We have reported that Mg(2+) dynamically regulates glucose 6-phosphate entry into the endoplasmic reticulum and its hydrolysis by the glucose 6-phosphatase in liver cells. In the present study, we report that by modulating glucose 6-phosphate entry into the endoplasmic reticulum of HepG2 cells, Mg(2+) also regulates the oxidation of this substrate via hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD). This regulatory effect is dynamic as glucose 6-phosphate entry and oxidation can be rapidly down-regulated by the addition of exogenous Mg(2+). In addition, HepG2 cells growing in low Mg(2+) show a marked increase in hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA and protein expression. Metabolically, these effects on hexose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase are important as this enzyme increases intra-reticular NADPH production, which favors fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Similar effects of Mg(2+) were observed in HL-60 cells. These and previously published results suggest that in an hepatocyte culture model changes in cytoplasmic Mg(2+) content regulates glucose 6-phosphate utilization via glucose 6 phosphatase and hexose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase in alternative to glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. This alternative regulation might be of relevance in the transition from fed to fasted state.
Persistent mild to moderate hyperoxaluria (PMMH) is a common side effect of bariatric surgery. However, PMMHs role in the progression to calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis and its potential effects on non-renal tissues are unknown. To address these points, a trigger + maintenance (T + Mt) model of PMMH was developed in rats (Experiment 1). The trigger was an i.p. injection of PBS (TPBS) or 288 ?mol sodium oxalate (T288). Maintenance (Mt) was given via minipumps dispensing PBS or 7.5-30 ?mol potassium oxalate/day for 28 days. Urinary oxalate ranged from 7.7 ± 0.8 ?mol/day for TPBS + MtPBS to 18.2 ± 1.5 ?mol/day for T288 + Mt30 (p ? 0.0005). All rats receiving T288 developed CaOx nephrocalcinosis, and many developed stones. This was also true for Mt doses that did not elevate urinary oxalate above that of TPBS + MtPBS (p > 0.1) and for rats that did not have a detectable surge in urinary oxalate post T288. When TPBS was administered, CaOx nephrocalcinosis did not develop regardless of the Mt dose even if urinary oxalate was elevated compared to TPBS + MtPBS (p ? 0.0005). One of the risks associated with PMMH is oxalate accumulation within tissues. Hence, in a second set of experiments (Experiment 2) different doses of oxalate (Mt0.05, Mt15, Mt30) labeled with (14)C-oxalate ((14)C-Ox) were administered by minipump for 13 days. Tissues were harvested and (14)C-Ox accumulation assessed by scintillation counting. (14)C-Ox accumulated in a dose dependent manner (p ? 0.004) in bone, kidney, muscle, liver, heart, kidney, lungs, spleen, and testis. All these tissues exhibited (14)C-Ox concentrations higher (p ? 0.05) than the plasma. Extrapolation of our results to patients suggests that PMMH patients should take extra care to avoid dietary-induced spikes in oxalate excretion to help prevent CaOx nephrocalcinosis or stone development. Monitoring for oxalate accumulation within tissues susceptible to damage by oxalate or CaOx crystals may also be required.
Magnesium, the second most abundant cation within the cell, plays an important role in numerous biological functions. Experimental evidence indicates that mammalian cells tightly regulate cellular magnesium ion content through specific mechanisms controlling Mg(2+) entry and efflux across the cell membrane and the membrane of various cellular organelles as well as intracellular Mg(2+) buffering under resting conditions and following hormonal and metabolic stimuli. This chapter will provide an assessment of the various mechanisms controlling cellular Mg(2+) homeostasis and transport, and the implications changes in cellular Mg(2+) content play under physiological and pathological conditions.
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) exposure reduces the risk of cerebral palsy. As neonatal inflammatory cytokine levels strongly correlate with neurologic outcome, we hypothesize that MgSO4 decreases inflammatory cytokine production.
Magnesium, the second most abundant cellular cation after potassium, is essential to regulate numerous cellular functions and enzymes, including ion channels, metabolic cycles, and signaling pathways, as attested by more than 1000 entries in the literature. Despite significant recent progress, however, our understanding of how cells regulate Mg(2+) homeostasis and transport still remains incomplete. For example, the occurrence of major fluxes of Mg(2+) in either direction across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells following metabolic or hormonal stimuli has been extensively documented. Yet, the mechanisms ultimately responsible for magnesium extrusion across the cell membrane have not been cloned. Even less is known about the regulation in cellular organelles. The present review is aimed at providing the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of the mechanisms enacted by eukaryotic cells to regulate cellular Mg(2+) homeostasis and how these mechanisms are altered under specific pathological conditions.
Total hepatic Mg(2+) content decreases by >25% in animals maintained for 2 weeks on Mg(2+) deficient diet, and results in a >25% increase in glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in isolated liver microsomes in the absence of significant changed in enzyme expression. Incubation of Mg(2+)-deficient microsomes in the presence of 1mM external Mg(2+) returned G6Pase activity to levels measured in microsomes from animals on normal Mg(2+) diet. EDTA addition dynamically reversed the Mg(2+) effect. The effect of Mg(2+) or EDTA persisted in taurocholic acid permeabilized microsomes. An increase in G6Pase activity was also observed in liver microsomes from rats starved overnight, which presented a ~15% decrease in hepatic Mg(2+) content. In this model, G6Pase activity increased to a lesser extent than in Mg(2+)-deficient microsomes, but it could still be dynamically modulated by addition of Mg(2+) or EDTA. Our results indicate that (1) hepatic Mg(2+) content rapidly decreases following starvation or exposure to deficient diet, and (2) the loss of Mg(2+) stimulates G6P transport and hydrolysis as a possible compensatory mechanism to enhance intrahepatic glucose availability. The Mg(2+) effect appears to take place at the level of the substrate binding site of the G6Pase enzymatic complex or the surrounding phospholipid environment.
Rats chronically fed ethanol for 3 weeks presented a marked decreased in total hepatic Mg(2+) content and required approximately 12 days to restore Mg(2+) homeostasis upon ethanol withdrawal. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanisms responsible for the EtOH-induced delay.
Addition of NaCN to isolated hepatocytes results in a marked and rapid decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and in the extrusion of a sizable amount of cellular Mg(2+). This extrusion starts after a 10-minute lag phase and reaches a maximum of 35 to 40 nmol Mg(2+) per milligram protein within 60 minutes from the addition of CN(-). A quantitatively similar Mg(2+) extrusion is also observed after the addition of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone but not that of the glycolysis inhibitor iodoacetate. The Mg(2+) extrusion is completely inhibited by the removal of extracellular Na(+) or the addition of imipramine, quinidine, or glibenclamide, whereas it persists after the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or K(+), or the addition of amiloride. An acidic extracellular pH or the removal of extracellular HCO?? inhibits the cyanide-induced Mg(2+) extrusion by at least 80%. Taken together, these data suggest that the decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content removes a major Mg(2+) complexing agent from the hepatocyte and results in an extrusion of hepatic Mg(2+) exclusively through a Na(+)-dependent exchange mechanism modulated by acidic changes in extracellular pH.
Diabetes is characterized by ventilatory depression due to decreased diaphragm (DPH) function. This study investigated the changes in contractile properties of rat DPH muscles over a time interval encompassing from 4 days to 14 weeks after the onset of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, with and without insulin treatment for 2 weeks. Maximum tetanic force in intact DPH muscle strips and recovery from fatiguing stimulation were measured. An early (4-day) depression in contractile function in diabetic DPH was followed by gradual improvement in muscle function and fatigue recovery (8 weeks). DPH contractile function deteriorated again at 14 weeks, a process that was completely reversed by insulin treatment. Maximal contractile force and calcium sensitivity assessed in Triton-skinned DPH fibers showed a similar bimodal pattern and the same beneficial effect of insulin treatment. While an extensive analysis of the isoforms of the contractile and regulatory proteins was not conducted, Western blot analysis of tropomyosin suggests that the changes in diabetic DPH response depended, at least in part, on a switch in fiber type.
Vascular calcification is a multifaceted process involving gain of calcification inducers and loss of calcification inhibitors. One such inhibitor is inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), and regulated generation and homeostasis of extracellular PP(i) is a critical determinant of soft-tissue mineralization. We recently described an autocrine mechanism of extracellular PP(i) generation in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that involves both ATP release coupled to the ectophosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase ENPP1 and efflux of intracellular PP(i) mediated or regulated by the plasma membrane protein ANK. We now report that increased cAMP signaling and elevated extracellular inorganic phosphate (P(i)) act synergistically to induce calcification of these VSMC that is correlated with progressive reduction in ability to accumulate extracellular PP(i). Attenuated PP(i) accumulation was mediated in part by cAMP-dependent decrease in ANK expression coordinated with cAMP-dependent increase in expression of TNAP, the tissue nonselective alkaline phosphatase that degrades PP(i). Stimulation of cAMP signaling did not alter ATP release or ENPP1 expression, and the cAMP-induced changes in ANK and TNAP expression were not sufficient to induce calcification. Elevated extracellular P(i) alone elicited only minor calcification and no significant changes in ANK, TNAP, or ENPP1. In contrast, combined with a cAMP stimulus, elevated P(i) induced decreases in the ATP release pathway(s) that supports ENPP1 activity; this resulted in markedly reduced rates of PP(i) accumulation that facilitated robust calcification. Calcified VSMC were characterized by maintained expression of multiple SMC differentiation marker proteins including smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin, SM22alpha, and calponin. Notably, addition of exogenous ATP (or PP(i) per se) rescued cAMP + phosphate-treated VSMC cultures from progression to the calcified state. These observations support a model in which extracellular PP(i) generation mediated by both ANK- and ATP release-dependent mechanisms serves as a critical regulator of VSMC calcification.
Liver cells from rats chronically fed a Lieber-De Carli diet for 3 wk presented a marked decreased in tissue Mg(2+) content and an inability to extrude Mg(2+) into the extracellular compartment upon stimulation with catecholamine, isoproterenol, or cell-permeant cAMP analogs. This defect in Mg(2+) extrusion was observed in both intact cells and purified liver plasma membrane vesicles. Inhibition of adrenergic or cAMP-mediated Mg(2+) extrusion was also observed in freshly isolated hepatocytes from control rats incubated acutely in vitro with varying doses of ethanol (EtOH) for 8 min. In this model, however, the defect in Mg(2+) extrusion was observed in intact cells but not in plasma membrane vesicles. In the chronic model, upon removal of EtOH from the diet hepatic Mg(2+) content and extrusion required approximately 10 days to return to normal level both in isolated cells and plasma membrane vesicles. In hepatocytes acutely treated with EtOH for 8 min, more than 60 min were necessary for Mg(2+) content and extrusion to recover and return to the level observed in EtOH-untreated cells. Taken together, these data suggest that in the acute model the defect in Mg(2+) extrusion is the result of a limited refilling of the cellular compartment(s) from which Mg(2+) is mobilized upon adrenergic stimulation rather than a mere defect in adrenergic cellular signaling. The chronic EtOH model, instead, presents a transient but selective defect of the Mg(2+) extrusion mechanisms in addition to the limited refilling of the cellular compartments.
Extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) is a potent suppressor of physiological calcification in bone and pathological calcification in blood vessels. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (eNPPs) generate PP(i) via the hydrolysis of ATP released into extracellular compartments by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report that cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from rat aorta generate extracellular PP(i) via an autocrine mechanism that involves ATP release tightly coupled to eNPP activity. The nucleotide analog beta,gamma-methylene ATP (MeATP or AMPPCP) was used to selectively suppress ATP metabolism by eNPPs but not the CD39-type ecto-ATPases. In the absence of MeATP, VSMC generated extracellular PP(i) to accumulate >or=600 nM within 2 h while steadily maintaining extracellular ATP at 1 nM. Conversely, the presence of MeATP completely suppressed PP(i) accumulation while increasing ATP accumulation. Probenecid, which inhibits PP(i) efflux dependent on ANK, a putative PP(i) transporter or transport regulator, reduced extracellular PP(i) accumulation by approximately twofold. This indicates that autocrine ATP release coupled to eNPP activity comprises >or=50% of the extracellular PP(i)-generating capacity of VSMC. The accumulation of extracellular PP(i) and ATP was markedly attenuated by reduced temperature but was insensitive to brefeldin A, which suppresses constitutive exocytosis of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles. The magnitude of extracellular PP(i) accumulation in VSMC cultures increased with time postplating, suggesting that ATP release coupled to PP(i) generation is upregulated as cultured VSMC undergo contact-inhibition of proliferation or deposit extracellular matrix.
Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is used pharmacologically to sedate specific forms of arrhythmias. Administration of pharmacological doses of catecholamine or adrenergic receptor agonists often results in arrhythmias onset. Results from the present study indicate that stimulation of cardiac adrenergic receptors elicits an extrusion of cellular Mg(2+) into the extracellular space. This effect occurs in both perfused hearts and isolated cells within 5-6 min following either ?- or ?1- adrenergic receptor stimulation, and is prevented by specific adrenergic receptors antagonists. Sequential stimulation of the two classes of adrenergic receptor results in a larger mobilization of cellular Mg(2+) provided that the two agonists are administered together or within 1-2 min from each other. A longer delay in administering the second stimulus results in the abolishment of Mg(2+) extrusion. Hence, these data suggest that the stimulation of ?- and ?1-adrenergic receptors mobilizes Mg(2+) from two distinct cellular pools, and that Mg(2+) loss from either pool triggers a Mg(2+) redistribution within the cardiac myocyte. At the sarcolemmal level, Mg(2+) extrusion occurs through a Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchange mechanism phosphorylated by cAMP. Administration of quinidine, a patent anti-arrhythmic agent, blocks Na(+) transport in a non-specific manner and prevents Mg(2+) extrusion. Taken together, these data indicate that catecholamine administration induces dynamic changes in total and compartmentalized Mg(2+) pools within the cardiac myocytes, and suggest that prevention of Mg(2+) extrusion and redistribution may be an integral component of the effectiveness of quinidine and possibly other cardiac antiarrhythmic agents. Confirmation of this possibility by future experimental and clinical studies might result in new patents of these compounds as Mg(2+) preserving agents.
Hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) via glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) enlarges the reticular Ca(2+) pool of the hepatocyte. Exposure of liver cells to ethanol (EtOH) impairs reticular Ca(2+) homeostasis. The present study investigated the effect of acute EtOH administration on G6P-supported Ca(2+) accumulation in liver cells.
MgSO(4) exposure before preterm birth is neuroprotective, reducing the risk of cerebral palsy and major motor dysfunction. Neonatal inflammatory cytokine levels correlate with neurologic outcome, leading us to assess the effect of MgSO(4) on cytokine production in humans. We found reduced maternal TNF-? and IL-6 production following in vivo MgSO(4) treatment. Short-term exposure to a clinically effective MgSO(4) concentration in vitro substantially reduced the frequency of neonatal monocytes producing TNF-? and IL-6 under constitutive and TLR-stimulated conditions, decreasing cytokine gene and protein expression, without influencing cell viability or phagocytic function. In summary, MgSO(4) reduced cytokine production in intrapartum women, term and preterm neonates, demonstrating effectiveness in those at risk for inflammation-associated adverse perinatal outcomes. By probing the mechanism of decreased cytokine production, we found that the immunomodulatory effect was mediated by magnesium and not the sulfate moiety, and it was reversible. Cellular magnesium content increased rapidly upon MgSO(4) exposure, and reduced cytokine production occurred following stimulation with different TLR ligands as well as when magnesium was added after TLR stimulation, strongly suggesting that magnesium acts intracellularly. Magnesium increased basal I?B? levels, and upon TLR stimulation was associated with reduced NF-?B activation and nuclear localization. These findings establish a new paradigm for innate immunoregulation, whereby magnesium plays a critical regulatory role in NF-?B activation, cytokine production, and disease pathogenesis.
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