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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Homologous and heterologous desensitization of guanylyl cyclase-B signaling in GH3 somatolactotropes.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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The guanylyl cyclases, GC-A and GC-B, are selective receptors for atrial and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and CNP, respectively). In the anterior pituitary, CNP and GC-B are major regulators of cGMP production in gonadotropes and yet mouse models of disrupted CNP and GC-B indicate a potential role in growth hormone secretion. In the current study, we investigate the molecular and pharmacological properties of the CNP/GC-B system in somatotrope lineage cells. Primary rat pituitary and GH3 somatolactotropes expressed functional GC-A and GC-B receptors that had similar EC50 properties in terms of cGMP production. Interestingly, GC-B signaling underwent rapid homologous desensitization in a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent manner. Chronic exposure to either CNP or ANP caused a significant down-regulation of both GC-A- and GC-B-dependent cGMP accumulation in a ligand-specific manner. However, this down-regulation was not accompanied by alterations in the sub-cellular localization of these receptors. Heterologous desensitization of GC-B signaling occurred in GH3 cells following exposure to either sphingosine-1-phosphate or thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH). This heterologous desensitization was protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent, as pre-treatment with GF109203X prevented the effect of TRH on CNP/GC-B signaling. Collectively, these data indicate common and distinct properties of particulate guanylyl cyclase receptors in somatotropes and reveal that independent mechanisms of homologous and heterologous desensitization occur involving either PP2A or PKC. Guanylyl cyclase receptors thus represent potential novel therapeutic targets for treating growth-hormone-associated disorders.
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Estrogen receptor ? mediates proliferation of osteoblastic cells stimulated by estrogen and mechanical strain, but their acute down-regulation of the Wnt antagonist Sost is mediated by estrogen receptor ?.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Mechanical strain and estrogens both stimulate osteoblast proliferation through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated effects, and both down-regulate the Wnt antagonist Sost/sclerostin. Here, we investigate the differential effects of ER? and -? in these processes in mouse long bone-derived osteoblastic cells and human Saos-2 cells. Recruitment to the cell cycle following strain or 17?-estradiol occurs within 30 min, as determined by Ki-67 staining, and is prevented by the ER? antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride. ER? inhibition with 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-?]pyrimidin-3-yl] phenol (PTHPP) increases basal proliferation similarly to strain or estradiol. Both strain and estradiol down-regulate Sost expression, as does in vitro inhibition or in vivo deletion of ER?. The ER? agonists 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile and ERB041 also down-regulated Sost expression in vitro, whereas the ER? agonist 4,4,4?-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1,3,5-triyl]tris-phenol or the ER? antagonist PTHPP has no effect. Tamoxifen, a nongenomic ER? agonist, down-regulates Sost expression in vitro and in bones in vivo. Inhibition of both ERs with fulvestrant or selective antagonism of ER?, but not ER?, prevents Sost down-regulation by strain or estradiol. Sost down-regulation by strain or ER? activation is prevented by MEK/ERK blockade. Exogenous sclerostin has no effect on estradiol-induced proliferation but prevents that following strain. Thus, in osteoblastic cells the acute proliferative effects of both estradiol and strain are ER?-mediated. Basal Sost down-regulation follows decreased activity of ER? and increased activity of ER?. Sost down-regulation by strain or increased estrogens is mediated by ER?, not ER?. ER-targeting therapy may facilitate structurally appropriate bone formation by enhancing the distinct ligand-independent, strain-related contributions to proliferation of both ER? and ER?.
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Loading-related regulation of transcription factor EGR2/Krox-20 in bone cells is ERK1/2 protein-mediated and prostaglandin, Wnt signaling pathway-, and insulin-like growth factor-I axis-dependent.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Of the 1,328 genes revealed by microarray to be differentially regulated by disuse, or at 8 h following a single short period of osteogenic loading of the mouse tibia, analysis by predicting associated transcription factors from annotated affinities revealed the transcription factor EGR2/Krox-20 as being more closely associated with more pathways and functions than any other. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed up-regulation of Egr2 mRNA expression by loading of the tibia in vivo. In vitro studies where strain was applied to primary cultures of mouse tibia-derived osteoblastic cells and the osteoblast UMR106 cell line also showed up-regulation of Egr2 mRNA expression. In UMR106 cells, inhibition of ?1/?3 integrin function had no effect on strain-related Egr2 expression, but it was inhibited by a COX2-selective antagonist and imitated by exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This response to PGE(2) was mediated chiefly through the EP1 receptor and involved stimulation of PKC and attenuation by cAMP/PKA. Neither activators nor inhibitors of nitric oxide, estrogen signaling, or LiCl had any effect on Egr2 mRNA expression, but it was increased by both insulin-like growth factor-1 and high, but not low, dose parathyroid hormone and exogenous Wnt-3a. The increases by strain, PGE2, Wnt-3a, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate were attenuated by inhibition of MEK-1. EGR2 appears to be involved in many of the signaling pathways that constitute early responses of bone cells to strain. These pathways all have multiple functions. Converting their strain-related responses into coherent "instructions" for adaptive (re)modeling is likely to depend upon their contextual activation, suppression, and interaction probably on more than one occasion.
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Role of endocrine and paracrine factors in the adaptation of bone to mechanical loading.
Curr Osteoporos Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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There appears to be no unique mechanically sensitive pathway by which changes in bone loading regulate bone mass and architecture to ensure adequate structural strength. Rather, strain-derived changes in bone cells activate a number of nonspecific strain-sensitive pathways (including calcium fluxes, prostanoids, nitric oxide, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and sclerostin), the activities of which are modified by a number of factors (including estrogen receptors) for which this contribution is subsidiary to other purposes. The strain-sensitive pathways modified by these factors interact with a number of other pathways, some of which appear to have specific osteoregulatory potential (eg, the parathyroid hormone pathway), whereas others such as the Wnt pathway appear to be associated primarily with the response mechanisms of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The outcome of these multiple interactions are stimuli for local bone formation, resorption, or maintenance of the status quo, to maintain existing bone architecture or adapt it to a new mechanical regimen.
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Sost down-regulation by mechanical strain in human osteoblastic cells involves PGE2 signaling via EP4.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of bone formation which is down-regulated by mechanical loading. To investigate the mechanisms involved we subjected Saos2 human osteoblastic cells to short periods of dynamic strain and used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to compare their responses to unstrained controls. Strain-induced Sost down-regulation was recapitulated by cyclo-oxygenase-2-mediated PGE2, acting through the EP4 receptor, whereas strain-related up-regulation of osteocalcin was mediated by the EP2 receptor. Strain-related Sost regulation required extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, whereas osteocalcin required protein kinase C. These findings indicate early divergence in the signaling pathways stimulated by strain and establish PGE2/EP4 as the pathway used by strain to regulate Sost expression.
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Constitutively nuclear FOXO3a localization predicts poor survival and promotes Akt phosphorylation in breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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The PI3K-Akt signal pathway plays a key role in tumorigenesis and the development of drug-resistance. Cytotoxic chemotherapy resistance is linked to limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis.
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Mechano-transduction in osteoblastic cells involves strain-regulated estrogen receptor alpha-mediated control of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor sensitivity to Ambient IGF, leading to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent Wnt/LRP5 recept
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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The capacity of bones to adjust their mass and architecture to withstand the loads of everyday activity derives from the ability of their resident cells to respond appropriately to the strains engendered. To elucidate the mechanisms of strain responsiveness in bone cells, we investigated in vitro the responses of primary mouse osteoblasts and UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells to a single period of dynamic strain. This stimulates a cascade of events, including activation of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of AKT, inhibition of GSK-3beta, increased activation of beta-catenin, and associated lymphoid-enhancing factor/T cell factor-mediated transcription. Initiation of this pathway does not involve the Wnt/LRP5/Frizzled receptor and does not culminate in increased IGF transcription. The effect of strain on IGF-IR is mimicked by exogenous des-(1-3)IGF-I and is blocked by the IGF-IR inhibitor H1356. Inhibition of strain-related prostanoid and nitric oxide production inhibits strain-related (and basal) AKT activity, but their separate ectopic administration does not mimic it. Strain-related IGF-IR activation of AKT requires estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) with which IGF-1R physically associates. The ER blocker ICI 182,780 increases the concentration of des-(1-3)IGF-I necessary to activate this cascade, whereas estrogen inhibits both basal AKT activity and its activation by des-(1-3)IGF-I. These data suggest an initial cascade of strain-related events in osteoblasts in which strain activates IGF-IR, in association with ERalpha, so initiating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent activation of beta-catenin and altered lymphoid-enhancing factor/T cell factor transcription. This cascade requires prostanoid/nitric oxide production and is independent of Wnt/LRP5.
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Loading-related regulation of gene expression in bone in the contexts of estrogen deficiency, lack of estrogen receptor alpha and disuse.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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Loading-related changes in gene expression in resident cells in the tibia of female mice in the contexts of normality (WT), estrogen deficiency (WT-OVX), absence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha(-/-)) and disuse due to sciatic neurectomy (WT-SN) were established by microarray. Total RNA was extracted from loaded and contra-lateral non-loaded tibiae at selected time points after a single, short period of dynamic loading sufficient to engender an osteogenic response. There were marked changes in the expression of many genes according to context as well as in response to loading within those contexts. In WT mice at 3, 8, 12 and 24 h after loading the expression of 642, 341, 171 and 24 genes, respectively, were differentially regulated compared with contra-lateral bones which were not loaded. Only a few of the genes differentially regulated by loading in the tibiae of WT mice have recognized roles in bone metabolism or have been linked previously to osteogenesis (Opn, Sost, Esr1, Tgfb1, Lrp1, Ostn, Timp, Mmp, Ctgf, Postn and Irs1, BMP and DLX5). The canonical pathways showing the greatest loading-related regulation were those involving pyruvate metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, calcium-induced apoptosis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and oxidative phosphorylation. In the tibiae from WT-OVX, ERalpha(-/-) and WT-SN mice, 440, 439 and 987 genes respectively were differentially regulated by context alone compared to WT. The early response to loading in tibiae of WT-OVX mice involved differential regulation compared to their contra-lateral non-loaded pair of fewer genes than in WT, more down-regulation than up-regulation and a later response. This was shared by WT-SN. In tibiae of ERalpha(-/-) mice, the number of genes differentially regulated by loading was markedly reduced at all time points. These data indicate that in resident bone cells, both basal and loading-related gene expression is substantially modified by context. Many of the genes differentially regulated by the earliest loading-related response were primarily involved in energy metabolism and were not specific to bone.
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The mouse fibula as a suitable bone for the study of functional adaptation to mechanical loading.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Bones functionally adaptive responses to mechanical loading can usefully be studied in the tibia by the application of loads between the knee and ankle in normal and genetically modified mice. Such loading also deforms the fibula. Our present study was designed to ascertain whether the fibula adapts to loading in a similar way to the tibia and could thus provide an additional bone in which to study functional adaptation. The right tibiae/fibulae in C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a single period of axial loading (40 cycles at 10 Hz with 10-second intervals between each cycle; approximately 7 min/day, 3 alternate days/week, 2 weeks). The left tibiae/fibulae were used as non-loaded, internal controls. Both left and right fibulae and tibiae were analyzed by micro-computed tomography at the levels of the mid-shaft of the fibula and 25% from its proximal and distal ends. We also investigated the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) on the (re)modelling response to 2-weeks of loading and the effect of 2-consecutive days of loading on osteocytes sclerostin expression. These in vivo experiments confirmed that the fibula showed similar loading-related (re)modelling responses to those previously documented in the tibia and similar synergistic increases in osteogenesis between loading and iPTH. The numbers of sclerostin-positive osteocytes at the proximal and middle fibulae were markedly decreased by loading. Collectively, these data suggest that the mouse fibula, as well as the tibia and ulna, is a useful bone in which to assess bone cells early responses to mechanical loading and the adaptive (re)modelling that this engenders.
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A specific role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AKT in osteoblasts?
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
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The phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway (PI3K/AKT) plays a central role in the control of cell survival, growth, and proliferation throughout the body. With regard to bone, and particularly in osteoblasts, there is an increasing amount of evidence that the many signaling molecules exert some of their bone-specific effects in part via selectively activating some of the generic effects of the PI3K/AKT pathway in osteoblasts. There is further data demonstrating that PI3K/AKT has the capacity to specifically cross-talk with other signaling pathways and transcriptional networks controlling bone cells development in order to fine-tune the osteoblast phenotype. There is also evidence that perturbations in the PI3K/AKT pathway may well be responsible for certain bone pathologies. In this review, we discuss some of these findings and suggest that the PI3K/AKT pathway is a central nexus in the extensive network of extracellular signaling pathways that control the osteoblast.
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Lrp5 is not required for the proliferative response of osteoblasts to strain but regulates proliferation and apoptosis in a cell autonomous manner.
PLoS ONE
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Although Lrp5 is known to be an important contributor to the mechanisms regulating bone mass, its precise role remains unclear. The aim of this study was to establish whether mutations in Lrp5 are associated with differences in the growth and/or apoptosis of osteoblast-like cells and their proliferative response to mechanical strain in vitro. Primary osteoblast-like cells were derived from cortical bone of adult mice lacking functional Lrp5 (Lrp5(-/-)), those heterozygous for the human G171V High Bone Mass (HBM) mutation (LRP5(G171V)) and their WT littermates (WT(Lrp5), WT(HBM)). Osteoblast proliferation over time was significantly higher in cultures of cells from LRP5(G171V) mice compared to their WT(HBM) littermates, and lower in Lrp5(-/-) cells. Cells from female LRP5(G171V) mice grew more rapidly than those from males, whereas cells from female Lrp5(-/-) mice grew more slowly than those from males. Apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal was significantly higher in cultures from Lrp5(-/-) mice than in those from WT(HBM) or LRP5(G171V) mice. Exposure to a single short period of dynamic mechanical strain was associated with a significant increase in cell number but this response was unaffected by genotype which also did not change the threshold at which cells responded to strain. In conclusion, the data presented here suggest that Lrp5 loss and gain of function mutations result in cell-autonomous alterations in osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis but do not alter the proliferative response of osteoblasts to mechanical strain in vitro.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.