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What can in situ ion chromatography offer for Mars exploration?
Astrobiology
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The successes of the Mars exploration program have led to our unprecedented knowledge of the geological, mineralogical, and elemental composition of the martian surface. To date, however, only one mission, the Phoenix lander, has specifically set out to determine the soluble chemistry of the martian surface. The surprising results, including the detection of perchlorate, demonstrated both the importance of performing soluble ion measurements and the need for improved instrumentation to unambiguously identify all the species present. Ion chromatography (IC) is the state-of-the-art technique for soluble ion analysis on Earth and would therefore be the ideal instrument to send to Mars. A flight IC system must necessarily be small, lightweight, low-power, and have low eluent consumption. We demonstrate here a breadboard system that addresses these issues by using capillary IC at low flow rates with an optimized eluent generator and suppressor. A mix of 12 ions known or plausible for the martian soil, including 4 (oxy)chlorine species, has been separated at flow rates ranging from 1 to 10 ?L/min, requiring as little as 200 psi at 1.0 ?L/min. This allowed the use of pneumatic displacement pumping from a pressurized aluminum eluent reservoir and the elimination of the high-pressure pump entirely (the single heaviest and most energy-intensive component). All ions could be separated and detected effectively from 0.5 to 100 ?M, even when millimolar concentrations of perchlorate were present in the same mixtures.
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Isotope ratios of H, C, and O in CO2 and H2O of the martian atmosphere.
Chris R Webster, Paul R Mahaffy, Gregory J Flesch, Paul B Niles, John H Jones, Laurie A Leshin, Sushil K Atreya, Jennifer C Stern, Lance E Christensen, Tobias Owen, Heather Franz, Robert O Pepin, Andrew Steele, , Cherie Achilles, Christophe Agard, José Alexandre Alves Verdasca, Robert Anderson, Ryan Anderson, Doug Archer, Carlos Armiens-Aparicio, Ray Arvidson, Evgeny Atlaskin, Andrew Aubrey, Burt Baker, Michael Baker, Tonci Balic-Zunic, David Baratoux, Julien Baroukh, Bruce Barraclough, Keri Bean, Luther Beegle, Alberto Behar, James Bell, Steve Bender, Mehdi Benna, Jennifer Bentz, Gilles Berger, Jeff Berger, Daniel Berman, David Bish, David F Blake, Juan J Blanco Avalos, Diana Blaney, Jen Blank, Hannah Blau, Lora Bleacher, Eckart Boehm, Oliver Botta, Stephan Böttcher, Thomas Boucher, Hannah Bower, Nick Boyd, Bill Boynton, Elly Breves, John Bridges, Nathan Bridges, William Brinckerhoff, David Brinza, Thomas Bristow, Claude Brunet, Anna Brunner, Will Brunner, Arnaud Buch, Mark Bullock, Sönke Burmeister, Michel Cabane, Fred Calef, James Cameron, John Campbell, Bruce Cantor, Michael Caplinger, Javier Caride Rodríguez, Marco Carmosino, Isaías Carrasco Blázquez, Antoine Charpentier, Steve Chipera, David Choi, Benton Clark, Sam Clegg, Timothy Cleghorn, Ed Cloutis, George Cody, Patrice Coll, Pamela Conrad, David Coscia, Agnès Cousin, David Cremers, Joy Crisp, Alain Cros, Frank Cucinotta, Claude d'Uston, Scott Davis, Mackenzie Day, Manuel de la Torre Juarez, Lauren DeFlores, Dorothea DeLapp, Julia DeMarines, David DesMarais, William Dietrich, Robert Dingler, Christophe Donny, Bob Downs, Darrell Drake, Gilles Dromart, Audrey Dupont, Brian Duston, Jason Dworkin, M Darby Dyar, Lauren Edgar, Kenneth Edgett, Christopher Edwards, Laurence Edwards, Bethany Ehlmann, Bent Ehresmann, Jen Eigenbrode, Beverley Elliott, Harvey Elliott, Ryan Ewing, Cécile Fabre, Alberto Fairén, Ken Farley, Jack Farmer, Caleb Fassett, Laurent Favot, Donald Fay, Fedor Fedosov, Jason Feldman, Sabrina Feldman, Marty Fisk, Mike Fitzgibbon, Melissa Floyd, Lorenzo Flückiger, Olivier Forni, Abby Fraeman, Raymond Francis, Pascaline François, Caroline Freissinet, Katherine Louise French, Jens Frydenvang, Alain Gaboriaud, Marc Gailhanou, James Garvin, Olivier Gasnault, Claude Geffroy, Ralf Gellert, Maria Genzer, Daniel Glavin, Austin Godber, Fred Goesmann, Walter Goetz, Dmitry Golovin, Felipe Gómez Gómez, Javier Gómez-Elvira, Brigitte Gondet, Suzanne Gordon, Stephen Gorevan, John Grant, Jennifer Griffes, David Grinspoon, John Grotzinger, Philippe Guillemot, Jingnan Guo, Sanjeev Gupta, Scott Guzewich, Robert Haberle, Douglas Halleaux, Bernard Hallet, Vicky Hamilton, Craig Hardgrove, David Harker, Daniel Harpold, Ari-Matti Harri, Karl Harshman, Donald Hassler, Harri Haukka, Alex Hayes, Ken Herkenhoff, Paul Herrera, Sebastian Hettrich, Ezat Heydari, Victoria Hipkin, Tori Hoehler, Jeff Hollingsworth, Judy Hudgins, Wesley Huntress, Joel Hurowitz, Stubbe Hviid, Karl Iagnemma, Steve Indyk, Guy Israël, Ryan Jackson, Samantha Jacob, Bruce Jakosky, Elsa Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard Jensen, Jeffrey Johnson, Micah Johnson, Steve Johnstone, Andrea Jones, Jonathan Joseph, Insoo Jun, Linda Kah, Henrik Kahanpää, Melinda Kahre, Natalya Karpushkina, Wayne Kasprzak, Janne Kauhanen, Leslie Keely, Osku Kemppinen, Didier Keymeulen, Myung-Hee Kim, Kjartan Kinch, Penny King, Laurel Kirkland, Gary Kocurek, Asmus Koefoed, Jan Köhler, Onno Kortmann, Alexander Kozyrev, Jill Krezoski, Daniel Krysak, Ruslan Kuzmin, Jean Luc Lacour, Vivian Lafaille, Yves Langevin, Nina Lanza, Jeremie Lasue, Stéphane Le Mouélic, Ella Mae Lee, Qiu-Mei Lee, David Lees, Matthew Lefavor, Mark Lemmon, Alain Lepinette Malvitte, Richard Léveillé, Éric Lewin-Carpintier, Kevin Lewis, Shuai Li, Leslie Lipkaman, Cynthia Little, Maxim Litvak, Eric Lorigny, Guenter Lugmair, Angela Lundberg, Eric Lyness, Morten Madsen, Justin Maki, Alexey Malakhov, Charles Malespin, Michael Malin, Nicolas Mangold, Gérard Manhes, Heidi Manning, Geneviève Marchand, Mercedes Marín Jiménez, César Martín García, Dave Martin, Mildred Martin, Jesus Martinez-Frias, Javier Martín-Soler, F Javier Martín-Torres, Patrick Mauchien, Sylvestre Maurice, Amy McAdam, Elaina McCartney, Timothy McConnochie, Emily McCullough, Ian McEwan, Christopher McKay, Scott McLennan, Sean McNair, Noureddine Melikechi, Pierre-Yves Meslin, Michael Meyer, Alissa Mezzacappa, Hayden Miller, Kristen Miller, Ralph Milliken, Douglas Ming, Michelle Minitti, Michael Mischna, Igor Mitrofanov, Jeff Moersch, Maxim Mokrousov, Antonio Molina Jurado, John Moores, Luis Mora-Sotomayor, John Michael Morookian, Richard Morris, Shaunna Morrison, Reinhold Mueller-Mellin, Jan-Peter Muller, Guillermo Muñoz Caro, Marion Nachon, Sara Navarro López, Rafael Navarro-González, Kenneth Nealson, Ara Nefian, Tony Nelson, Megan Newcombe, Claire Newman, Horton Newsom, Sergey Nikiforov, Brian Nixon, Eldar Noe Dobrea, Thomas Nolan, Dorothy Oehler, Ann Ollila, Timothy Olson, Miguel Ángel de Pablo Hernández, Alexis Paillet, Etienne Pallier, Marisa Palucis, Timothy Parker, Yann Parot, Kiran Patel, Mark Paton, Gale Paulsen, Alex Pavlov, Betina Pavri, Verónica Peinado-González, Laurent Peret, Rene Perez, Glynis Perrett, Joe Peterson, Cedric Pilorget, Patrick Pinet, Jorge Pla-García, Ianik Plante, Franck Poitrasson, Jouni Polkko, Radu Popa, Liliya Posiolova, Arik Posner, Irina Pradler, Benito Prats, Vasily Prokhorov, Sharon Wilson Purdy, Eric Raaen, Leon Radziemski, Scot Rafkin, Miguel Ramos, Elizabeth Rampe, François Raulin, Michael Ravine, Günther Reitz, Nilton Rennó, Melissa Rice, Mark Richardson, François Robert, Kevin Robertson, José Antonio Rodriguez Manfredi, Julio J Romeral-Planelló, Scott Rowland, David Rubin, Muriel Saccoccio, Andrew Salamon, Jennifer Sandoval, Anton Sanin, Sara Alejandra Sans Fuentes, Lee Saper, Philippe Sarrazin, Violaine Sautter, Hannu Savijärvi, Juergen Schieber, Mariek Schmidt, Walter Schmidt, Daniel Scholes, Marcel Schoppers, Susanne Schröder, Susanne Schwenzer, Eduardo Sebastian Martinez, Aaron Sengstacken, Ruslan Shterts, Kirsten Siebach, Tero Siili, Jeff Simmonds, Jean-Baptiste Sirven, Susie Slavney, Ronald Sletten, Michael Smith, Pablo Sobrón Sánchez, Nicole Spanovich, John Spray, Steven Squyres, Katie Stack, Fabien Stalport, Thomas Stein, Noel Stewart, Susan Louise Svane Stipp, Kevin Stoiber, Ed Stolper, Bob Sucharski, Rob Sullivan, Roger Summons, Dawn Sumner, Vivian Sun, Kimberley Supulver, Brad Sutter, Cyril Szopa, Florence Tan, Christopher Tate, Samuel Teinturier, Inge ten Kate, Peter Thomas, Lucy Thompson, Robert Tokar, Mike Toplis, Josefina Torres Redondo, Melissa Trainer, Allan Treiman, Vladislav Tretyakov, Roser Urqui-O'Callaghan, Jason Van Beek, Tessa Van Beek, Scott VanBommel, David Vaniman, Alexey Varenikov, Ashwin Vasavada, Paulo Vasconcelos, Edward Vicenzi, Andrey Vostrukhin, Mary Voytek, Meenakshi Wadhwa, Jennifer Ward, Eddie Weigle, Danika Wellington, Frances Westall, Roger Craig Wiens, Mary Beth Wilhelm, Amy Williams, Joshua Williams, Rebecca Williams, Richard B Williams, Mike Wilson, Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, Mike Wolff, Mike Wong, James Wray, Megan Wu, Charles Yana, Albert Yen, Aileen Yingst, Cary Zeitlin, Robert Zimdar, María-Paz Zorzano Mier.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Stable isotope ratios of H, C, and O are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes, and for Mars they reveal the record of loss of its atmosphere and subsequent interactions with its surface such as carbonate formation. We report in situ measurements of the isotopic ratios of D/H and (18)O/(16)O in water and (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O, (17)O/(16)O, and (13)C(18)O/(12)C(16)O in carbon dioxide, made in the martian atmosphere at Gale Crater from the Curiosity rover using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)s tunable laser spectrometer (TLS). Comparison between our measurements in the modern atmosphere and those of martian meteorites such as ALH 84001 implies that the martian reservoirs of CO2 and H2O were largely established ~4 billion years ago, but that atmospheric loss or surface interaction may be still ongoing.
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Visualizing natural image statistics.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Natural image statistics is an important area of research in cognitive sciences and computer vision. Visualization of statistical results can help identify clusters and anomalies as well as analyze deviation, distribution, and correlation. Furthermore, they can provide visual abstractions and symbolism for categorized data. In this paper, we begin our study of visualization of image statistics by considering visual representations of power spectra, which are commonly used to visualize different categories of images. We show that they convey a limited amount of statistical information about image categories and their support for analytical tasks is ineffective. We then introduce several new visual representations, which convey different or more information about image statistics. We apply ANOVA to the image statistics to help select statistically more meaningful measurements in our design process. A task-based user evaluation was carried out to compare the new visual representations with the conventional power spectra plots. Based on the results of the evaluation, we made further improvement of visualizations by introducing composite visual representations of image statistics.
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Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H(2)S, CH(4), NH(3), and CO(2). A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H(2)S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H(2)S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.
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New insights from old bones: DNA preservation and degradation in permafrost preserved mammoth remains.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Despite being plagued by heavily degraded DNA in palaeontological remains, most studies addressing the state of DNA degradation have been limited to types of damage which do not pose a hindrance to Taq polymerase during PCR. Application of serial qPCR to the two fractions obtained during extraction (demineralization and protein digest) from six permafrost mammoth bones and one partially degraded modern elephant bone has enabled further insight into the changes which endogenous DNA is subjected to during diagenesis. We show here that both fractions exhibit individual qualities in terms of the prevailing type of DNA (i.e. mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA) as well as the extent of damage, and in addition observed a highly variable ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA among the six mammoth samples. While there is evidence suggesting that mitochondrial DNA is better preserved than nuclear DNA in ancient permafrost samples, we find the initial DNA concentration in the bone tissue to be as relevant for the total accessible mitochondrial DNA as the extent of DNA degradation post-mortem. We also evaluate the general applicability of indirect measures of preservation such as amino-acid racemization, bone crystallinity index and thermal age to these exceptionally well-preserved samples.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.