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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combination versus sequential monotherapy in chronic HBV infection: a mathematical approach.
Math Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Sequential monotherapy is the most widely used therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection. Unfortunately, under therapy, in some patients the hepatitis virus mutates and gives rise to variants which are drug resistant. We wonder whether those patients would have benefited from the choice of combination therapy instead of sequential monotherapy. To study the action of these two therapeutic approaches and to explain the emergence of drug resistance, we propose a stochastic model for the infection within a patient who is treated with two drugs, either sequentially or contemporaneously, and who, under the first kind of therapy develops a strain of the virus which is resistant to both drugs. Our stochastic model has a deterministic approximation which is a slight modification of a classic three-strain model. We discuss why stochastic simulations are more suitable than the study of the deterministic approximation, when modelling the rise of mutations (this is mainly due to the amplitude of the stochastic fluctuations). We run stochastic simulations with suitable parameters and compare the time when, under the two therapeutic approaches, the resistant strain first reaches detectability in the serum viral load. Our results show that the best choice is to start an early combination therapy, which allows one to stay drug resistance free for a longer time and in many cases leads to viral eradication.
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A case of classic neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) triggered by pegylated-interferon ?.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Despite recent development of direct acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C, the current standard of care may still include pegylated-interferon, which is associated with frequent and, at times, serious adverse events.
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Changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue microRNA expression in HIV-infected patients.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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We evaluated the possibility that a pattern of abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression could be fuelling the mechanisms causing HIV-associated lipodystrophy (HAL).
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The CCR5?32 allele is not a major predisposing factor for severe H1N1pdm09 infection.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Host genetic factors are thought to modulated the severity of disease caused by infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09). The human CCR5 gene encodes a cytokine receptor important for cell-mediated immune response against H1N1pdm09. A 32-bp polymorphic deletion in the coding sequence of CCR5, the so-called CCR5?32 allele, segregates in populations of European ancestry with a frequency of 8-15%. A high proportion of CCR5?32 heterozygotes was reported in a sample of white Canadian critically-ill H1N1pdm09 infected subjects, suggesting an association with disease severity.
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The presence of anti-Tat antibodies in HIV-infected individuals is associated with containment of CD4+ T-cell decay and viral load, and with delay of disease progression: results of a 3-year cohort study.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Tat is a key HIV-1 virulence factor, which plays pivotal roles in virus gene expression, replication, transmission and disease progression. After release, extracellular Tat accumulates in tissues and exerts effects on both the virus and the immune system, promoting immune activation and virus spreading while disabling the host immune defense. In particular, Tat binds Env spikes on virus particles forming a virus entry complex, which favors infection of dendritic cells and efficient transmission to T cells via RGD-binding integrins. Tat also shields the CCR5-binding sites of Env rendering ineffective virus neutralization by anti-Env antibodies (Abs). This is reversed by the anti-Tat Abs present in natural infection or induced by vaccination.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family: analysis of the epidemiological and clinical factors associated with an emerging lineage in the urban area of Milan.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype raises major concern because of global spreading, hyper-virulence and association with multi-drug resistance (MDR). The aims of the study were to evaluate role of Beijing family in the epidemiological setting of Milan and to identify predictors associated with the spreading of this lineage. Overall 3830TB cases were included. Beijing family accounted for 100 isolates (2.6%). Prevalence grew from 1.7% to 5.4% in the period 1996-2009. Foreign origin increased significantly the risk of having a Beijing strain: the greatest risk was observed among patients coming either from China [AOR=57.7, 95%CI (26.3-126.8)] or from Former Soviet countries [AOR=33.9, 95%CI (12.8-99.6)]. Also MDR was independently associated with Beijing family [AOR=2.7, 95%CI (1.3-5.8)], whereas male gender and younger age only approximated the statistical significance [p 0.051 and p 0.099, respectively]. However, the percentage of cases attributable to MDR strains decreased over time, both in the Beijing group and in the non-Beijing group. 97 isolates were grouped in 37 sub-lineages: MT11, MT33 were predominant. Beijing family is an emerging lineage in Milan. Origin from countries like China and Ukraine and MDR are significantly associated with Beijing. The broad range of the sub-lineages reflects the recent dynamics of the migration flows to our area. This scenario can prelude to a constant increase in the spreading of Beijing strains in the near future.
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Inflammatory cytokines drive CD4+ T-cell cycling and impaired responsiveness to interleukin 7: implications for immune failure in HIV disease.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Systemic inflammation has been linked to a failure to normalize CD4(+) T-cell numbers in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) are predictors of disease progression in treated HIV infection, it is not clear how or whether inflammatory mediators contribute to immune restoration failure.
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Focal bone lesions in HIV-positive patient treated with tenofovir.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Tenofovir is a widely used antiviral drug for the treatment of HIV and HBV infection. Although its side effects on renal function and bone metabolism are well known, there are no reports on focal bone lesions caused by this drug. Our case suggests this new, unusual but important scenario.
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Determinants of use of the fixed dose combination emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir (Eviplera) in HIV-infected persons receiving care in Italy.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir (EVP) is a fixed-dose combination of antiretrovirals (ARV) approved by the European Medicines Agency in November 2011 and introduced in Italy in February 2013. It is a once-a-day single tablet and is licensed in Europe for use only in ARV-naïve patients with a viral load (VL) ?100,000 copies/mL.
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An observational comparison of first-line combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) with 2NRTI and ATV/r or DRV/r in HIV-infected patients in Italy.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In a recent clinical trial (ACTG 5257), no difference in viral failure (VF) of a first-line cART containing atazanavir/r (ATV/r) or darunavir/r (DRV/r) was found [1]. For the endpoint of discontinuation due to intolerance, the regimen with DRV/r was superior to that of ATV/r (49% of the stops of ATV/r were attributed to jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia). These and other intolerances to ATV/r remain a concern for clinicians.
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Co-administration of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors and rate of tenofovir discontinuation in clinical practice.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In clinical trials, toxicity leading to discontinuation of tenofovir (TDF) is a rare occurrence (3% by two years)[1, 2]; however, in clinical practice it seems to be higher. Previous studies suggested that TDF toxicity is higher when it is co-administered with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r)[3, 4]. The aim of this study is to assess the rate of TDF discontinuations in clinical practice and to explore associated factors.
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A case of mild pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium shimoidei with a favorable outcome.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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We describe a case of mild Mycobacterium shimoidei disease with a favorable course after treatment. Characteristics of nine M. shimoidei isolates in Italy between 1989 and 2009 were also reviewed. The M. shimoidei genome was highly conserved. Based on antimicrobial susceptibility, the combination of ethambutol, clarithromycin, and rifabutin appears to be a reasonable treatment.
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Risk of clinical progression among patients with immunological nonresponse despite virological suppression after combination antiretroviral treatment.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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It is unclear whether lack of immunological response despite viral suppression and relatively preserved CD4 T-cell count is associated with increased risk of AIDS or severe non-AIDS events.
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The association of high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and other biomarkers with cardiovascular disease in patients treated for HIV: a nested case-control study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its role as a predictive marker in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether hsCRP or other biomarkers are independent predictors of CVD risk in HIV-infected patients.
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Influence of Hospitalization upon Diagnosis on the Risk of Tuberculosis Clustering.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed in the metropolitan area of Milan (Italy) over a 5-year period (1995-1999).
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Unmasking tuberculosis in the era of antiretroviral treatment.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Tuberculosis (TB) can develop soon after antiretroviral treatment initiation, as the result of restoration of the anti-TB specific immune response. This form of the disease is often defined as "unmasked TB", and it represents a major challenge for severely immune-suppressed HIV-infected subjects initiating treatment. Emergence of previously unrecognised TB disease occurs frequently in countries where TB/HIV co-infection is common, and where antiretroviral treatment has become increasingly accessible. The challenges posed by unmasked TB, such as its high incidence, the lack of reliable diagnostic tools and the uncertainties on its optimal management, may hamper our ability to face the TB/HIV epidemic. Therefore, unmasked TB appears a major threat to global health and poses additional barriers to successful HIV/AIDS care and treatment programmes. This review focuses on the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of unmasked TB, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management and care of the disease.
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KIR-HLA genotypes in HIV-infected patients lacking immunological recovery despite effective antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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In HIV-infected individuals, mechanisms underlying unsatisfactory immune recovery during effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have yet to be fully understood. We investigated whether polymorphism of genes encoding immune-regulating molecules, such as killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their ligands class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA), could influence immunological response to cART.
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Under representation of the inhibitory KIR3DL1 molecule and the KIR3DL1+/BW4+ complex in HIV exposed seronegative individuals.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The activation of natural killer (NK) cells is modulated by surface molecules. We analyzed NK cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals by means of molecular typing of HLA B, Cw, and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) molecules. In HESN individuals, compared with HIV patients, the frequency of the inhibitory KIR3DL1 allele and of the KIR3DL1(+)/Bw4(+) inhibitory complex was reduced, whereas that of the activatory KIR3DS1(+) ligand and the activatory Bw4(+)/3DL1(-)/3DS1(+) complex was increased, resulting in a statistically significant diversion from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (KIR3DS1 homozygote) in HESN individuals. The reciprocal equilibrium between inhibitory and activatory NK receptors and their ligands favors NK activation in HESN individuals.
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Ultrasonographic backscatter of the carotid artery wall in patients with HIV infection: a pilot study.
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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The aim of our study was to measure carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and risk factors associated with its development and progression, and to evaluate arterial wall characteristics through integrated backscatter analysis (IBS) in HIV patients.
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Immune activation, apoptosis, and Treg activity are associated with persistently reduced CD4+ T-cell counts during antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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Persistently reduced CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts in the face of undetectable HIV viremia are seen in a sizable percentage of HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed the immune correlates of this phenomenon.
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Qualitative immune modulation by interleukin-2 (IL-2) adjuvant therapy in immunological non responder HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Treatment of HIV-infected patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) produces significant increases in CD4 T cell counts; however an associated qualitative improvement in cells function has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. By measuring mycobacterial killing activity, we evaluated IL-2-mediated functional immune enhancement ex vivo in immunological non-responders (INRs).
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Skewed T-cell maturation and function in HIV-infected patients failing CD4+ recovery upon long-term virologically suppressive HAART.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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Analysis of functionally defined T-cell differentiation in HIV-infected patients with low CD4(+) on virologically suppressive HAART is crucial to design clinically efficacious treatments.
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One-pill once-a-day HAART: a simplification strategy that improves adherence and quality of life of HIV-infected subjects.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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The aim of the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill) study was to verify the effect of a reduced number of pills on adherence and quality of life (QoL) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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CD4+ T cell depletion, immune activation and increased production of regulatory T cells in the thymus of HIV-infected individuals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Mechanisms by which HIV affects the thymus are multiple and only partially known, and the role of thymic dysfunction in HIV/AIDS immunopathogenesis remains poorly understood. To evaluate the effects of HIV infection on intra-thymic precursors of T cells in HIV-infected adults, we conducted a detailed immunophenotypic study of thymic tissue isolated from 7 HIV-infected and 10 HIV-negative adults who were to undergo heart surgery. We found that thymuses of HIV-infected individuals were characterized by a relative depletion of CD4+ single positive T cells and a corresponding enrichment of CD8+ single positive T cells. In addition, thymocytes derived from HIV-infected subjects showed increased levels of activated and proliferating cells. Our analysis also revealed a decreased expression of interleukin-7 receptor in early thymocytes from HIV-infected individuals, along with an increase in this same expression in mature double- and single-positive cells. Frequency of regulatory T cells (CD25+FoxP3+) was significantly increased in HIV-infected thymuses, particularly in priorly-committed CD4 single positive cells. Our data suggest that HIV infection is associated with a complex set of changes in the immunophenotype of thymocytes, including a reduction of intrathymic CD4+ T cell precursors, increased expression of activation markers, changes in the expression pattern of IL-7R and enrichment of T regulatory cells generation.
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FDG-PET imaging in HIV-infected subjects: relation with therapy and immunovirological variables.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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To characterise tissue sites of immune activation and HIV replication we performed FDG-PET in ART-treated and ART-naive HIV-infected individuals. Specific aims were to establish whether HIV-infected patients can be differentiated on the basis of the detection of specific locations of viral replication, even in the presence of an apparently optimal immunovirological response to ART, and whether these FDG-PET findings can be related to immunovirological variables and AIDS history status.
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Early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy fails to reverse immunovirological abnormalities in gut-associated lymphoid tissue induced by acute HIV infection.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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During the acute phase of HIV infection, large CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The kinetics of CD4+ T-cell decrease and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated immune reconstitution were evaluated.
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Impact of previous ART and of ART initiation on outcome of HIV-associated tuberculosis.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has progressively decreased mortality of HIV-associated tuberculosis .To date, however, limited data on tuberculosis treatment outcomes among coinfected patients who are not ART-naive at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis are available.
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Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected naïve patients with advanced disease: the role of virus and intrathecal immune activation.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
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To investigate intrathecal immune activation parameters and HIV-RNA in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) of advanced naïve HIV-infected patients and to evaluate their dynamics before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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Performance of genotypic tropism testing on proviral DNA in clinical practice: results from the DIVA study group.
New Microbiol.
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The DIVA study is aimed at setting up a standardized genotypic tropism-testing on proviral-DNA for the routine clinical diagnostic-laboratory.
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Determinants of access to experimental antiretroviral drugs in an Italian cohort of patients with HIV: a multilevel analysis.
BMC Health Serv Res
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Identification of the determinants of access to investigational drugs is important to promote equity and scientific validity in clinical research. We aimed to analyze factors associated with the use of experimental antiretrovirals in Italy.
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High-resolution melting analysis as a powerful tool to discriminate and genotype Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars and strains.
PLoS ONE
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Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf) on Ash. Nothing is known yet about the distribution on the different host plants and the real host range of these pathovars in nature, although cross-infections were observed following artificial inoculations. A multiplex Real-Time PCR assay was recently developed to simultaneously and quantitatively discriminate in vitro and in planta these P. savastanoi pathovars, for routine culture confirmation and for epidemiological and diagnostical studies. Here an innovative High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)-based assay was set up to unequivocally discriminate Psv, Psn and Psf, according to several single nucleotide polymorphisms found in their Type Three Secretion System clusters. The genetic distances among 56 P. savastanoi strains belonging to these pathovars were also evaluated, confirming and refining data previously obtained by fAFLP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that HRMA is applied to a bacterial plant pathogen, and one of the few multiplex HRMA-based assays developed so far. This protocol provides a rapid, sensitive, specific tool to differentiate and detect Psv, Psn and Psf strains, also in vivo and against other related bacteria, with lower costs than conventional multiplex Real-Time PCR. Its application is particularly suitable for sanitary certification programs for P. savastanoi, aimed at avoiding the spreading of this phytopathogen through asymptomatic plants.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.