Epidermal Langerhans cells (eLCs) uniquely express the C-type lectin receptor langerin in addition to the HIV entry receptors CD4 and CCR5. They are among the first target cells to encounter HIV in the anogenital stratified squamous mucosa during sexual transmission. Previous reports on the mechanism of HIV transfer to T cells and the role of langerin have been contradictory. In this study, we examined HIV replication and langerin-mediated viral transfer by authentic immature eLCs and model Mutz-3 LCs. eLCs were productively infected with HIV, whereas Mutz-3 LCs were not susceptible because of a lack of CCR5 expression. Two successive phases of HIV viral transfer to T cells via cave/vesicular trafficking and de novo replication were observed with eLCs as previously described in monocyte-derived or blood dendritic cells, but only first phase transfer was observed with Mutz-3 LCs. Langerin was expressed as trimers after cross-linking on the cell surface of Mutz-3 LCs and in this form preferentially bound HIV envelope protein gp140 and whole HIV particles via the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Both phases of HIV transfer from eLCs to T cells were inhibited when eLCs were pretreated with a mAb to langerin CRD or when HIV was pretreated with a soluble langerin trimeric extracellular domain or by a CRD homolog. However, the langerin homolog did not inhibit direct HIV infection of T cells. These two novel soluble langerin inhibitors could be developed to prevent HIV uptake, infection, and subsequent transfer to T cells during early stages of infection.
Dendritic cells (DC) present in the genital tract are one of the first cells to encounter HIV during sexual mucosal transmission. In addition they are able to efficiently transfer the virus to its main target cells, CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. As such an understanding of how HIV interacts with and manipulates DCs is of key importance for the design of mucosal vaccines and microbicides. However working with these cells is difficult for several reasons. Firstly, immature DCs are difficult to infect due to their high endocytic capacity and mature DCs are usually resistant to infection. Secondly, tissue DCs are inherently difficult to isolate, which results in small yields and the cells are prone to maturation as a result of extraction. Here we describe how to isolate CD1a expressing Langerhans cells from the epidermis and CD1a(+), CD14(+) and perhaps BDCA3(+) DCs from the dermis. We also describe how to produce the model monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) by cytokine stimulation of CD14(+) monocytes, which results in the production of large numbers of immature cells. We also describe methods by which high titer HIV stocks can be generated to infect a significant proportion of DCs and also methods for determining the titer of such stocks.
HIV-1 is taken up by immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs) into tetraspanin rich caves from which the virus can either be transferred to T lymphocytes or enter into endosomes resulting in degradation. HIV-1 binding and fusion with the DC membrane results in low level de novo infection that can also be transferred to T lymphocytes at a later stage. We have previously reported that HIV-1 can induce partial maturation of iMDDCs at both stages of trafficking. Here we show that CD45? microvesicles (MV) which contaminate purified HIV-1 inocula due to similar size and density, affect DC maturation, de novo HIV-1 infection and transfer to T lymphocytes. Comparing iMDDCs infected with CD45-depleted HIV-1BaL or matched non-depleted preparations, the presence of CD45? MVs was shown to enhance DC maturation and ICAM-1 (CD54) expression, which is involved in DC?T lymphocyte interactions, while restricting HIV-1 infection of MDDCs. Furthermore, in the DC culture HIV-1 infected (p24?) MDDCs were more mature than bystander cells. Depletion of MVs from the HIV-1 inoculum markedly inhibited DC?T lymphocyte clustering and the induction of alloproliferation as well as limiting HIV-1 transfer from DCs to T lymphocytes. The effects of MV depletion on these functions were reversed by the re-addition of purified MVs from activated but not non-activated SUPT1.CCR5-CL.30 or primary T cells. Analysis of the protein complement of these MVs and of these HIV-1 inocula before and after MV depletion showed that Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and nef were the likely DC maturation candidates. Recombinant HSP90? and ? and nef all induced DC maturation and ICAM-1 expression, greater when combined. These results suggest that MVs contaminating HIV-1 released from infected T lymphocytes may be biologically important, especially in enhancing T cell activation, during uptake by DCs in vitro and in vivo, particularly as MVs have been detected in the circulation of HIV-1 infected subjects.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are found at the portals of pathogen entry such as the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genital tracts where they represent the first line of contact between the immune system and the foreign invaders. They are found throughout the body in multiple subsets where they express unique combinations of C-type lectin receptors to best aid them in detection of pathogens associated with their anatomical location. DCs are important in the establishment in HIV infection for two reasons. Firstly, they are one of the first cells to encounter the virus, and the specific interaction that occurs between these cells and HIV is critical to HIV establishing a foothold infection. Secondly and most importantly, HIV is able to efficiently transfer the virus to its primary target cell, the CD4(+) T lymphocyte, in which it replicates explosively. Infection of CD4(+) T lymphocytes via DCs is far more efficient than direct infection. This review surveys the various DCs subsets found within the human sexual mucosa and their interactions with HIV. Mechanisms of HIV uptake are discussed as well as how the virus then traffics through the DC and is transferred to T cells. Until recently, most research has focussed on vaginal transmission despite the increased transmission rate associated with anal intercourse. Here, we also discuss recent advances in our understanding of HIV transmission in the colon.
Recent progress in phenotyping of human dendritic cells (DCs) has allowed a closer alignment of the classification and functions of murine and human dendritic cell subsets. Marked differences in the functions of these human DC subsets and their response to HIV infection have become apparent, relevant to HIV pathogenesis and vaccine and microbicide development. Systems biology approaches to studying HIV uptake and infection of dendritic cells has revealed how markedly HIV subverts their functions, especially in relation to the trafficking pathways and viral transfer to T cells. Furthermore the interactions between DCs and other innate immune cells, NK cells, NKT cells and gamma delta T cells are now known to influence DC and T cell function and are also disturbed by HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. Such cellular interactions are potential targets for vaccine adjuvants and immunotherapy.
Many viruses have developed mechanisms to evade the IFN response. Here, HIV-1 was shown to induce a distinct subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), without detectable type I or II IFN. These ISGs all contained an IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binding site in their promoters, and their expression was shown to be driven by IRF-1, indicating this subset was induced directly by viral infection by IRF-1. IRF-1 and -7 protein expression was enriched in HIV p24 antigen-positive DCs. A HIV deletion mutant with the IRF-1 binding site deleted from the long terminal repeat showed reduced growth kinetics. Early and persistent induction of IRF-1 was coupled with sequential transient up-regulation of its 2 inhibitors, IRF-8, followed by IRF-2, suggesting a mechanism for IFN inhibition. HIV-1 mutants with Vpr deleted induced IFN, showing that Vpr is inhibitory. However, HIV IFN inhibition was mediated by failure of IRF-3 activation rather than by its degradation, as in T cells. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 2 markedly induced IFN? and a broader range of ISGs to higher levels, supporting the hypothesis that HIV-1 specifically manipulates the induction of IFN and ISGs to enhance its noncytopathic replication in DCs.
Eradication of HIV-1 with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not possible due to the persistence of long-lived, latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells. We now show that HIV-1 latency can be established in resting CD4(+) T cells infected with HIV-1 after exposure to ligands for CCR7 (CCL19), CXCR3 (CXCL9 and CXCL10), and CCR6 (CCL20) but not in unactivated CD4(+) T cells. The mechanism did not involve cell activation or significant changes in gene expression, but was associated with rapid dephosphorylation of cofilin and changes in filamentous actin. Incubation with chemokine before infection led to efficient HIV-1 nuclear localization and integration and this was inhibited by the actin stabilizer jasplakinolide. We propose a unique pathway for establishment of latency by direct HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T cells during normal chemokine-directed recirculation of CD4(+) T cells between blood and tissue.
Viruses manipulate the function of dendritic cells (DCs) to enhance their entry, spread, survival and transmission. This review summarises recently published work identifying how viruses alter the expression of receptors, antiviral molecules, disrupt signalling pathways, subvert trafficking pathways and even affect DC function via interactions with second or third cell types. Different viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses may have widely divergent and even opposite effects on DC function, determined by the need for transfer to a primary target cell, replication within the DC or various immunoevasive mechanisms.
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. HIV interacts with these cells through 2 pathways in 2 temporal phases, initially via endocytosis and then via de novo replication. Here the transcriptional response of human DCs to HIV-1 was studied in these phases and at different stages of the virus replication cycle using purified HIV-1 envelope proteins, and inactivated and viable HIV-1. No differential gene expression was detected in response to envelope. However, more than 100 genes were differentially expressed in response to entry of viable and inactivated HIV-1 in the first phase. A completely different set of genes was differentially expressed in the second phase, predominantly in response to viable HIV-1, including up-regulation of immune regulation genes, whereas genes encoding lysosomal enzymes were down-regulated. Cathepsins B, C, S, and Z RNA and protein decreased, whereas cathepsin L was increased, probably reflecting a concomitant decrease in cystatin C. The net effect was markedly diminished cathepsin activity likely to result in enhanced HIV-1 survival and transfer to contacting T lymphocytes but decreased HIV-1 antigen processing and presentation to these T cells.
C-type lectin receptors expressed on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages are able to bind glycoproteins of microbial pathogens via mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Langerin on Langerhans cells, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin on dendritic cells, and mannose receptor (MR) on dendritic cells and macrophages bind the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 principally via high mannose oligosaccharides. These C-type lectin receptors can also oligomerize to facilitate enhanced ligand binding. This study examined the effect of oligomerization of MR on its ability to bind to mannan, monomeric gp120, native trimeric gp140, and HIV type 1 BaL. Mass spectrometry analysis of cross-linked MR showed homodimerization on the surface of primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Both monomeric and dimeric MR were precipitated by mannan, but only the dimeric form was co-immunoprecipitated by gp120. These results were confirmed independently by flow cytometry analysis of soluble monomeric and trimeric HIV envelope and a cellular HIV virion capture assay. As expected, mannan bound to the carbohydrate recognition domains of MR dimers mostly in a calcium-dependent fashion. Unexpectedly, gp120-mediated binding of HIV to dimers on MR-transfected Rat-6 cells and macrophages was not calcium-dependent, was only partially blocked by mannan, and was also partially inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate. Thus gp120-mediated HIV binding occurs via the calcium-dependent, non-calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition domains and the cysteine-rich domain at the C terminus of MR dimers, presenting a much broader target for potential inhibitors of gp120-MR binding.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are an important component of the innate immune response, producing large amounts of alpha interferon in response to viral stimulation in vitro. Under noninflammatory conditions, pDC are not found in the skin and are restricted in location to the blood and lymph nodes. Therefore, their role in mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has not been well-defined. In this study we show a role for human pDC in the immune response to HSV infection. First, by confocal microscopy we showed that pDC infiltrate the dermis of recurrent genital herpes simplex lesions at early and late phases, often at the dermo-epidermal junction. We then showed that pDC in vitro are resistant to HSV infection despite expressing the entry receptors CD111, CD112, and HVE-A. Within the lesions, pDC were found closely associated with CD3(+) lymphocytes and NK cells, especially those which were activated (CD69(+)). Furthermore, these HSV-exposed pDC were able to stimulate virus-specific autologous T-lymphocyte proliferation. We conclude from this work that pDC may contribute to the immune control of recurrent herpes virus infection in vivo.
The lineage relationships and fate of human dendritic cells (DCs) have significance for a number of diseases including HIV where both blood and tissue DCs may be infected. We used gene expression profiling of human monocyte and DC subpopulations sorted directly from blood and skin to define the lineage relationships. We also compared these with monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and MUTZ3 Langerhans cells (LCs) to investigate their relevance as model skin DCs. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that myeloid DCs clustered according to anatomical origin rather than putative lineage. Plasmacytoid DCs formed the most discrete cluster, but ex vivo myeloid cells formed separate clusters of cells both in blood and in skin. Separate and specific DC populations could be determined within skin, and the proportion of CD14(+) dermal DCs (DDCs) was reduced and CD1a(+) DDCs increased during culture, suggesting conversion to CD1a(+)-expressing cells in situ. This is consistent with origin of the CD1a(+) DDCs from a local precursor rather than directly from circulating blood DCs or monocyte precursors. Consistent with their use as model skin DCs, the in vitro-derived MDDC and MUTZ3 LC populations grouped within the skin DC cluster. MDDCs clustered most closely to CD14(+) DDCs; furthermore, common unique patterns of C-type lectin receptor expression were identified between these two cell types. MUTZ3 LCs, however, did not cluster closely with ex vivo-derived LCs. We identified differential expression of novel genes in monocyte and DC subsets including genes related to DC surface receptors (including C-type lectin receptors, TLRs, and galectins).
Macrophages are key target cells for HIV-1. HIV-1(BaL) induced a subset of interferon-stimulated genes in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), which differed from that in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and CD4 T cells, without inducing any interferons. Inhibition of type I interferon induction was mediated by HIV-1 inhibition of interferon-regulated factor (IRF3) nuclear translocation. In MDMs, viperin was the most up-regulated interferon-stimulated genes, and it significantly inhibited HIV-1 production. HIV-1 infection disrupted lipid rafts via viperin induction and redistributed viperin to CD81 compartments, the site of HIV-1 egress by budding in MDMs. Exogenous farnesol, which enhances membrane protein prenylation, reversed viperin-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 production. Mutagenesis analysis in transfected cell lines showed that the internal S-adenosyl methionine domains of viperin were essential for its antiviral activity. Thus viperin may contribute to persistent noncytopathic HIV-1 infection of macrophages and possibly to biologic differences with HIV-1-infected T cells.
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