Tension at the surface is a most fundamental physicochemical property of a liquid surface. The concept of surface tension has widespread implications in numerous natural, engineering and biomedical processes. Research to date has been largely focused on the liquid side; little attention has been paid to the vapor--the other side of the surface, despite over 100 years of study. However, the question remains as to whether the vapor plays any role, and to what extent it affects the surface tension of the liquid. Here we show a systematic study of the effect of vapor on the surface tension and in particular, a surprising observation that the vapor, not the liquid, plays a dominant role in determining the surface tension of a range of common volatile organic solutions. This is in stark contrast to results of common surfactants where the concentration in the liquid plays the major role. We further confirmed our results with a modified adsorption isotherm and molecular dynamics simulations, where highly structured, hydrogen bonded networks, and in particular a solute depletion layer just beneath the Gibbs dividing surface, were revealed.
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Journal of Visualized Experiments
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.