To investigate the role of protein tyrosin phosphatase 22 (PTPN22), maternal age at conception and sex on susceptibility and age at onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Continental Italy and Sardinian populations.
Several lines of evidence are implicating an increased persistence of apoptotic cells in patients with asthma. This is largely due to a combination of inhibition, or defects in the apoptotic process and/or impaired apoptotic cell removal mechanisms. Among apoptosis-inducing genes, an important role is played by p53. In the present study, we have investigated the possible relationship between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and asthma and the interaction with ACP1, a genetic polymorphism involved in the susceptibility to allergic asthma. We studied 125 asthmatic children and 123 healthy subjects from the Caucasian population of Central Italy. p53 codon 72 and ACP1 polymorphisms were evaluated using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method. There is a statistically significant association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and allergic asthma: Arg/Arg genotype is more represented in asthmatic patients than in controls (P=0.018). This association, however, is present in subjects with low ACP1 activity A/A and A/B only (P=0.023). The proportion of children with A/A and A/B genotype carrying Arg/Arg genotype is significantly high in asthmatic children than in controls (OR=1.941; 95% C.I. 1.042-3.628). Our finding could have important clinical implications since the subjects with A/A and A/B genotypes of ACP1 carrying Arg/Arg genotype are more susceptible to allergic asthma than Pro/Pro genotype.
The recent advent of nanomedicine holds potential to revolutionize cancer therapy. This innovative discipline has paved the way for the emergence of a new class of drugs based on nanoengineered particles. These "nanodrugs" are designed to greatly enhance drug therapeutic indices. First-generation nanodrugs consisted of conventional anti-cancer drugs loaded into/onto nanoengineered particles (nanocarriers) devoid of targeting features (non-targeted nanodrugs). Non-targeted nanodrugs have provided the opportunity to carry large amounts of drugs, including poorly water-soluble and/or permeable drugs, to several types of tumors, improving the therapeutic index with respect to comparable free drugs. Although effective, the primary delivery mechanism of non-targeted nanodrugs was through passive tissue accumulation, due to pathophysiological differences between tumor-associated and healthy vessels, and through non-specific targeting of cell subsets, posing the danger of off-target binding and effects. Recently, the therapeutic indices of certain anti-cancer drugs were further improved by attaching targeting ligands to nanodrugs (targeted-nanodrugs). Targeted-nanodrugs selectively bind to cognate receptors expressed on target cells and enter cells more efficiently than non-targeted formulations. Although these advancements have been sufficiently beneficial to place targeted-nanodrugs into clinical development for use in cancer therapy, they also come at a price. The addition of ligands to drug-loaded nanocarriers often leads to additional synthesis steps and costs, and more complex biological performance relative to ligand-devoid nanodrugs. Here, we will discuss the benefits and challenges facing the addition of targeting features to nanodrugs for cancer therapy.
The role of adenosine as a cardioprotective agent is well known and recent experimental studies suggest that impairment of adenosine-related signal transduction contributes to the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure. The recent observation of an association between ADA, genetic polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) prompted us to study the possible relevance of three intragenic polymorphic sites of the ADA gene (ADA1, ADA2 and ADA6).
Previous studies suggest that adenylate kinase locus 1 (Ak 1 ) has an important role in the control of blood glucose level and in the glycation of structural and functional proteins in type 2 diabetes and in the balanced development of feto-placental unit in healthy puerperae (HP). In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the relationship of Ak 1 with maternal and neonatal parameters in puerperae with gestational diabetes (GDP) and with preexisting type 1 diabetes (T1DP).
To investigate the changes of respiratory function in patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with single dorsal osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) treated with vertebroplasty (VTP).
BackgroundIn the immune system, the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) increase gradually during ageing. Through B cell development, the Ig heavy chain expression is modulated by a regulatory region at the 3¿ of the constant alpha gene (3¿RR), in single copy in rodents and, due to a large duplication, in two copies in apes. The human 3¿RR1 and 3¿RR2 are both characterized by three enhancers, the central of which, namely hs1.2, is highly polymorphic. Human hs1.2 has four different variants with unique binding sites for transcription factors (e.g. NF-kB and SP1) and shows variable allelic frequencies in populations with immune disorders. In previous works, we have reported that in several autoimmune diseases the *2 allele of hs1.2 is genetically associated to high level of IgM in peripheral blood. In subjects with altered levels of circulating Ig, an increased level was associated to *2 allele of hs1.2 and low levels corresponded to high frequency of *1 allele.During ageing there is a physiological increase of Ig concentrations in the serum. Therefore, for this study, we hypothesized that the hs1.2 variants may impact differently the levels of secreted Ig during the growth.ResultsWe have correlated the allelic frequencies of hs1.2 with IgM, IgG and IgA serum concentrations in two cohorts of healthy people of different age and after three years follow-up in children homozygous for the allele. Here we show that when the expression levels of Ig in children are low and medium, the frequencies of *1 and *2 alleles are the same. Instead, when the Ig expression levels are high, there is a significantly higher frequency of the allele *2. The follow-up of children homozygous for *1 and *2 alleles showed that the increase or decrease of circulating Ig was not dependent on the number of circulating mature B cells.ConclusionsThese data support the idea that under physiologic condition there is a switch of regulative pathways involved in the maturation of Ig during ageing. This mechanism is evidenced by hs1.2 variants that in children but not in adults participate to Ig production, coordinating the three class levels.
Recent evidence regarding the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in tumor development has suggested that the manipulation of Treg function selectively in the tumor microenvironment would be a desirable immunotherapy approach. Targeting intratumor immune populations would reduce side effects on peripheral healthy cells and increase antitumor efficacy of immunotherapies. However, no current approaches are available which enable selective in vivo targeting of intratumor Treg or other immune cell subpopulations. Herein, we investigated the ability of ligands against Treg-specific receptors to drive selective internalization of PEG-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) into Treg residing in the tumor microenvironment. We focused our attention on the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related receptor (GITR), as it showed higher overexpression on intratumor vs peripheral (i.e., splenic) Treg compared to other reported Treg-specific markers (folate receptor 4, CD103, and CD39). Ex vivo investigations showed that the Treg targeting efficiency and selectivity of PEG-SWCNTs depended on incubation time, dose, number of ligands per nanotube, and targeted surface marker. In vivo investigations showed that PEG-SWCNTs armed with GITR ligands targeted Treg residing in a B16 melanoma more efficiently then intratumor non-Treg or splenic Treg. The latter result was achieved by exploiting a combination of passive tumor targeting due to enhanced tumor vascular permeability, naturally increased intratumor Treg vs effector T cell (Teff) ratio, and active targeting of markers that are enriched in intratumor vs splenic Treg. We also found that PEG-SWCNTs loaded with GITR ligands were internalized by Treg through receptor-mediated endocytosis and transported into the cytoplasm and nucleus ex vivo and in vivo. This is the first example of intratumor immune cell targeting and we hope it will pave the way to innovative immunotherapies against cancer.
Due to the increasing use of engineered nanoparticles in many consumer products, rapid and economic tests for evaluating possible adverse effects on human health are urgently needed. In the present chapter the use of mouse embryonic stem cells as a valuable tool to in vitro screen nanoparticle toxicity on embryonic tissues is described. This in vitro method is a modification of the embryonic stem cell test, which has been widely used to screen soluble chemical compounds for their embryotoxic potential. The test offers an alternative to animal experimentation, reducing experimental costs and ethical issues.
Investigation of the nanoparticle protein corona, the shell of plasma proteins formed around nanoparticles immediately after they enter the bloodstream, is a benchmark in the study of the applications of nanoparticles in all fields of medicine, from pharmacology to toxicology. We report the first investigation of the protein corona adsorbed onto single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with 2 kDa molecular weight polyethylene glycol chains [PEG(2k)-modified SWCNTs or PEG2-SWCNTs] by using a large-scale gel-based proteomics method on biological replicates. More than 240 plasma proteins were selected, and their differences were analyzed among PEG2-SWCNTs differing in surface charge and PEG conformation. The protein corona of PEG2-SWCNTs showed that coagulation proteins, immunoglobulins, apolipoproteins, and proteins of the complement system were among the proteins bound by PEG2-SWCNTs and that their recruitment was independent from the isoelectric point, molecular weight, total hydrophobicity, and number of polyaromatic residues of the proteins. Statistical analysis on protein relative abundance revealed that PEG conformation had a higher influence on the PEG2-SWCNTs protein corona repertoire than nanotube surface charge. PEG conformation also affected the biological performance of PEG2-SWCNTs. A change in PEG conformation from mushroom to mushroom-brush transition affected the competitive adsorption of the major constituents of the protein corona of PEG2-SWCNTs and promoted shorter blood circulation time, faster renal excretion, and higher relative spleen versus liver uptake of PEG2-SWCNTs. Our data suggest that the protein corona, along with steric stabilization, may mediate the action of PEG conformation on the pharmacokinetic profile of PEG-modified SWCNTs.
BACKGROUND: Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are considered promising nanoparticles for industrial and biomedical applications; however their potential toxicity in several biological systems, including the feto-placental unit, has been demonstrated. Functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol chains (PEG-SWCNTs) dramatically reduces their toxicity, and for this reason PEG-SWCNTs are candidates for biomedical applications. However, no data are available on their safety for the developing embryo, in spite of the clinical and social relevance of this topic. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate the safety of PEG-SWCNTs for their use as biomedical carriers in pregnancy. METHODS: For toxicological studies, amino-functionalized PEG-SWCNT were intravenously injected in CD1 pregnant mice at different doses (range 0.1-30 mug/mouse), in single or multiple administrations. For biodistribution studies, fluorescently labeled PEG-SWCNTs were obtained by acylation of terminal PEG amino groups with near infrared emitting fluorochromes (PEG-SWCNT-750) and injected at the dosage of 10 mug/mouse, at either day 5.5 (when the placenta is still developing) or day 14.5 of gestation (when the maturation of the placenta is complete). RESULTS: We found no adverse effects both on embryos and dams up to the dose of 10 mug/mouse. At the dose of 30 mug/mouse, occasional teratogenic effects, associated with placental damage, were detected both when administered as a single bolus (1 out of 10 dams; 1 malformed embryo) or as multiple doses (2 out of 10 dams; 5 malformed embryos). The difference in the prevalence of dams with malformed embryos between the 30 mug exposed group and controls approached the statistical significance (p = 0.06). Hepatic damage in dams was seen only in the multiple exposure group (4 out of 10; p = 0.04 when compared with the single exposure group or controls). PEG-SWCNT-750 reached the conceptus when administered early in pregnancy. At later stages, PEG-SWCNT-750 were detected in the placenta and the yolk sac, but not in the embryo. CONCLUSIONS: PEG-SWCNTs may cause occasional teratogenic effects in mice beyond a threshold dose. Such effect might depend on their ability to reach the feto-placenta unit. Although not automatically transferable to humans, these data should be considered if exposing women during pregnancy.
Previous benefit-risk perception studies and social experiences have clearly demonstrated that any emerging technology platform that ignores benefit-risk perception by citizens might jeopardize its public acceptability and further development. The aim of this survey was to investigate the Italian judgment on nanotechnology and which demographic and heuristic variables were most influential in shaping public perceptions of the benefits and risks of nanotechnology.
Several in vitro and in vivo studies suggest local and systemic effects following exposure to carbon nanotubes. No data are available, however, on their possible embryotoxicity in mammals. In this study, we tested the effect of pristine and oxidized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the development of the mouse embryo. To this end, SWCNTs (from 10 ng to 30 ?g/mouse) were administered to female mice soon after implantation (postcoital day 5.5); 10 days later, animals were sacrificed, and uteri, placentas, and fetuses examined. A high percentage of early miscarriages and fetal malformations was observed in females exposed to oxidized SWCNTs, while lower percentages were found in animals exposed to the pristine material. The lowest effective dose was 100 ng/mouse. Extensive vascular lesions and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in placentas of malformed but not of normally developed fetuses. Increased ROS levels were likewise detected in malformed fetuses. No increased ROS production or evident morphological alterations were observed in maternal tissues. No fetal and placental abnormalities were ever observed in control animals. In parallel, SWCNT embryotoxicity was evaluated using the embryonic stem cell test (EST), a validated in vitro assay developed for predicting embryotoxicity of soluble chemical compounds, but never applied in full to nanoparticles. The EST predicted the in vivo data, identifying oxidized SWCNTs as the more toxic compound.
Recently our group has found that the correlation between birth weight and placental weight - an index of a balanced feto-placental unit development - is influenced by genetic factors. Since adenylate kinase locus 1 (AK?) is a polymorphic enzyme that plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleotides required for many metabolic functions, we have investigated the possible role of its genetic variability in the correlation between birth weight and placental weight.
Nanotechnology-introduced materials have promising applications as nanocarriers for drugs, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. Several studies showed that the geometry (shape and size) and chemical properties of nanoparticles affect the kinetics and pathways of cellular uptake and their intracellular trafficking and signaling. Accurate physico-chemical characterization of nanoparticles customarily precedes their use in cell biology and in vivo experiments. However, a fact that is easily overlooked is that nanomaterials decorated with organic matter or resuspended in aqueous buffers can be theoretically contaminated by fungal and bacterial microorganisms. While investigating the effects of extensively characterized PEGylated carbon nanotubes (PNTs) on T lymphocyte activation, we demonstrated bacterial contamination of PNTs, which correlated with low reproducibility and artifacts in cell signaling assays. Contamination and artifacts were easily eliminated by preparing the materials in sterile conditions. We propose that simple sterile preparation procedures should be adopted and sterility evaluation of nanoparticles should be customarily performed, prior to assessing nanoparticle intracellular internalization, trafficking and their effects on cells and entire organisms.
In this article, we confirm the positive association of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP1)*A/adenosine deaminase locus 1 (ADA1)*2 gametic type with type 1 diabetes (T1D) previously reported and show a negative correlation between the frequency of this gametic type with past malarial morbidity in Sardinia. One hundred seven adult women with T1D and 385 healthy adult women from the Caucasian population of Central Italy have been studied. Data on 1384 children from the central area of Sardinia have also been reexamined. T1D subjects show a highly significant increase of ACP1*A/ADA1*2 gametic type compared with healthy subjects from the same population (P = 0.003). The frequency of ACP1*A/ADA1*2 gametic type is decreasing with increasing past malarial morbidity. Because ADA1*2 allele decreases the activity of *A allele and since low ACP1 activity decreases Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase with molecular weight 70 kDa (Zap70) activity resulting in weak T-cell receptor signalling an epistatic interaction involving ADA1, ACP1 and Zap70 seems a likely mechanism for the associations observed.
Previous separate studies have shown associations of coronary artery disease (CAD) with acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP1) and adenosine deaminase locus 1 (ADA1) genetic polymorphisms. Because it is known that the 2 systems interact and have important immunologic and metabolic functions, these 2 genes were both examined in the same sets of subjects.
Activated single wall carbon nanotubes have been used for biomedical purposes as carriers for drugs, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. A large volume of data speaks to their suitability to act as a carrier. The ability of two differently activated SWNTs (with carboxyl groups or with carboxyl groups and polyethylenimine (PEI)) to form a complex with the hepatitis A virus was evaluated. Both types of activations permitted the formation of a virus-SWNT complex. However, their patterns were different. The carboxyl-activated nanotubes had a somewhat low adsorptive capacity that was related inversely to the concentrations of the SWNTs and viruses. Statistical analysis, using the chi(2)-test, showed no significant differences between the SWNT-PEI ratios of 1:2.5, 1:1 and 1:0.5. The addiction of PEI improved the adsorption, probably because of the electropositive charge of the molecule. Adsorption was optimal between 100 microg and 10 ng with a SWNTs-PEI weight ratio of 1:0.2 up to an inoculum of 10(5) genome equivalents of hepatitis A virus. Reducing or increasing this weight ratio reduced the adsorptive capacity of the PEI, and this adsorption activity was time and contact-dependent. Thus, SWNTs coated with PEI are able to complex with viruses, and they might be used in the future to transfect non-permissive cell lines.
The induction of DNA and chromosome damage following in vitro exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) was assessed on the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 by means of the micronucleus (MN) and the comet assays. Exposures to two CNT preparations (single-walled CNT (SWCNT > 90%) and multiwalled CNT (MWCNT > 90%) were performed in increasing mass concentrations (0.01-100 microg/ml). The frequency of micronuclei was significantly increased in cells treated with SWCNT (at doses above 0.1 microg/ml), whereas MWCNT had the same effect at higher concentrations (1 microg/ml) (P < 0.05). The results of the comet assay revealed that the effects of treatment with SWCNT were detectable at all concentrations tested (1-100 microg/ml); oxidized purines increased significantly, whereas pyrimidines showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) only at the highest concentration (100 microg/ml). In cells treated with MWCNT, an increase in DNA migration due to the oxidative damage to purines was observed at a concentration of 1 and 10 microg/ml, whereas pyrimidines showed a significant increase only at the highest mass concentration tested. However, both SWCNT and MWCNT induced a statistically significant cytotoxic effect at the highest concentrations tested (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that both the MN and comet assays can reliably detect small amount of damaged DNA at both chromosome and nuclear levels in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, the modified version of the comet assay allows the specific detection of the induction of oxidative damage to DNA, which may be the underlying mechanism involved in the CNT-associated genotoxicity.
Carbon nanotubes are considered to be one of the novel most attractive materials in nanotechnology. Because of their multiple industrial and biomedical applications, thorough studies on their toxicity and biocompatibility become a priority in order to prevent possible health risks. In this study the effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on healthy monocytes from human peripheral blood were investigated. The results indicate that MWCNT exert a cytotoxic effect on monocytes, inducing cell death and increasing the extent of apoptosis induced by a chemotherapic agent. This cytotoxic effect may have important implications, and much attention in terms of evaluation of exposure risks is recommended.
We investigated the possible influence of adenylate kinase genetic variability on the effect of maternal smoking on intrauterine selection and development. Adenylate kinase locus 1 belongs to a family of monophosphate kinases that plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleotides involved in several metabolic functions. Three hundred forty-five newborn consecutive infants from the Caucasian population of Rome and 360 consecutive infants from the Caucasian population of Penne were studied. The proportion of newborns carrying AK1*2 allele was analyzed in relation to smoking and maternal age. The effect of smoking on birth weight was also analyzed in relation to AK1 phenotype and maternal age. Statistical analyses have been performed according to SPSS programs. In offspring of women aged 28 years or less, the proportion of newborns carrying the AK1*2 allele is much higher in smoking than in nonsmoking mothers (13.2% versus 2.6%). Such association is lacking in mothers aged more than 28 years (6.5% versus 9.2%). The negative effects of smoke on birth weight is more marked in AK11 mothers than in AK1*2 carriers. The data suggest that zygotes carrying AK1*2 allele are relatively protected from the damaging effects of smoking, resulting in a relatively higher proportion of newborns carrying this allele among smoking mothers.
Nanotechnologies hold considerable promise of advances in many sectors especially the biomedical field, since the materials used are of the appropriate dimensions to interact with important biological matter such as proteins, DNA and viruses. In this field the use of nanotechnologies will probably be second in importance only to biotechnologies. However many characteristics of nanomaterials that make them so promising from a technological point of view may also lead to negative effects on the environment and human health. It is important therefore that the environmental and work-related exposure effects to these materials be evaluated. In this article the potential uses, toxic effects and public health implications of nanobiotechnologies are discussed.
Starting from the experience of last five years, during which 24 guide liens about the most important aspects of Occupational Physician activity have been produced, the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) delegated a specific working group for updating the methodology to be adopted for guide lines and other instruments for improving and standardizing the current activity in our professional field. SIMLII produced in the context of the specific Education and Accreditation Programme for occupational physicians prepared from 2002 25 guide lines or other informative instruments on the most important and controversial themes in which our discipline is involved. They were considered and treated to meet the need to improve and standardise activities and to modify the current approach of occupational physicians and aimed not only at improving the effectiveness of preventive actions but also at constantly adopting rigorous methodologies based where possible on evidence based or on consensus procedures. The Directive of SIMLII was firmly convinced about the opportunity-necessity to critically evaluate the experience carried out during the last years, at the light of the National Program for Guide Lines edited By Italian National Health Institute since 2002 and which concerns preparation, dissemination, updating, implementation of guide lines in Medicine. The guide lines were defined as rational critical effective aid addressed to professionals and patients for health services organization. Relevant was the new Framework Act for the occupational safety and health (Decreto legislativo 81/08) too signed by the President of the Italian Republic on April 9, 2008, which for the first time includes and defines in a legislative act the different possible instruments (technical normative, good practices, guide lines). In this paper we present the new methodology defined by our Society for producing the different kind of instruments such as guide lines, consensus conference reports, technology assessments, good practices statements guide lines focusing as the main aspects those related to definitions, argument choice, working group and coordinator identification, producing methods, evidence evaluation, grading, quality evaluation using AGREE method, dissemination procedure, the conflict of interest and the possible use for distance formation procedure focusing the recommendations that take a practical-applicative approach.
The developmental origin theory of coronary heart disease proposes that undernutrition in utero permanently changes body functions and metabolism leading to an increased risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD) in adult life. Some studies support this theory but others suggest that birth weight (BW) is not a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Gender differences concerning the association between BW and risk factors for CAD have been reported in some studies but not in others.In this paper we have analyzed the effect of gender and diabetes on the relationship between BW and CAD in the White population of Rome.
PEGylated-carbon nanotubes (PNTs) were evaluated as nanocarriers of antisense oligonucleotides into T-cells using protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) as a model target gene. PTPN22 is an important predisposing gene and drug target in type 1 diabetes and several other human autoimmune diseases. Here, we generated the first anti-PTPN22 20-mer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and tethered them to PNTs through a cleavable disulfide bond. Spectroscopic and atomic force microscopy analyses were used to determine the loading of ASO onto PNTs, whereas the cleavable nature of the disulfide bond connecting the oligonucleotide to the nanocarrier was confirmed by incubation with dithiothreitol followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PNT-conjugated ASOs achieved efficient (>50%) knockdown of PTPN22 expression in T-lymphocytes in culture at the mRNA and protein level, as measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Considering the high biocompatibility and low in vivo toxicity of PNTs, we expect that our approach will be easily translated to achieve in vivo knockdown of PTPN22 and other T lymphocyte targets, thus enabling novel ASO-mediated immunotherapies for type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases.
Acid phosphatase (ACP?) is a polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of flavin-mononucleotide (FMN) to riboflavin and regulates the cellular concentration of flavin-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and, consequently, energy metabolism. Its activity is modulated by adenosine deaminase locus 1 (ADA?) genotype. The aim of our work is to verify whether individuals with a high proportion of ACP? f-isozyme and carrying the ADA?*2 allele, displaying the highest phosphatase activity, may have a higher life expectancy. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 569 females and 509 males (18 to 106 years of age) randomly recruited from Central Italy. These samples were subdivided into three sex-specific age groups (the ages of women are in square bracket): Class 1: age <66 [<73]; Class 2: ages 66 to 88 [73 to 91]; Class 3: age >88 [>91]. ACP?and ADA? singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods and statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 14.0. The results showed a larger proportion of Class 3 individuals displaying high ACP? f-isozyme concentration and carrying the ADA?*2 allele than those individuals of Class 2 and Class 2 plus Class 1. Thus, we postulate that in Class 3 individuals the high phosphatase activity, resulting from the combined presence of high ACP? f-isozyme concentration and the ADA?*2 allele, lowers the rate of glycolysis that may reduce the amount of metabolic calories and, in turn, activate Sirtuin genes that protect cells against age-related diseases.
Healthcare workers and medical students are a preferencial category for the administration of the seasonal influenza vaccination both for the protection of the patient and the continuity of care. Despite this the coverage remains low throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of the influenza vaccination among the students of the school of Medicine and Health Professions. The reactogenicity and the perception of protection offered by the administration of the intradermal influenza vaccine were specifically evaluated.
Common biological features between cancer and atherosclerosis suggest possible association of p53 with atherosclerotic diseases, but data on such a relationship are controversial, suggesting interactions with other variables. Acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACPACP?) is a polymorphic gene that controls the synthesis of an enzyme involved in important metabolic functions. Since ACPACP? is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), we searched for possible interactions between this enzyme and p53 codon 72 polymorphism with regard to their effects on susceptibility to CAD.
With the increasing production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exploited in many consumer products, a wider number of people is expected to be exposed to such materials in the near future, both in occupational and environmental settings. This has raised concerns about the possible implications on public health. In particular, very recently the scientific community has focused on the effect that ENMs might exert on the reproductive apparatus and on embryonic development. Indications that ENMs might have adverse effects on cells of the germ line and on the developing embryos have been reported. In the present minireview we will perform a critical analysis of the published work on reproductive and developmental toxicity of the most commonly used nanoparticles with a major focus on mammalian models. We will place emphasis on the main physico-chemical characteristics that can affect NP behaviour in biological systems, i.e. presence of contaminants and nanoparticle destabilization, size, dosage, presence of functional groups, influence of the solvent used for their suspension in biological media, aggregation/agglomeration, intrinsic chemical composition and protein corona/opsonisation. The importance of this specific field of nanotoxicology is documented by the rapidly increasing number of published papers registered in the last three years, which might be a consequence of the growing concerns on the possible interference of ENMs with reproductive ability and pregnancy outcome, in a time in which reproductive age has increased and the possibility to bear children appears reduced.
Hospital cleaning work, as health care work, is mainly performed by women all over Europe. Hospital cleaning activities represent a poorly studied sector although very important also for patients health. We applied the Method of Organizational Congruencies to study cleaning work in three typical hospital units (Emergency Room, Haematology, General Medicine) of a roman University hospital where 198 women cleaners work. We analyzed the 731 technical actions performed in the three shifts and the related Organizational Constraints (OC). Working outsourcing, no occupational risks training, washing personal equipment at home, standing, long walking, early morning and night shift in emergency room, high monotony (>10 actions per hour) contact with biological and chemicals materials, risk conditions of accidents, artificial lights, hot microclimate and working in a cure setting represent the main Organizational Constraints. Differences among the three Units are discussed together with the importance of considering cleaning hospital as a preventive action towards hospital clinical risk.
To study the effect Adenosine Deaminase locus 1 (ADA(1)) mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio Birth Weight/Placental Weight (BW/PW) in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with repeated spontaneous abortion (RSA).
Recent studies on healthy puerperae suggest that Adenylate kinase locus 1 (Ak(1)) genetic polymorphism could be involved in intrauterine selection. In this article, we have searched for a possible relationship between Ak(1) polymorphism and spontaneous abortion.
Womens work activities are often characterised by non-formal actions (such as giving support). Gender differences in ergonomics may be due to this peculiarity. We applied the method of organisational congruencies (MOC) to ascertain the non-formal work portion of nurses employed in three hospital units (haematology, emergency room and general medicine) during the three work shifts in a major University Hospital in Rome, Italy. We recorded a total of 802 technical actions performed by nine nurses in 72 h of work. Twenty-six percent of the actions in direct patients care were communicative actions (mainly giving psychological support) while providing physical care. These double actions are often not considered to be a formal part of the job by hospital management. In our case study, the non-formal work of nurses (psychological support) is mainly represented by double actions while taking physical care of the patients. The dual task paradigm in gender oriented research is discussed in terms of its implications in prevention in occupational health.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.