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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Polymeric microspheres as protein transduction reagents.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Discovering the function of an unknown protein, particularly one with neither structural nor functional correlates, is a daunting task. Interaction analyses determine binding partners, whereas DNA transfection, either transient or stable, leads to intracellular expression, though not necessarily at physiologically relevant levels. In theory, direct intracellular protein delivery (protein transduction) provides a conceptually simpler alternative, but in practice the approach is problematic. Domains such as HIV TAT protein are valuable, but their effectiveness is protein specific. Similarly, the delivery of intact proteins via endocytic pathways (e.g. using liposomes) is problematic for functional analysis because of the potential for protein degradation in the endosomes/lysosomes. Consequently, recent reports that microspheres can deliver bio-cargoes into cells via a non-endocytic, energy-independent pathway offer an exciting and promising alternative for in vitro delivery of functional protein. In order for such promise to be fully exploited, microspheres are required that (i) are stably linked to proteins, (ii) can deliver those proteins with good efficiency, (iii) release functional protein once inside the cells, and (iv) permit concomitant tracking. Herein, we report the application of microspheres to successfully address all of these criteria simultaneously, for the first time. After cellular uptake, protein release was autocatalyzed by the reducing cytoplasmic environment. Outside of cells, the covalent microsphere-protein linkage was stable for ?90 h at 37 °C. Using conservative methods of estimation, 74.3% ± 5.6% of cells were shown to take up these microspheres after 24 h of incubation, with the whole process of delivery and intracellular protein release occurring within 36 h. Intended for in vitro functional protein research, this approach will enable study of the consequences of protein delivery at physiologically relevant levels, without recourse to nucleic acids, and offers a useful alternative to commercial protein transfection reagents such as Chariot™. We also provide clear immunostaining evidence to resolve residual controversy surrounding FACS-based assessment of microsphere uptake.
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Redox regulation of protein damage in plasma.
Redox Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The presence and concentrations of modified proteins circulating in plasma depend on rates of protein synthesis, modification and clearance. In early studies, the proteins most frequently analysed for damage were those which were more abundant in plasma (e.g. albumin and immunoglobulins) which exist at up to 10 orders of magnitude higher concentrations than other plasma proteins e.g. cytokines. However, advances in analytical techniques using mass spectrometry and immuno-affinity purification methods, have facilitated analysis of less abundant, modified proteins and the nature of modifications at specific sites is now being characterised. The damaging reactive species that cause protein modifications in plasma principally arise from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases (NOX), nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and oxygenase activities; reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from myeloperoxidase (MPO) and NOS activities; and hypochlorous acid from MPO. Secondary damage to proteins may be caused by oxidized lipids and glucose autooxidation. In this review, we focus on redox regulatory control of those enzymes and processes which control protein maturation during synthesis, produce reactive species, repair and remove damaged plasma proteins. We have highlighted the potential for alterations in the extracellular redox compartment to regulate intracellular redox state and, conversely, for intracellular oxidative stress to alter the cellular secretome and composition of extracellular vesicles. Through secreted, redox-active regulatory molecules, changes in redox state may be transmitted to distant sites.
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Effect of Incorporating Cholesterol into DDA:TDB Liposomal Adjuvants on Bilayer Properties, Biodistribution, and Immune Responses.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Cholesterol is an abundant component of mammalian cell membranes and has been extensively studied as an artificial membrane stabilizer in a wide range of phospholipid liposome systems. In this study, the aim was to investigate the role of cholesterol in cationic liposomal adjuvant system based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose 6,6-dibehenate (TDB) which has been shown as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines against a wide range of diseases. Packaging of cholesterol within DDA:TDB liposomes was investigated using differential scanning calorimetery and surface pressure-area isotherms of lipid monolayers; incorporation of cholesterol into liposomal membranes promoted the formation of a liquid-condensed monolayer and removed the main phase transition temperature of the system, resulting in an increased bilayer fluidity and reduced antigen retention in vitro. In vivo biodistribution studies found that this increase in membrane fluidity did not alter deposition of liposomes and antigen at the site of injection. In terms of immune responses, early (12 days after immunization) IgG responses were reduced by inclusion of cholesterol; thereafter there were no differences in antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b) responses promoted by DDA:TDB liposomes with and without cholesterol. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were induced by DDA:TDB liposomes, and liposome uptake by macrophages in vitro was also shown to be higher for DDA:TDB liposomes compared to their cholesterol-containing counterparts, suggesting that small changes in bilayer mechanics can impact both cellular interactions and immune responses.
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Monocytes in coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis: where are we now?
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Despite improvements in interventional and pharmacological therapy of atherosclerotic disease, it is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Hence, there is a need for further development of effective therapeutic approaches. This requires better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology of the disease. Atherosclerosis has long been identified as having an inflammatory component contributing to its pathogenesis, whereas the available therapy primarily targets hyperlipidemia and prevention of thrombosis. Notwithstanding a pleotropic anti-inflammatory effect to some therapies, such as acetyl salicylic acid and the statins, none of the currently approved medicines for management of either stable or complicated atherosclerosis has inflammation as a primary target. Monocytes, as representatives of the innate immune system, play a major role in the initiation, propagation, and progression of atherosclerosis from a stable to an unstable state. Experimental data support a role of monocytes in acute coronary syndromes and in outcome post-infarction; however, limited research has been done in humans. Analysis of expression of various cell surface receptors allows characterization of the different monocyte subsets phenotypically, whereas downstream assessment of inflammatory pathways provides an insight into their activity. In this review we discuss the functional role of monocytes and their different subpopulations in atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, cardiac healing, and recovery with an aim of critical evaluation of potential future therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis and its complications. We will also discuss technical difficulties of delineating different monocyte subpopulations, understanding their differentiation potential and function.
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Effects of lithium and valproic acid on gene expression and phenotypic markers in an NT2 neurosphere model of neural development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Mood stabilising drugs such as lithium (LiCl) and valproic acid (VPA) are the first line agents for treating conditions such as Bipolar disorder and Epilepsy. However, these drugs have potential developmental effects that are not fully understood. This study explores the use of a simple human neurosphere-based in vitro model to characterise the pharmacological and toxicological effects of LiCl and VPA using gene expression changes linked to phenotypic alterations in cells. Treatment with VPA and LiCl resulted in the differential expression of 331 and 164 genes respectively. In the subset of VPA targeted genes, 114 were downregulated whilst 217 genes were upregulated. In the subset of LiCl targeted genes, 73 were downregulated and 91 were upregulated. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis was used to highlight the most relevant GO terms associated with a given gene list following toxin exposure. In addition, in order to phenotypically anchor the gene expression data, changes in the heterogeneity of cell subtype populations and cell cycle phase were monitored using flow cytometry. Whilst LiCl exposure did not significantly alter the proportion of cells expressing markers for stem cells/undifferentiated cells (Oct4, SSEA4), neurons (Neurofilament M), astrocytes (GFAP) or cell cycle phase, the drug caused a 1.4-fold increase in total cell number. In contrast, exposure to VPA resulted in significant upregulation of Oct4, SSEA, Neurofilament M and GFAP with significant decreases in both G2/M phase cells and cell number. This neurosphere model might provide the basis of a human-based cellular approach for the regulatory exploration of developmental impact of potential toxic chemicals.
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Cell exclusion in couette flow: evaluation through flow visualization and mechanical forces.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Cell exclusion is the phenomenon whereby the hematocrit and viscosity of blood decrease in areas of high stress. While this is well known in naturally occurring Poiseuille flow in the human body, it has never previously been shown in Couette flow, which occurs in implantable devices including blood pumps. The high-shear stresses that occur in the gap between the boundaries in Couette flow are known to cause hemolysis in erythrocytes. We propose to mitigate this damage by initiating cell exclusion through the use of a spiral-groove bearing (SGB) that will provide escape routes by which the cells may separate themselves from the plasma and the high stresses in the gap. The force between two bearings (one being the SGB) in Couette flow was measured. Stained erythrocytes, along with silver spheres of similar diameter to erythrocytes, were visualized across a transparent SGB at various gap heights. A reduction in the force across the bearing for human blood, compared with fluids of comparable viscosity, was found. This indicates a reduction in the viscosity of the fluid across the bearing due to a lowered hematocrit because of cell exclusion. The corresponding images clearly show both cells and spheres being excluded from the gap by entering the grooves. This is the first time the phenomenon of cell exclusion has been shown in Couette flow. It not only furthers our understanding of how blood responds to different flows but could also lead to improvements in the future design of medical devices.
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The N-terminus of CD14 acts to bind apoptotic cells and confers rapid-tethering capabilities on non-myeloid cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cell death and removal of cell corpses in a timely manner is a key event in both physiological and pathological situations including tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation. Phagocytic clearance of cells dying by apoptosis is a complex sequential process comprising attraction, recognition, tethering, signalling and ultimately phagocytosis and degradation of cell corpses. A wide range of molecules acting as apoptotic cell-associated ligands, phagocyte-associated receptors or soluble bridging molecules have been implicated within this process. The role of myeloid cell CD14 in mediating apoptotic cell interactions with macrophages has long been known though key molecules and residues involved have not been defined. Here we sought to further dissect the function of CD14 in apoptotic cell clearance. A novel panel of THP-1 cell-derived phagocytes was employed to demonstrate that CD14 mediates effective apoptotic cell interactions with macrophages in the absence of detectable TLR4 whilst binding and responsiveness to LPS requires TLR4. Using a targeted series of CD14 point mutants expressed in non-myeloid cells we reveal CD14 residue 11 as key in the binding of apoptotic cells whilst other residues are reported as key for LPS binding. Importantly we note that expression of CD14 in non-myeloid cells confers the ability to bind rapidly to apoptotic cells. Analysis of a panel of epithelial cells reveals that a number naturally express CD14 and that this is competent to mediate apoptotic cell clearance. Taken together these data suggest that CD14 relies on residue 11 for apoptotic cell tethering and it may be an important tethering molecule on so called non-professional phagocytes thus contributing to apoptotic cell clearance in a non-myeloid setting. Furthermore these data establish CD14 as a rapid-acting tethering molecule, expressed in monocytes, which may thus confer responsiveness of circulating monocytes to apoptotic cell derived material.
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The innate immune system and the clearance of apoptotic cells.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Removal of unwanted, effete, or damaged cells through apoptosis, an active cell death culminating in phagocytic removal of cell corpses, is an important process throughout the immune system in development, control, and homeostasis. For example, neutrophil apoptosis is central to the resolution of acute inflammation, whereas autoreactive and virus-infected cells are similarly deleted. The AC removal process functions not only to remove cell corpses but further, to control inappropriate immune responses so that ACs are removed in an anti-inflammatory manner. Such ?silent? clearance is mediated by the innate immune system via polarized monocyte/macrophage populations that use a range of PRRs and soluble molecules to promote binding and phagocytosis of ACs. Additionally, attractive signals are released from dying cells to recruit phagocytes to sites of death. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms associated with innate immune removal of and responses to ACs and outline how these may impact on tissue homeostasis and age-associated pathology (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Furthermore, we discuss how an aging innate immune system may contribute to the inflammatory consequences of aging and why the study of an aging immune system may be a useful path to advance characterization of mechanisms mediating effective AC clearance.
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The vesicle size of DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants plays a role in the cell-mediated immune response but has no significant effect on antibody production.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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The use of cationic liposomes as experimental adjuvants for subunit peptide of protein vaccines is well documented. Recently the cationic liposome CAF01, composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose dibehenate (TDB), has entered Phase I clinical trials for use in a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. CAF01 liposomes are a heterogeneous population with a mean vesicle size of 500 nm; a strong retention of antigen at the injection site and a Th1-biassed immune response are noted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CAF01 liposomes of significantly different vesicle sizes exhibited altered pharmacokinetics in vivo and cellular uptake with activation in vitro. Furthermore, the immune response against the TB antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 was followed when various sized CAF01 liposomes were used as vaccine adjuvants. The results showed no differences in vaccine (liposome or antigen) draining from the injection site, however, significant differences in the movement of liposomes to the popliteal lymph node were noted. Liposome uptake by THP-1 vitamin D3 stimulated macrophage-like cells did not show a liposome size-dependent pattern of uptake. Finally, whilst there were no significant differences in the IgG1/2 regardless of the liposome size used as a delivery vehicle for Ag85B-ESAT-6, vesicle size has a size dependent effect on cell proliferation and IL-10 production with larger liposomes (in excess of 2 ?m) promoting the highest proliferation and lowest IL-10 responses, yet vesicles of ~500 nm promoting higher IFN-? cytokine production from splenocytes and higher IL-1? at the site of injection.
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The role of monocytes in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The more we discover about the molecular pathways involved in atherosclerosis, the more we perceive the importance of monocytes in this process. Circulating monocytes are components of innate immunity, and many pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules facilitate their adhesion and migration to the vascular endothelial wall. In addition to the accumulation of lipids and formation of atherogenic foam cells, monocytes may promote atherosclerotic plaque growth by production of inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and reactive oxidative species. However, the contribution of monocytes to atherogenesis is not only limited to tissue destruction. Monocyte subsets are also involved in intraplaque angiogenesis and tissue reparative processes. The aim of this overview is to discuss the mechanisms of monocyte activation, the pivotal role and importance of activated monocytes in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, their implication in the development of acute coronary events, and their potential in cardiovascular reparative processes such angiogenesis.
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Inhibitory effects of persistent apoptotic cells on monoclonal antibody production in vitro: simple removal of non-viable cells improves antibody productivity by hybridoma cells in culture.
MAbs
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Cells undergoing apoptosis in vivo are rapidly detected and cleared by phagocytes. Swift recognition and removal of apoptotic cells is important for normal tissue homeostasis and failure in the underlying clearance mechanisms has pathological consequences associated with inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. Cell cultures in vitro usually lack the capacity for removal of non-viable cells because of the absence of phagocytes and, as such, fail to emulate the healthy in vivo micro-environment from which dead cells are absent. While a key objective in cell culture is to maintain viability at maximal levels, cell death is unavoidable and non-viable cells frequently contaminate cultures in significant numbers. Here we show that the presence of apoptotic cells in monoclonal antibody-producing hybridoma cultures has markedly detrimental effects on antibody productivity. Removal of apoptotic hybridoma cells by macrophages at the time of seeding resulted in 100% improved antibody productivity that was, surprisingly to us, most pronounced late on in the cultures. Furthermore, we were able to recapitulate this effect using novel super-paramagnetic Dead-Cert Nanoparticles to remove non-viable cells simply and effectively at culture seeding. These results (1) provide direct evidence that apoptotic cells have a profound influence on their non-phagocytic neighbors in culture and (2) demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple dead-cell removal strategy for improving antibody manufacture in vitro.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.