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but detailed data are not available regarding seizure incidence during therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and timing of electrographic seizures in term neonates undergoing whole-body therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as detected by conventional full-array electroencephalography for 72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia and 24 hours of normothermia. Clinical and electroencephalography data were collected from 26 consecutive neonates. Electroencephalograms were reviewed by 2 pediatric neurophysiologists. Electrographic seizures occurred in 17 of 26 (65%) patients. Seizures were entirely nonconvulsive in 8 of 17 (47%), status epilepticus occurred in 4 of 17 (23%), and seizure onset was in the first 48 hours in 13 of 17 (76%) patients. Electrographic seizures were common, were often nonconvulsive, and had onset over a broad range of times in the first days of life.
Related JoVE Video
Exome sequencing and functional analysis identifies BANF1 mutation as the cause of a hereditary progeroid syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accelerated aging syndromes represent a valuable source of information about the molecular mechanisms involved in normal aging. Here, we describe a progeroid syndrome that partially phenocopies Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) but also exhibits distinctive features, including the absence of cardiovascular deficiencies characteristic of HGPS, the lack of mutations in LMNA and ZMPSTE24, and a relatively long lifespan of affected individuals. Exome sequencing and molecular analysis in two unrelated families allowed us to identify a homozygous mutation in BANF1 (c.34G>A [p.Ala12Thr]), encoding barrier-to-autointegration factor 1 (BAF), as the molecular abnormality responsible for this Mendelian disorder. Functional analysis showed that fibroblasts from both patients have a dramatic reduction in BAF protein levels, indicating that the p.Ala12Thr mutation impairs protein stability. Furthermore, progeroid fibroblasts display profound abnormalities in the nuclear lamina, including blebs and abnormal distribution of emerin, an interaction partner of BAF. These nuclear abnormalities are rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type BANF1, providing evidence for the causal role of this mutation. These data demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing for identifying the cause of rare Mendelian disorders and underscore the importance of nuclear envelope alterations in human aging.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of an automated method for salivary alpha-amylase measurements in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and its application as a stress biomarker.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the current study was to validate an automated spectrophotometric method for salivary alpha-amylase measurement in pigs and evaluate its possible application as a noninvasive stress biomarker. The analytical validation included intra- and interassay precision, linearity under dilution, and limit of detection. In addition, to study the possible use of salivary alpha-amylase as a possible stress marker, 12 crossbred growing pigs of 3-4 months of age were subjected to restraint stress by a nasal snare for at least 1 min, and saliva samples were obtained at different time points. The results of analytical validation indicated that the method was precise and able to measure alpha-amylase in a linear manner. The results obtained in the stress test showed a significant increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity. Although other factors influencing this enzyme activity should be studied, these preliminary results indicate that salivary alpha-amylase could be a reliable biomarker of stress in pigs.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of aerobic exercise program and relaxation techniques on anxiety, quality of sleep, depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibromyalgia is considered as a combination of physical, psychological and social disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to determine the benefits of aerobic exercise program and progressive relaxation techniques on anxiety, quality of sleep, depression and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.
Related JoVE Video
Towards industrially-feasible delignification and pitch removal by treating paper pulp with Myceliophthora thermophila laccase and a phenolic mediator.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability of two natural phenols to act as mediators of the recombinant Myceliophthora thermophila laccase (MtL) in eucalypt-pulp delignification was investigated. After alkaline peroxide extraction, the properties of the enzymatically-treated pulps improved with respect to the control. The pulp brightness increased (3.1 points) after the enzymatic treatment with MtL alone, but the highest improvements were obtained after the MtL treatment using syringaldehyde (4.7 points) and especially methyl syringate (8.3 points) as mediators. Likewise, a decrease in kappa number up to 2.7 points was obtained after the MtL-methyl syringate treatment, followed by decreases of 1.4 and 0.9 points after the treatments with MtL-syringaldehyde and MtL alone, respectively. On the other hand, removal of the main lipophilic extractives present in eucalypt pulp was observed after the above laccase-mediator treatments. Finally, the doses of both MtL and methyl syringate were reduced, and results compatible with industrial implementation were obtained.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term durability of infliximab treatment in Crohns disease and efficacy of dose "escalation" in patients losing response.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy of infliximab therapy in patients with Crohns disease (CD) is unknown beyond 12 months. For patients who lose their initial response, consideration can be given to dose "escalation" to regain therapeutic benefit.
Related JoVE Video
Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.
Related JoVE Video
Levetiracetam for treatment of neonatal seizures.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neonatal seizures are often refractory to treatment with initial antiseizure medications. Consequently, clinicians turn to alternatives such as levetiracetam, despite the lack of published data regarding its safety, tolerability, or efficacy in the neonatal population. We report a retrospectively identified cohort of 23 neonates with electroencephalographically confirmed seizures who received levetiracetam. Levetiracetam was considered effective if administration was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction within 24 hours. Levetiracetam was initiated at a mean conceptional age of 41 weeks. The mean initial dose was 16 ± 6 mg/kg and the mean maximum dose was 45 ± 19 mg/kg/day. No respiratory or cardiovascular adverse effects were reported or detected. Levetiracetam was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction in 35% (8 of 23), including seizure termination in 7. Further study is warranted to determine optimal levetiracetam dosing in neonates and to compare efficacy with other antiseizure medications.
Related JoVE Video
Interobserver reproducibility of electroencephalogram interpretation in critically ill children.
J Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Correct outcome prediction after cardiac arrest in children may improve clinical decision making and family counseling. Investigators have used EEG to predict outcome with varying success, but a limiting issue is the potential lack of reproducibility of EEG interpretation. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate interobserver agreement using standardized terminology in the interpretation of EEG tracings obtained from critically ill children after cardiac arrest. Three pediatric neurophysiologists scored 74 EEG samples using standardized categories, terminology, and interpretation rules. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients. Agreement was substantial for the categories of continuity, burst suppression, sleep architecture, and overall rating. Agreement was moderate for seizure occurrence and interictal epileptiform discharge type. Agreement was fair for interictal epileptiform discharge presence, beta activity, predominant frequency, and fastest frequency. Agreement was slight for maximum voltage and focal slowing presence. The variability of interrater agreement suggests that some EEG features are superior to others for use in a predictive algorithm. Using only reproducible EEG features is needed to ensure the most accurate and consistent predictions. Because even seizure identification had only moderate agreement, studies of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill patients must be conducted and interpreted cautiously.
Related JoVE Video
Selective lignin and polysaccharide removal in natural fungal decay of wood as evidenced by in situ structural analyses.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selective modification/degradation of the main plant polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) was investigated in a hardwood after white and brown-rot fungal decay under environmental conditions. The chemical changes produced in the plant cell wall were analysed in situ, by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at the gel state, and analytical pyrolysis. Two-dimensional (2D) NMR of the white-rotted wood showed only cellulose and (deacetylated) hemicellulose, and the complete removal of lignin. On the other hand, the brown-rotted wood showed the nearly complete absence of polysaccharides, while the main features of lignin structure, as revealed by 2D-NMR, could be observed. These included well-resolved aromatic and side-chain cross-signals, although the intensity of the latter signals was lowered indicating a reduction in the number of side-chain linkages (?-O-4 and ?-?) per aromatic unit (their relative abundances remaining unchanged). These results contrast with a recent study concluding that the aromatic polymer after brown-rot decay is not longer recognized as lignin. Some oxidative alteration of lignin during brown-rot decay was evidenced and, more interesting, several compounds with 3-methoxycatechol skeleton were released upon pyrolysis. Lignin demethylation is consistent with recent brown-rot transcriptomic/secretomic studies showing overexpression of methanol oxidase, which could use lignin-derived methanol to generate the peroxide required for cellulose depolymerization via Fenton chemistry.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of changes in haptoglobin and C-reactive protein concentrations caused by freezing of saliva and meat juice samples collected from healthy and diseased pigs.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate changes in stability of haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations caused by freezing of saliva and meat juice samples.
Related JoVE Video
Lignin composition and structure in young versus adult Eucalyptus globulus plants.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lignin changes during plant growth were investigated in a selected Eucalyptus globulus clone. The lignin composition and structure were studied in situ by a new procedure enabling the acquisition of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectra on wood gels formed in the NMR tube as well as by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, milled-wood lignins were isolated and analyzed by 2D-NMR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thioacidolysis. The data indicated that p-hydroxyphenyl and guaiacyl units are deposited at the earlier stages, whereas the woods are enriched in syringyl (S) lignin during late lignification. Wood 2D-NMR showed that ?-O-4 and resinol linkages were predominant in the eucalypt lignin, whereas other substructures were present in much lower amounts. Interestingly, open ?-1 structures could be detected in the isolated lignins. Phenylcoumarans and cinnamyl end groups were depleted with age, spirodienone abundance increased, and the main substructures (?-O-4 and resinols) were scarcely modified. Thioacidolysis revealed a higher predominance of S units in the ether-linked lignin than in the total lignin and, in agreement with NMR, also indicated that resinols are the most important nonether linkages. Dimer analysis showed that most of the resinol-type structures comprised two S units (syringaresinol), the crossed guaiacyl-S resinol appearing as a minor substructure and pinoresinol being totally absent. Changes in hemicelluloses were also shown by the 2D-NMR spectra of the wood gels without polysaccharide isolation. These include decreases of methyl galacturonosyl, arabinosyl, and galactosyl (anomeric) signals, assigned to pectin and related neutral polysaccharides, and increases of xylosyl (which are approximately 50% acetylated) and 4-O-methylglucuronosyl signals.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.